Philosophy lecture 05


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Philosophy lecture 05

  1. 1. Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 5
  2. 2. Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>Boethius </li></ul><ul><li>Anselm </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>Ockham </li></ul>
  3. 3. Augustine <ul><li>354-430 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Born in Hippo (North Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily Influenced by Platonism </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to Christianity he believed Manichaeism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universe is the battle ground of two equal forces of good and evil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matter is Evil – Spirit is Good </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Augustine <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>What is Time? </li></ul><ul><li>We can think about the past and the future </li></ul><ul><li>BUT, We cannot experience the past or the future </li></ul><ul><li>We can only experience the continuous flow of the present </li></ul><ul><li>The present is the inescapable mode of all existence </li></ul>The Past The Future The Present Existence
  5. 5. Augustine <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>What is Time? </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of time is a reality for all living beings </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of time is something we experience </li></ul><ul><li>Time has no existence outside the realm of experience </li></ul><ul><li>God is outside of experience (unchanging) and Time </li></ul>Time Realm of Experience God
  6. 6. Augustine <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Scepticism </li></ul><ul><li>To doubt anything, I must exist </li></ul><ul><li>In order to doubt “I” must be the one doubting </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, It is impossible to doubt my own existence </li></ul><ul><li>My own existence is something I can know with absolute certainty </li></ul><ul><li>It is also possible to know other things with absolute certainty </li></ul>I Think Therefore I am
  7. 7. Augustine <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of Freewill </li></ul><ul><li>God knows everything that will happen in the future </li></ul><ul><li>I can't do anything that God doesn't already know </li></ul><ul><li>It is impossible for me to do something that God doesn't know will happen </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, what I do is determined by God – Freewill is impossible </li></ul>
  8. 8. Augustine <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Augustine's Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Events is not the same as Cause of Events </li></ul><ul><li>As a human, I can finite knowledge that an event will happen, but that does not necessarily make me the cause of the event </li></ul><ul><li>Finite Knowledge ≠ Cause </li></ul><ul><li>God has infinite knowledge of all events (past, present and future) </li></ul><ul><li>Infinite Knowledge ≠ Cause </li></ul>
  9. 9. Augustine <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>The City of God </li></ul><ul><li>Reality consists of two Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>The Kingdom of God </li></ul><ul><li>The kingdoms of this World </li></ul><ul><li>In this age, we exist in both Kingdoms at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Plato's Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Augustine's Kingdom of God ≠ Plato's Realm of Forms </li></ul>
  10. 10. Augustine <ul><li>Epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>Testimony </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge that we gain from the words of other people </li></ul><ul><li>Not as certain as knowledge gained from personal experience or reason </li></ul><ul><li>BUT, Testimony is a legitimate source of knowledge (though not infallible) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Augustine <ul><li>Epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Can you have knowledge of something you can't perceive through your senses? </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Can you know about God or God's attributes? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Augustine <ul><li>Epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>You can know of many things that you cannot perceive through your senses? </li></ul>Octagon 8 Sides We can perceive all 8 sides Chiliagon 1000 Sides Cannot perceive the sides – We only perceive a circle We can “conceive” of the sides
  13. 13. Augustine <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Original Sin </li></ul><ul><li>Sin (evil) has been passed down from Adam and Eve to all humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Human are born with an inclination to selfishness and doing evil </li></ul><ul><li>Though we still posses the freewill to choose good our desires are inclined toward evil </li></ul>
  14. 14. Augustine <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Religion and Science </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible should not always be interpreted literally </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible often employs metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>If there is a seeming contradiction between science (or logic) and the Bible, perhaps the Bible is employing a metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. “God causes the sun to rise...” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Augustine <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Just War </li></ul><ul><li>In general, PACIFISM is the only position compatible with the teachings of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Violence is only permissible in PROTECTION of the innocent or in order to RESTORE peace </li></ul><ul><li>Violence should never be PREEMPTIVE only DEFENSIVE </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Dark Ages <ul><li>Collapse of Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Philosophical Works Disappear </li></ul><ul><li>Western Europe: War, Famine and Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Most Europeans were illiterate </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Dark Ages <ul><li>Islamic Golden Age: Western Philosophy preserved by Islam </li></ul><ul><li>China: Tang Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Japan: Beginning of Classical Period </li></ul>
