Method Study


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Method Study

  1. 1. METHOD STUDY <ul><li>Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs. </li></ul>
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES OF METHOD STUDY <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1.    Improvement of processes and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>2.    Improvement in the design of plant and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>3.    Improvement of layout </li></ul><ul><li>4.    Improvement in the use of men, materials and machines </li></ul><ul><li>5.   Economy in human effort and reduction of unnecessary fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>6.   Improvement in safety standards </li></ul><ul><li>7.   Development of better working environment . </li></ul>
  3. 3. METHOD STUDY PROCEDURE <ul><li>1.    DEFINE </li></ul><ul><li>2.     RECORD </li></ul><ul><li>3.     EXAMINE </li></ul><ul><li>4.     DEVELOP </li></ul><ul><li>5.     DEFINE NEW METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>6.     INSTALL </li></ul><ul><li>7.     MAINTAIN </li></ul>
  4. 4. COMMONLY USED RECORDING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>              1. Outline Process Charts </li></ul><ul><li>2. Flow Process Chart </li></ul><ul><li>3. Two Handed Process Chart </li></ul><ul><li>4. Multiple Activity Chart </li></ul><ul><li>5. Simo Chart </li></ul><ul><li>6. Flow Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>7. String Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>8. Cyclegraph </li></ul><ul><li>9. Chronocyclegraph </li></ul><ul><li>10.Travel Chart </li></ul>Man Type Material Type Equipment Type USING TIME SCALE
  5. 5. CLASS OF CHANGE New Modified New New New 5 Same Modified New New New 4 Same Same New New New 3 Same Same Same New New 2 Same Same Same Minor Changes   New   1 RAW MATERIAL PRODUCT PROCESS WORK STATION HANDS & BODY MOTION CLASS OF CHANGE
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF MOVEMENTS Torso, Upper arm, forearm, hand and fingers Trunk 5 Upper arm, forearm, hand and fingers Shoulder 4 Forearm, hand and fingers Elbow 3 Hand and Finger Wrist 2 Finger Knuckle 1 Body member(s) moved Pivot Class
  7. 7. EXAMINE <ul><li>The questioning technique is the means by which the critical examination is conducted, each activity being subjected in turn to a systematic and progressive series of questions. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 8. PRIMARY QUESTIONS <ul><li>the PURPOSE for which </li></ul><ul><li>the PLACE at which </li></ul><ul><li>the SEQUENCE in which </li></ul><ul><li>the PERSON by whom </li></ul><ul><li>the MEANS by which </li></ul>
  10. 10. SECONDARY QUESTIONS <ul><li>The secondary questions cover the second stage of the questioning technique, during which the answers to the primary questions are subjected to further query to determine whether possible alternatives of place, sequence, persons and means are practicable and preferred as a means of improvement upon the existing method . </li></ul>
  11. 11. PURPOSE: what is done? why is it done? what else might be done? what should be done?   PLACE : where is it done? Why is it done there? Where else might it is done? Where should it be done?
  12. 12. SEQUENCE : When is it done? Why is it done? When might it be done? When should it be done?  PERSON: who does it? Why does that person do it? Who else might do it? Who should do it?  MEANS: How is it done? Why is it done that way? How else might it be done? How should it be done ?
  13. 13. DEFINING THE IMPROVED METHOD <ul><li>The report should show: </li></ul><ul><li>1.     Relative costs in material, labour and overheads of the two methods, and savings expected. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The cost of installing the new method, including the cost of new equipment and of re-laying out shops or working areas </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Executive actions required to implement the new method.   </li></ul><ul><li>It should also give details regarding : </li></ul><ul><li>1. The tools and equipment to be used </li></ul><ul><li>2.      A description of the method </li></ul><ul><li>3. A diagram of the work place layout, jigs/fixtures etc </li></ul>
  14. 14. INSTALLING THE IMPROVED METHOD <ul><li>1.  Gaining acceptance of the change by the Management </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Gaining acceptance of the change by the workers </li></ul><ul><li>3. Maintaining close contact with the progress of the job until satisfied that it is running as intended </li></ul>
  15. 15. THE PRINCIPLES OF MOTION ECONOMY <ul><li>A.     Use of the human body   </li></ul><ul><li>1.  The two hands should begin and complete their movements at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Motion of the arms shall be symmetrical and in opposite directions and should be made simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>3.    Hands and body motions should be made at the lowest classification at which it is possible to do the work satisfactorily </li></ul><ul><li>4.  Rhythm is essential to the smooth and automatic performance of a repetitive operation. </li></ul><ul><li>5.   Work should be arranged so that eye movements are confined to a comfortable area, without the need for frequent changes of focus. </li></ul>
  16. 16.   B.        Arrangement of the work place 1.  Definite and fixed stations should be provided for all tools and materials. 2.     Gravity feed, bins and containers should be used to deliver the materials as close to the point of use as possible. 3.     Tools, materials and controls should be located within the maximum working area. 4.     Materials and tools should be arranged to permit the best sequence of motion. 5.         Provision should be made for adequate lighting. 6.       The colour of the workplace should contrast with that of the workplace to reduce eye fatigue.
