Western Civilization lecture 8


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Western Civilization lecture 8

  1. 1. Industrial Revolution Western Civilization Mr. Mike Lecture 8
  2. 2. Agricultural Revolution
  3. 3. Seed Drill 1701 A.D. <ul><li>Invented by Jehtro Tull </li></ul><ul><li>Planted seeds in a straight line and evenly spaced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds did not have to fight over space to grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer seeds wasted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still used today. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More seeds germinated so higher crops yield. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Crop Rotation <ul><li>Invented by Charles Townsend </li></ul><ul><li>Fallow fields = low production. </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotation = higher production and the different crops also replenish the nutrients in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased food for humans and animals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Effects of Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>Increased Food Supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Healthier diets </li></ul><ul><li>Longer life-span </li></ul><ul><li>Population Increase </li></ul><ul><li>Greater demand for food products </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer farmers needed </li></ul><ul><li>Workers now available to work in factories. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Textile Industry
  7. 7. The Flying Shuttle <ul><li>Invented by John Kay </li></ul><ul><li>It allowed thread to be woven into cloth faster. </li></ul><ul><li>It doubled the amount of cloth output per worker / per day. </li></ul>1733 A.D.
  8. 8. The Spinning Jenny <ul><li>Invented by James Hargreaves </li></ul><ul><li>A spinning wheel that works eight threads at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>It spun cotton into thread </li></ul><ul><li>There was a shortage of thread before the Spinning Jenny </li></ul><ul><li>Made a way to produce large amounts of thread. </li></ul>1764 A.D.
  9. 9. Water frame <ul><li>Invented by Richard Arkwright </li></ul><ul><li>A wheel turned by moving water. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of human power, water power was used. </li></ul><ul><li>It spun cotton into thread faster. </li></ul>1769 A.D.
  10. 10. Spinning Mule <ul><li>Invented by Samuel Compton. </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 400 spindles of thread were working at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>The spinning mule made better thread. </li></ul><ul><li>Thread production increased again. </li></ul><ul><li>Key element to a textile industry </li></ul>1769 A.D.
  11. 11. Power Loom <ul><li>Invented by Edmund Cartwright </li></ul><ul><li>Water power </li></ul><ul><li>Used moving water to weaving thread into cloth. </li></ul>1787 A.D.
  12. 12. Cotton Gin 1793 A.D. <ul><li>Invented by Eli Whitney </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton for thread came from American colonies, increasing demand for slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton Seeds were difficult to remove </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton gin removed seeds by machine instead of hand. </li></ul><ul><li>The cotton gin increased production from 1.5 million pounds to 55 million pounds. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Steam Engines
  14. 14. Newcomen Steam Engine <ul><li>Thomas Newcomen invented the first steam pump to remove water from coal mines powered by a steam engine. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Steam Engine Improvements <ul><li>James Watt improved the steam engine. </li></ul><ul><li>It had more power, less coal, and it was more reliable. </li></ul><ul><li>It also enabled the development of a reciprocating engine, with upwards and downwards power strokes more suited to transmitting power to a wheel </li></ul>1769 A.D.
  16. 16. Puddling Process 1783 A.D. <ul><li>Invented by Henry Cort </li></ul><ul><li>It refined iron and made it stronger. </li></ul><ul><li>New techniques for making sheets of iron were developed. </li></ul><ul><li>This enabled a great expansion of iron production around the world. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bessemer Process 1855 A.D. <ul><li>Invented by Henry Bessemer. </li></ul><ul><li>A blast of cold air goes through the iron ore to remove all impurities. </li></ul><ul><li>It made the production of steel (iron mixed with other metals) easier and quicker. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel was now stronger and more workable. </li></ul><ul><li>It triggered the growth in other industries. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Machine tools
  19. 19. Lathe 1855 A.D. <ul><li>Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools. </li></ul><ul><li>A machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, or drilling </li></ul><ul><li>Used to make furniture, banisters, sports equipment... </li></ul><ul><li>Modern lathes can shape more materials: metals, plastics... </li></ul>
  20. 20. Other Machines 1855 A.D. Cylinder Boring Machine Planer Milling Machine
  21. 21. Transportation
  22. 22. Roads <ul><li>John McAdams invented a new way of designing roads. </li></ul><ul><li>He invented a new process, “macadamisation”, for building roads with a smooth hard surface that would be more durable and less muddy than soil-based tracks. </li></ul><ul><li>Turnpikes were used as a toll. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies paid to use the roads because they made traveling easier. </li></ul>1800 A.D.
  23. 23. Railroads <ul><li>The first railroads were built by George Stephenson in 1829. </li></ul><ul><li>The first steam powered locomotives were invented. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Rocket – 20 mph. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1850, 5,000 miles of railroad tracks were built in Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel tracks replaced the iron tracks, and train speeds were up to 60 mph. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials, factories, and workers were now closer together. </li></ul>1829 A.D.
  24. 24. Steamships <ul><li>Robert Fulton is credited for developing the first steamship. </li></ul><ul><li>The Clermont was the first commercial steamship used to carry passengers between New York City and Albany, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Canals (human made water ways) were created. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1850, the network of canals reached 4,250 miles! </li></ul>1793 A.D.
  25. 25. Communications
  26. 26. Telegraph <ul><li>Samuel Morse was the American inventor of a single-wired telegraph system and the Morse Code. </li></ul><ul><li>The telegraph sent messages by electrical impulses. </li></ul><ul><li>People were now able to communicate within seconds or minutes, instead of waiting days and weeks. </li></ul>1793 A.D.
  27. 27. Systems
  28. 28. Interchangeable Parts 1793 A.D. <ul><li>Eli Whitney introduced the idea of interchangeable parts to the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>He built ten guns and disassembled them before the U.S. Congress. He placed the parts in a mixed pile and was able to reassemble all of the guns back in front of the Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Before, everything was made by hand, now parts were made by machines </li></ul><ul><li>Broken machines were now able to be fixed by replacing the broken parts. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Factories <ul><li>1104 – Venice, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, mass-produced ships on assembly lines using manufactured parts. </li></ul><ul><li>1761 – Matthew Boulton's Soho Manufactory (produced buttons, buckles and other wares) </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton mills used inventions such as the steam engine and the power loom </li></ul>
  30. 30. Social effects
  31. 31. Middle Class <ul><li>The Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry </li></ul><ul><li>New Social Structure </li></ul>
  32. 32. Urbanization <ul><li>The industrial revolution caused a massive shift from agricultural work to factory works </li></ul><ul><li>Factories were built in cities </li></ul><ul><li>People began moving to cities for work </li></ul>
  33. 33. Child Labor <ul><li>Children often employed in factories. </li></ul><ul><li>Often used to clean/repair dangerous machines because their hands were smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Abusive working conditions </li></ul>
  34. 34. Poor Work Conditions <ul><li>10 – 14 hour work days </li></ul><ul><li>Low wages </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous work conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty living conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Physical abuse common at the workplace </li></ul>
  35. 35. Pollution <ul><li>Air and water in cities became polluted from factories </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals and coal </li></ul>