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Chapter 2
Threaded Fasteners
TOPICS
Introduction
Thread terminologyThread terminology
Thread drawing and dimensioningThread drawing and dimensioning
Th...
Introduction
FASTENING TYPE
1. Permanent
WeldingWelding GluingGluing RivetingRiveting
FASTENING TYPE
2. Temporary
2.1 Threaded fastener
- bolts
- studs
- screws
2.2 Non-threaded fastener
- keys
- pin
key
THREAD APPLICATION
1. To hold parts together.
2. To move part(s) relative to others.
P t APart A Part B
P t CPart C
THREAD APPLICATION
1. To hold parts together.
2. To move part(s) relative to others.
Wood working vise Palm fruit pressing...
Thread Terminologygy
THREAD TERMINOLOGY
External (male)
thread
A thread cut on the outside of
a cylindrical body.thread
Internal (female)
a cyl...
THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Right-hand
thread
Thread that will assemble when
turned clockwisethread turned clockwise.
Left-hand
th ...
THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Crest The peak edge of a thread.
Th b tt f th th d t i tRoot
Thread angle
The bottom of the thread cut ...
THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Major diameter
The largest diameter on
an internal or external thread.
Minor diameter
The smallest diam...
THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Pitch
The distance between crests of
threads.
Lead The distance a screw will advance
when turned 360o.
...
THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Form is the profile shape of the
thread.
Thread Form
Example :Example :
“knuckle thread form”
EXTERNAL THREAD CUTTING
Tools Operation
Threading Die
Die stock
INTERNAL THREAD CUTTING
T i t d ill
Tools Operation
Twist drill
Tap
Tap wrenchTap wrench
COMPARISON OF THREAD CUTTING
External Thread Internal Thread
Minor DiaMinor Dia.
Major Dia.
Thread Drawingg
THREAD REPRESENTATION
11.. DetailedDetailed representationrepresentation
22 S h tiS h ti t tit ti22.. SchematicSchematic r...
DETAILED REPRESENTATION
Use slanting lines to represent crest and root.
Roots and crest are drawn in sharp Vs.
External th...
SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION
Use alternate long and short lines for representing
t d t f th th d ti lcrests and roots of the t...
SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION
Use thick continuous lines for representing crest
and thin continuous lines for representing roo...
SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION
Use thick continuous lines for representing crest
and thin continuous lines for representing roo...
ISO (METRIC) THREAD
Internal
thread 60o
P/8
thread
External
th d
P/4
thread
Pitch, P
Center of thread assembly
Th d bl if ...
METRIC COARSE THREAD
Nominal Major
diameter
Pitch Minor
diameter
Tap drill size
[Table 9.1]
size diameter diameter
M6 6.00...
METRIC FINE THREAD
Nominal Major
diameter
Pitch Minor
diameter
Tap drill size
[Table 9.2]
size diameter diameter
M8 8.00
0...
DRAWING STEPS OF
EXTERNAL THREADEXTERNAL THREAD
Draw an arc that
Draw
45o Chamfer
Draw line making
30o with thread axis
Dr...
Internal ThreadDRAWING STEPS OF
THREADED HOLE
1. Through threaded hole
THREADED HOLE
1. Through threaded hole
Draw a root
...
DRAWING STEPS OF
THREADED HOLETHREADED HOLE
2. Blinded threaded hole2. Blinded threaded hole
ia.Draw dia.MinordDraw
thread...
DRAWING STEPS OF
THREADED HOLETHREADED HOLE
2. Blinded threaded hole2. Blinded threaded hole
Sectional view
DIMENSIONING EXTERNAL THREAD
Use local note to specify :- thread form, nominal size,
pitch (if it is a fine thread)p ( )
U...
DIMENSIONING THREADED HOLE
Use local note to
1 Tap drill size
8.50 Drill, 20 Deep,
specify
3 Th d f
1. Tap drill size
2. D...
Threaded FastenerThreaded Fastener
BOLT : Terminology
Bolt is a threaded cylinder with a head.
Thread length
Hexagonal head
Head
Length
Width
bolt and nut
He...
BOLT : Drawing steps
Draw an Draw a Draw
end view
of the head
bolt head
30o
body of a bolt
Draw
bolt B/2 B/2
Major
axis
H...
NUT : Drawing steps
Dimensions of the nut are given in Table 9.14.
Draw an end view
of the nut B/2 B/2
B
H
Dash lines repr...