  17. 17.   C. Design of tools and equipment <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1.  The hands should be relieved of all work of 'holding' the workpiece where this can be done by fixture etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Two or more tools should be combined wherever possible </li></ul><ul><li>3. Levers, cross bars and handwheels should be so placed that the operative can use them with the least change in body position and the greatest mechanical advantage. </li></ul>
  18. 18. PURPOSE OF WORK MEASUREMENT <ul><li>1.        To find ineffective time in a process </li></ul><ul><li>2.        To set standard for output level </li></ul><ul><li>3.        To evaluate worker's performance </li></ul><ul><li>4.        To plan work force needs. </li></ul><ul><li>5.        To determine available capacity </li></ul><ul><li>6.        To compare work methods </li></ul><ul><li>7.        To facilitate operations scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>8. To establish wage incentive schemes </li></ul>
  19. 19. THE TECHNIQUES OF WORK MEASUREMENT <ul><li>1.     Stop-watch time study </li></ul><ul><li>2.     Work sampling </li></ul><ul><li>3.     Predetermined time standards(PTS) </li></ul><ul><li>4.     Standard Data </li></ul>
  20. 20. A FAIR DAY'S WORK <ul><li>Amount of work that can be produced by a qualified employee when working at normal pace and effectively utilizing his time where work is not restricted by process limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Work Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>  Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specific job at a defined level of performance. </li></ul>
  21. 21. THE QUALIFIED WORKER <ul><li>A qualified worker is one who is accepted as having the necessary physical attributes, who possess the required intelligence and education and who has acquired the necessary skill and knowledge to carry out the work in hand to satisfactory standards of safety, quantity and quality </li></ul><ul><li>STANDARD RATING </li></ul><ul><li>  Rating is the assessment of the worker's rate of working relative to the observers' concept of the rate corresponding to standard pace. </li></ul>
  22. 22. STANDARD PERFORMANCE <ul><li>It is the rate of output which qualified workers will naturally achieve without over-exertion as an average over the working day or shift, provided that they know and adhere to the specified method and provided that they are motivated to apply themselves to their work. </li></ul>
  23. 23. TIME STUDY <ul><li>Basic Steps </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>a.  Obtaining and recording all available information about the job, operator and the surrounding conditions likely to affect the execution of the work </li></ul><ul><li>b.    Recording the complete description of the method, breaking down the operation into 'elements' </li></ul><ul><li>c.      Measuring with a stopwatch and recording the time taken by the operator to perform each 'element' of the operation. </li></ul><ul><li>d.      Assessing the rating </li></ul><ul><li>e.      Extending observed time to 'basic times' </li></ul><ul><li>f.    Determining the allowances to be made over and above the basic time for the operation </li></ul><ul><li>g. Determining the 'standard time' for the operation. </li></ul>
  24. 24. FACTORS AFFECTING RATE OF WORKING (outside the control of worker)   1.   Variation in the quality of materials used 2.   Changes in the operating efficiency of the equipment 3.   Changes in climatic and surrounding conditions of operation.   FACTORS WITHING THE CONTROL OF WORKER a.   Acceptable variations in the quality of the product b.   Variations due to his ability c.   Variations due to his attitude   SCALES OF RATING 100-133 60-80 75-100 0-100