Industrial Revolution


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Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. Industrial Revolution By J. Collins/ D McDowell/ A. Anders
  2. 2. Industrial Revolution <ul><li>The IR is when people stopped making products at home and started making goods in factories. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cottage Industry
  4. 4. On the Farm <ul><li>Farm life difficult, but cyclical </li></ul><ul><li>Homes built and maintained by farmer and family </li></ul><ul><li>Intense periods of work during planting and harvesting seasons with slower work schedule in between </li></ul><ul><li>Daily schedule set by work load, daylight, farmer’s ambition </li></ul>
  5. 5. Agrarian (Agricultural) Revolution <ul><li>Draw two large rectangles divided into nine squares each. Each one of these symbolizes a field of nine different crops. </li></ul><ul><li>*In the first rectangle, *In the second, put an </li></ul><ul><li>draw crops in each square X in any three of the boxes </li></ul><ul><li> Draw crops in the remaining squares </li></ul><ul><li>Now make a little fence around the entire fields of the rectangle with the Xes. </li></ul>X X X
  6. 6. <ul><li>Agricultural Revolution – New farming methods invented </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Townshend in England introduced crop rotation – land could now be used year-round; certain crops revitalized soil </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosure movement had large land owners buying and then fencing public land </li></ul>
  7. 7. Shift AWAY from Agrarian Movement <ul><li>Smaller farmers pushed off of land to work as wage laborers for various land owners or to move to the growing cities (urbanization) </li></ul><ul><li>More food produced = population increase </li></ul><ul><li>In 1700 there were about 100 million people in Europe, by 1800 the population had grown to 190 million. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Review <ul><li>What was the agrarian or agricultural revolution? </li></ul>
  9. 9. DBQ <ul><li>Why England” </li></ul><ul><li>Number 1-9 in your and skip 4 lines each. </li></ul><ul><li>With your partner, analyze the section of the DBQ and write the response in your comp. book. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why did the IR begin in Great Britain? <ul><ul><li>Rise of science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding population </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant tradition- entrepreneurial spirit </li></ul><ul><li>capitalist philosophy (Adam Smith!) </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal and iron deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigable rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural harbors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Island location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global trading, slave labor, gold & silver of the New World- COLONIES (in America, Africa, India) </li></ul><ul><li>State-supported economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutionalism; Locke’s philosophy (property!) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Quest for colonies!- giant map
  12. 12. Britain Industrializes First <ul><li>1715-1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Many natural resources available in Britain, including large amounts of coal and iron </li></ul>
  13. 13. Britain Industrializes First <ul><li>Geographical advantages include a large river system for water power and many natural harbors for easy trade </li></ul><ul><li>A strong, stable government allowed a strong, stable economy to develop which resulted in extra money to invest </li></ul>
  14. 14. Britain Industrializes First <ul><li>Colonial empire provided much needed raw materials and markets </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads to continental Europe, United States of America, and Japan between 1850 and 1914 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Slavery <ul><li>England dominated slave trade 1690-1807 in Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>Transported 1.7 million slaves to West Indies (Caribbean area) for plantations on their COLONIES </li></ul><ul><li>Abolished first in UK and later in US with Emancipation Proclamation 1863 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Urbanization <ul><li>Growth largely unplanned leading to numerous sanitary and social problems </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoid and cholera epidemics swept through the cities </li></ul><ul><li>Families lived in tiny, dirty, rat-infested, crime-infested, disease-ridden housing communities </li></ul>
  17. 17. New Cities- Urbanization!
  18. 18. Labor Changes <ul><li>Dramatic changes in work patterns occur in the factories </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of time introduced to work, people arrive at factory at specific time, work for pre-set number of hours – “Time was money” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Coal Discovered
  20. 20. Iron + Coal=POWERFUL!