BOLT : Application
2. Insert a washer.
3 Screw a nut
1. Insert a bolt into
a clearance hole
3. Screw a nut.
Let’ s think together…
What do you think about the following suggestions for
design improvement?
(B) U h t b lt ith th
(A)...
Let’ s think together…
What do you think about the following suggestions for
design improvement?
(B) Use a bolt of this le...
Let’ s think together…
What do you think about the following suggestions for
design improvement ?
(B) Use a bolt of this l...
Let’ s think together…
What do you think about the following suggestions for
design improvement?
(A) Use a bolt of this le...
Let’ s think together…
What do you think about the following suggestions for
design improvement ?
(A) Increase the bolt di...
Let’ s think together…
What do you think about the following suggestions for
design improvement ?
(A) Nothing have to be c...
Let’ s think together…
What do you think about the following suggestions for
design improvement ?
(A) Nothing have to be c...
STUD : Terminology
Stud is a headless bolt, threaded at both ends.
Thread lengthThread length
Drawing
t ti
L th
representa...
STUD : Drawing steps
Draw
45o Chamfer
Draw
45o Chamfer
Draw line making
30o with axis
Major
Draw
stud
axis
Minor
Thread ...
STUD : Application
1. Drill a hole.
2. Tap a hole.
3. Screw a stud.
4. Place the part to be
p
4. Place the part to be
fast...
Let’ s think together…
What is the mistake in the following use of stud ?
Let’ s think together…
What is the mistake in the following use of stud ?
CAP SCREW : Terminology
Cap screw is similar to bolt, but has a longer thread
than a bolt.
CAP SCREW : Counterbore hole
x drill, x drill,w deep,
 C’by C’bore,
z deep
 y C’bore,
z deep
z
CAP SCREW : Countersink hole
d ill d ill dx drill,
CSK to y
x drill, w deep,
CSK to y
y
Draw 90o
SET SCREW : Terminology
Set screw is a threaded cylinder used to prevent
rotation or movement between partsrotation or mov...
SET SCREW : Application
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Chapter 02 thread fastener

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Fasteners by Dr. Kilanko O.

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Chapter 02 thread fastener

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Threaded Fasteners
  2. 2. TOPICS Introduction Thread terminologyThread terminology Thread drawing and dimensioningThread drawing and dimensioning Threaded fastenerThreaded fastener
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. FASTENING TYPE 1. Permanent WeldingWelding GluingGluing RivetingRiveting
  5. 5. FASTENING TYPE 2. Temporary 2.1 Threaded fastener - bolts - studs - screws 2.2 Non-threaded fastener - keys - pin key
  6. 6. THREAD APPLICATION 1. To hold parts together. 2. To move part(s) relative to others. P t APart A Part B P t CPart C
  7. 7. THREAD APPLICATION 1. To hold parts together. 2. To move part(s) relative to others. Wood working vise Palm fruit pressing machine
  8. 8. Thread Terminologygy
  9. 9. THREAD TERMINOLOGY External (male) thread A thread cut on the outside of a cylindrical body.thread Internal (female) a cylindrical body. A thread cut on the inside of thread a cylindrical body. Internal thread External thread
  10. 10. THREAD TERMINOLOGY Right-hand thread Thread that will assemble when turned clockwisethread turned clockwise. Left-hand th d Thread that will assemble when thread turned counter-clockwise. Turnbuckle use RH and LH thread at each end to double displacement.
  11. 11. THREAD TERMINOLOGY Crest The peak edge of a thread. Th b tt f th th d t i tRoot Thread angle The bottom of the thread cut into a cylindrical body. The angle between threads facesThread angle The angle between threads faces. Internal ThreadExternal Thread Thread angle CrestRoot CrestRoot
  12. 12. THREAD TERMINOLOGY Major diameter The largest diameter on an internal or external thread. Minor diameter The smallest diameter on an internal or external thread. Internal ThreadExternal Thread dia. dia. dia. dia. Minor Major Minor Major
  13. 13. THREAD TERMINOLOGY Pitch The distance between crests of threads. Lead The distance a screw will advance when turned 360o. Internal ThreadExternal Thread Pitch Pitch
  14. 14. THREAD TERMINOLOGY Form is the profile shape of the thread. Thread Form Example :Example : “knuckle thread form”
  15. 15. EXTERNAL THREAD CUTTING Tools Operation Threading Die Die stock
  16. 16. INTERNAL THREAD CUTTING T i t d ill Tools Operation Twist drill Tap Tap wrenchTap wrench
  17. 17. COMPARISON OF THREAD CUTTING External Thread Internal Thread Minor DiaMinor Dia. Major Dia.
