Crop rotationEnclosed pasture landUsing manure for fertilizationNitrogen replenishing crops (legumes)New farming devices.John Kay – Flying shuttle. A device allowed wavers to easily produce wider pieces of cloth at faster speeds. Created the need for more thread and yarn.
As you now know about the inventions that were created during the Ind. Rev, now let’s take a closer look at the first factories.
Today we are learning aboutindustrialization and its effects on Western countries
Answer the following questions using your clicker!1. T/F The Industrial Revolution began in FranceFALSE! Great Britain was the birthplace of industrialization!
2. Before the Industrial Revolution most clothing was made out of:a. Silkb. Cottonc. Woold. FlannelC- Wool – cloth used in clothing had not changed much from medieval times for the poor. Most people wore linen underneath the wool garments although both are itchy!
3. T/F People in the mid 19th century often worked from home processing a raw material for an entrepreneur.True! A population boom created more rural peasants who needed to work and agricultural work wasn’t always available. This production method became known as the cottage industry and cotton was the first good effected by this.
4. T/F James Hargreaves named the spinning jenny after his daughter.???? – he never admitted this. He did try to keep his invention secret but other spinners became suspicious because his family produced so much yarn. They burst into his house, destroyed his machine, and forced his family to move away.
5. T/F Queen Victoria ruled England during the Industrial Revolution. TRUE! Queen Victoria (1819-1901 Crowned 1838) and her German cousin, Prince Albert brought many great things to Great Britain. This time period 1838-1901 was known as Victorian Britain. The Great Exhibition Christmas Trees Public Education Dinosaurs!
Population boom = more work needed Agricultural advances Higher yield per acre More & better food in diet Improved immune systems Decline in disease & warfare Florence Nightingale (Lady of the Lamp) The Crimean War Press reported on military hospital conditions Cleaned up military hospitals Returned to ENG founded nursing school Draining of Marsh & Swap lands Decreased # of insects
Method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes Entrepreneur invest in raw materials family perform processing steps Entrepreneur pay workers export/sell in city Provided: Entrepreneur – cheap labor Rural workers – steady income Spinsters – unmarried and widowed women who made their living by spinning thread for weavers.
Using your chart match the following inventors with their work!
1. Townsend A. Landowners allowed to fence off land2. Tull B. Steam pump3. Enclosure movement C. Crop rotation4. Kay D. Spinning Jenny5. Hargreaves E. Spinning Mule6. Crompton F. Cotton Gin7. Watt G. Power Loom8. Cartwright H. Flying Shuttle I. Seed Drill J. Steam Engine
9. Fulton A. Internal combustion engine (gasoline)10. Morse B. telephone11. Bell C. Radio12. Tesla D. Airplane E. Interchangeable parts13. Marconi F. Photograph, light bulb14. Daimler G. Assembly line15. Wright H. Attached steam engine on boat I. telegraph J. Electric coil
Today we are learning how the world was effected by the inventions of the Industrial Revolution.
Arkwright’s water frame Spin yarn/thread faster/stronger than spinning jenny Too big for home operation Need for special buildings near water Need for worker in area Crompton’s spinning mule Spinning jenny + water frame Cartwright’s power loom Used steam to produce product faster than man power The Luddites Disgruntled workers feared job loss or lower wages Australia bound What does this lead to? New labor system Shift work & Rural worker issues
Mid 18th century- Eng – no forest Man/horse power – too slow Coal = answer Problem- Mines filled w/ water
Thomas Savery’s steam- powered pump Very dangerous, often exploded – no movable parts
James Watt’s engine Fixed both Thomas’ problems Steam cool away from cylinder More efficient and produced more raw power
Before 18th century no change from Middle Ages in Iron production. Henry Cort’s puddling furnace Allowed pig(raw) iron to be refined w/coke(coal-H2O) Produced stronger iron Iron Production Stats: 1740 1780s (after Cort’s invention) 1852 17,000 tons 70,000 tons 3 million tons What does this lead to?
Iron Industry Henry Cort, puddling (produces high quality iron) Stronger iron allows for new machines, esp. trains Railroad Richard Trevithick, steam-powered locomotive George Stephenson, Rocket, 1830 Ripple effect Prices of goods fall; markets grow larger; increased sales mean more factories and machinery; thus, self- sustaining The Industrial Factory Workers in shifts Workers come from rural areas Regulations
Population Growth and Urbanization European population 1750 -140 million 1850 - 266 million Decline of death rate Less war Less disease More food Growth of cities Poor living conditions Sanitation poor
Potato crop infested w/fungus 1/3 of population depends on potato to survive 1 million people died 1 million moved to US
New Social Classes: The Industrial Middle Class New bourgeoisie/New elite Constructed the factories, purchased the machines, figured out where the markets were Reduce the barriers between themselves and the landed elite New Social Classes: The Industrial Working Class Poor working conditions 12-16 hours per day, 6 days a week Women and children Paid ½ of what men get Factory Act of 1833 – minimum age to work - 9 Efforts at Change Socialism – society (govt) owns factors of production Utopian socialists – all fail
1. Arkwright’s water frame made stronger yarn but wasn’t practical for _______ use.2. The ________________ combined the spinning jenny and the water frame.3. The power loom was so ________ workers became scared and began to protest.4. The main problem with coal mines was ________.5. The first steam pump was dangerous and often __________ due to no movable parts.6. The ultimate solution to the water/coal problem was solved by ________.7. Raw iron aka _____ iron.
Let’s playWho Wants To Be A Cotton Millionaire
More Industrial Revolution Fun! Quiz yourself! Review the inventions! Check your knowledge!
Match the inventor with what each was associated with
1. Henry Ford A. Transportation2. Jethro Tull B. Steel production3. Henry Cort C. Agriculture4. Richard Arkwright D. Textile production5. Charles Townshend
Today we are learning about working conditions during the Industrial Revolution
Not until the 1820s Why work in a factory? Cottages works – step backwards No more setting own schedule Machinery Very dangerous
Entire families hired All worked in home, so all worked in factories Men Hardest labor Women Operated machines Children Swept Picked up scraps Worked on machines