  18. 18. Boethius <ul><li>Preservation of Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Translated Aristotle's works on Logic into Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Planned to translate all of the works of Plato and Aristotle but died before he was able </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote The Consolation of Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>One of the only serious philosophers during the Dark Ages </li></ul>
  19. 19. Boethius <ul><li>Ethics/Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Despite Inequality in the world, there exists a Divine Providence </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do Evil men prosper? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do Good men fall into ruin? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predestination vs. Freewill </li></ul>
  20. 20. Boethius <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminals ought to be treated like patients with a disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of prison should be to reform the criminal not to punish </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Anslem <ul><li>1033 AD – 1109 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Archbishop of Canterbury </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extend knowledge by inference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resolve contradictions in theology </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Anslem <ul><li>Proof of God's Existence </li></ul><ul><li>Ontological Argument </li></ul><ul><li>God is the sum of all perfections (justice, goodness...) </li></ul><ul><li>God is Greatest Being we can think of </li></ul><ul><li>Existence is better than non-existence </li></ul><ul><li>If God does not exist, then He is not the Greatest being we can think of </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore God must exist by definition of God </li></ul>
  23. 23. Thomas Aquinas <ul><li>Theology and Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Augustine synthesized Plato with Christian Theology </li></ul><ul><li>Aquinas Synthesized Aristotle with Christian Theology </li></ul>
  24. 24. Thomas Aquinas <ul><li>Proof of God's Existence </li></ul><ul><li>1. Argument from Motion </li></ul><ul><li>All motion requires a mover </li></ul><ul><li>Each “mover” must have been moved by something else </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid an infinite regress (a logical fallacy) we need a First Mover who does not change </li></ul><ul><li>The First Mover is God </li></ul>“ If the hand does not move the stick the stick will not move anything else”
  25. 25. Thomas Aquinas <ul><li>Proof of God's Existence </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cause and Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Every Cause must have and Effect </li></ul><ul><li>There must be a First Cause otherwise we end up with an infinite regress </li></ul><ul><li>The First Cause cannot be caused by something else </li></ul><ul><li>God is necessarily the First Cause </li></ul>
  26. 26. Thomas Aquinas <ul><li>Proof of God's Existence </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cosmological Argument </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of the Universe necessitates the existence of God </li></ul><ul><li>The Universe could not have come into existence by itself out of nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing cannot produce Something </li></ul><ul><li>There must be a First Cause to the Universe otherwise we end up with 2 possible contradictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infinite Regress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing creates Something </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Thomas Aquinas <ul><li>Proof of God's Existence </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmological Argument </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Support </li></ul><ul><li>The “Big Bang” Theory </li></ul><ul><li>What caused the Big Bang? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Thomas Aquinas <ul><li>Proof of God's Existence </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ontological Argument </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly different version of Anselm's argument </li></ul><ul><li>Things vary in degree of quality (hot, good) </li></ul><ul><li>There must me something that is the perfect degree of quality from which all things get their lesser quality </li></ul><ul><li>The sun is the hottest thing which provides heat to everything else </li></ul><ul><li>God is the perfect Good which provides good to everything else </li></ul>
  29. 29. Thomas Aquinas <ul><li>Proof of God's Existence </li></ul><ul><li>5. Teleological Argument </li></ul><ul><li>The Universe is full of order and complexity </li></ul><ul><li>The order and complexity of the universe indicates an Intelligent Designer behind the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Randomness and Chance cannot bring about Order and Complexity </li></ul>
  30. 30. Thomas Aquinas <ul><li>Proof of God's Existence </li></ul><ul><li>Teleological Argument </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Scientific Support </li></ul><ul><li>Life on Earth is Improbable </li></ul><ul><li>Irreducible Complexity in Biochemistry </li></ul>
  31. 31. Ockham <ul><li>Ockham's Razor </li></ul><ul><li>“ Entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity” </li></ul><ul><li>Given 2 ideas which both explain the data/evidence satisfactory, you should choose the one which introduces the least number of entities </li></ul><ul><li>The “razor” is used to cut out unnecessary elements in any explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Why postulate 2 things when 1 will do? </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity is better </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ockham <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>No Universals </li></ul><ul><li>Universals help us organize individual things </li></ul><ul><li>Universals are merely a rational organizing tool </li></ul><ul><li>In reality, only individual things exist – there is no universal connection between the individual things </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of Platonic metaphysics </li></ul>