  18. 18. Thread Drawingg
  19. 19. THREAD REPRESENTATION 11.. DetailedDetailed representationrepresentation 22 S h tiS h ti t tit ti22.. SchematicSchematic representationrepresentation 33 SimplifiedSimplified representationrepresentation33.. SimplifiedSimplified representationrepresentation
  20. 20. DETAILED REPRESENTATION Use slanting lines to represent crest and root. Roots and crest are drawn in sharp Vs. External thread Internal thread Thread runoutThread runout 60oPitch
  21. 21. SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION Use alternate long and short lines for representing t d t f th th d ti lcrests and roots of the thread, respectively. External thread Internal thread Root (thick line) Pitch Crest (thin line) Root (thick line)
  22. 22. SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION Use thick continuous lines for representing crest and thin continuous lines for representing root ofand thin continuous lines for representing root of the thread, respectively. External thread Internal thread Thread runout Pitch/2 Thread runout Pitch/2 Root Crest
  23. 23. SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION Use thick continuous lines for representing crest and thin continuous lines for representing root ofand thin continuous lines for representing root of the thread, respectively. External thread Internal thread Sectional view
  24. 24. ISO (METRIC) THREAD Internal thread 60o P/8 thread External th d P/4 thread Pitch, P Center of thread assembly Th d bl if d l if b th (i t l & t l)Thread assembly occurs if and only if both (internal & external) thread have an equal nominal size (or diameter) and pitch.
  25. 25. METRIC COARSE THREAD Nominal Major diameter Pitch Minor diameter Tap drill size [Table 9.1] size diameter diameter M6 6.00 1.00 4.92 5.00 M8 8 00 1 25 6 65 6 75M8 8.00 1.25 6.65 6.75 M10 10.00 1.50 8.38 8.50 M12 12 00 1 75 10 11 10 00M12 12.00 1.75 10.11 10.00 Minor diameter ≈ Tap drill size Metric thread Minor diameter ≈ Tap drill size In thread drawing, the following relationship is used. Minor diameter = Major diameter – Pitch
  26. 26. METRIC FINE THREAD Nominal Major diameter Pitch Minor diameter Tap drill size [Table 9.2] size diameter diameter M8 8.00 0.75 7.188 7.25 1 00 6 917 7 001.00 6.917 7.00 M10 10 00 0.75 9.188 9.25 1 00 8 917 9 00M10 10.00 1.00 8.917 9.00 1.25 8.647 8.75 Minor diameter ≈ Tap drill size In thread drawing, the following relationship is used. Minor diameter = Major diameter – Pitch
  27. 27. DRAWING STEPS OF EXTERNAL THREADEXTERNAL THREAD Draw an arc that Draw 45o Chamfer Draw line making 30o with thread axis Draw a circle that represents a crest represents a root. Draw dia.ia. 45 Chamfer 30 with thread axisrepresents a crest. Draw thread axis MajordMinord Thread Length Starting position
  28. 28. Internal ThreadDRAWING STEPS OF THREADED HOLE 1. Through threaded hole THREADED HOLE 1. Through threaded hole Draw a root Draw a crest Sectional view Draw dia.ia. Draw a root root crest Draw thread axis MajordMinord Draw a circle that represents a crestrepresents a crest. Draw an arc that represents a root. Section lines are drawn into the crest of a thread.
  29. 29. DRAWING STEPS OF THREADED HOLETHREADED HOLE 2. Blinded threaded hole2. Blinded threaded hole ia.Draw dia.MinordDraw thread axis Majord Thread depth Draw a circle that represents a crest Hole depth Thread depthrepresents a crest. Draw an arc that represents a root.
  30. 30. DRAWING STEPS OF THREADED HOLETHREADED HOLE 2. Blinded threaded hole2. Blinded threaded hole Sectional view
  31. 31. DIMENSIONING EXTERNAL THREAD Use local note to specify :- thread form, nominal size, pitch (if it is a fine thread)p ( ) Use typical method to specify :- thread length. M10 ×1.5 ×1.0 Fine thread Coarse thread 1.0 Thread xx length
  32. 32. DIMENSIONING THREADED HOLE Use local note to 1 Tap drill size 8.50 Drill, 20 Deep, specify 3 Th d f 1. Tap drill size 2. Drill depth M10 Tapped, 15 Deep 3. Thread form 4. Nominal size 5. Pitch 6. Thread depth
  33. 33. Threaded FastenerThreaded Fastener
  34. 34. BOLT : Terminology Bolt is a threaded cylinder with a head. Thread length Hexagonal head Head Length Width bolt and nut Head thickness Width across flat Dimensions of bolt’s head areDimensions of bolt s head are listed in table 9.4.
  35. 35. BOLT : Drawing steps Draw an Draw a Draw end view of the head bolt head 30o body of a bolt Draw bolt B/2 B/2 Major axis H B/2 B/2 Length M B Starting H g Thread Length Starting position
  36. 36. NUT : Drawing steps Dimensions of the nut are given in Table 9.14. Draw an end view of the nut B/2 B/2 B H Dash lines represent a threaded hole area t eaded o e a e omitted for clarity.
  37. 37. BOLT : Application 2. Insert a washer. 3 Screw a nut 1. Insert a bolt into a clearance hole 3. Screw a nut.
  38. 38. Let’ s think together… What do you think about the following suggestions for design improvement? (B) U h t b lt ith th (A) Nothing have to be changed. (B) Use shorter bolt with the same thread length. (C) R d th th d l th(C) Reduce the thread length. (D) Add washer or nut. Correct Inappropriate Wrong
  39. 39. Let’ s think together… What do you think about the following suggestions for design improvement? (B) Use a bolt of this length but (A) Nothing have to be changed. (B) Use a bolt of this length but has a longer thread length. (C) Use a longer bolt with the(C) Use a longer bolt with the same thread length. (D) Add washer(D) Add washer. Correct Inappropriate Wrong
  40. 40. Let’ s think together… What do you think about the following suggestions for design improvement ? (B) Use a bolt of this length but (A) Nothing have to be changed. (B) Use a bolt of this length but has a shorter thread length. (C) Use a longer bolt with the(C) Use a longer bolt with the same thread length. (D) Add washer(D) Add washer. Correct Inappropriate Wrong
  41. 41. Let’ s think together… What do you think about the following suggestions for design improvement? (A) Use a bolt of this length but has a shorter thread length. (B) Use a longer bolt with the same thread length. (C) Use a longer bolt by increasing a thread length (D) Remove washer. Correct Inappropriate Wrong
  42. 42. Let’ s think together… What do you think about the following suggestions for design improvement ? (A) Increase the bolt diameter. (B) Use washer with larger(B) Use washer with larger outside diameter. (C) R d th h l di t(C) Reduce the hole diameter. (D) Add washer at bolt head. Correct Inappropriate Wrong
  43. 43. Let’ s think together… What do you think about the following suggestions for design improvement ? (A) Nothing have to be changed. (B) Use a bolt with shorter thread length. (C) Add h(C) Add washer. (D) Increase drill and thread depthsdepths. Correct Inappropriate Wrong
  44. 44. Let’ s think together… What do you think about the following suggestions for design improvement ? (A) Nothing have to be changed. (B) Use a bolt with slightly( ) g y longer thread length. Correct Inappropriate Wrong
  45. 45. STUD : Terminology Stud is a headless bolt, threaded at both ends. Thread lengthThread length Drawing t ti L th representation Length
  46. 46. STUD : Drawing steps Draw 45o Chamfer Draw 45o Chamfer Draw line making 30o with axis Major Draw stud axis Minor Thread Length Thread Length Starting position Stud Length
  47. 47. STUD : Application 1. Drill a hole. 2. Tap a hole. 3. Screw a stud. 4. Place the part to be p 4. Place the part to be fastened. 5. Insert washer and fastened a nut.
  48. 48. Let’ s think together… What is the mistake in the following use of stud ?
  49. 49. Let’ s think together… What is the mistake in the following use of stud ?
  50. 50. CAP SCREW : Terminology Cap screw is similar to bolt, but has a longer thread than a bolt.
  51. 51. CAP SCREW : Counterbore hole x drill, x drill,w deep,  C’by C’bore, z deep  y C’bore, z deep z
  52. 52. CAP SCREW : Countersink hole d ill d ill dx drill, CSK to y x drill, w deep, CSK to y y Draw 90o
  53. 53. SET SCREW : Terminology Set screw is a threaded cylinder used to prevent rotation or movement between partsrotation or movement between parts.
  54. 54. SET SCREW : Application
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Fasteners by Dr. Kilanko O.

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