  21. 21. Immigration
  22. 23. Pull factors <ul><li>Immigrants come to the USA for jobs and opportunities. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Pull factors are good stuff to bring immigrants here like jobs. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Jobs pulled immigrants here. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Free land was a pull factor </li></ul>
  26. 27. Push factors <ul><li>Push factors are bad stuff to push immigrants away like war or disease. This is potato famine. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Many immigrants lived in tenements. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Tenement
  29. 30. Charles Dickens <ul><li>1. Describe events in his live that describe typical life of an industrial city. </li></ul><ul><li>2. How this effected his life. </li></ul>
  30. 31. URBANIZATION <ul><li>These advancements resulted in the movement of work from the home to the factory </li></ul><ul><li>Move from country to city for opportunities </li></ul>
  31. 32. Child labor <ul><li>Many immigrants put their children to work ASAP. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Child Labor
  33. 34. Small Bodies 1 Shilling a Week
  34. 35. Child labor <ul><li>Shoeshine boys </li></ul>
  35. 36. Child labor <ul><li>Bowling pin boys </li></ul>
  36. 37. Child labor <ul><li>Coal miner boys </li></ul>
  37. 38. Child labor <ul><li>Young miner </li></ul>
  38. 39. Deep in the Coal Mines
  39. 40. <ul><li>Girls were preferred over boys. They were paid less, had smaller hands. </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  41. 42. Child Labor <ul><li>Parliament in GB begins to investigate! They hold hearings, calling in witnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Document Reading </li></ul>
  42. 43. Breaker Boys
  43. 44. Breaker Boys
  44. 45. Charles Dickens Play itunes Dickens
  45. 46. Turn to p. 716 in your textbook. Read the top under “What are Fair Working Conditions?” With your partner, discuss the two questions in the blue box
  46. 47. Factory system
  47. 48. New Technology Divide your entire paper into six large boxes At the top of each box, label them accordingly : 1. Electricity and Power 2. Transportation 3. Products 4. Communication 5. Medicine 6. Other As you view the following slides and films, record all the new inventions in the appropriate boxes! 6. Other 5. Medicine 4. Communication 3. Products 2. Transportation 1. Electricity/Power
  48. 49. Into the 20th Century
  49. 50. Cotton gin <ul><li>Eli Whitney’s cotton gin removed the seeds out of raw cotton. </li></ul>
  50. 53. Steam Engine <ul><li>The steam engine was not just a transportation device. It ran entire factories the way rivers used to. </li></ul>
  51. 54. Improved Transportation
  52. 55. Railroads
  53. 57. Transcontinental RR <ul><li>The transcontinental railroad made travel across the country faster, cheaper and more efficient. </li></ul>
  54. 59. <ul><li>The transcontinental RR met in Utah </li></ul>
  55. 60. Canals <ul><li>Canals are manmade waterways dug between 2 large bodies of water. </li></ul><ul><li>The Erie Canal was a short cut from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. </li></ul>
  56. 61. Erie Canal 1825
  57. 62. Panama Canal <ul><li>The Panama Canal was a shortcut from the Atlantic to the Pacific (or backwards). </li></ul>
  58. 63. Panama Canal
  59. 65. Telegraph <ul><li>Samuel Morse invented the telegraph. It communicated using a series of beeps (Morse code). </li></ul>
  60. 66. telephone <ul><li>Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. </li></ul>
  61. 67. Robber Barons <ul><li>Andrew Carnegie owned US Steel. </li></ul>
  62. 69. <ul><li>Steel Mill at night. </li></ul>
  63. 70. Robber Barons <ul><li>John D. Rockefeller owned the railroads and the oil industries </li></ul>
  64. 72. Monopoly <ul><li>Carnegie and Rockefeller ran their competition out of business. </li></ul><ul><li>A monopoly is when one company controls the entire industry. </li></ul>
  65. 74. Thomas Edison <ul><li>The light bulb allowed factories to work at night. </li></ul>
  66. 75. <ul><li>Phonograph </li></ul>
  67. 76. Science <ul><li>1869-Dmitri Mendeleyev grouped elements according to weight (periodic table) </li></ul><ul><li>Earth formed over millions of years </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin (On the Origin of Species)-evolution </li></ul>
  68. 77. Disease Prevention <ul><li>1870-Louis Pasteur showed link between germs and disease, developed a vaccine for rabies and developed pasteurization </li></ul><ul><li>1914- knew yellow fever and malaria were caused by mosquitoes </li></ul><ul><li>People bathed more </li></ul><ul><li>1846-anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Lister-insisted surgeons sterilize instruments and wash hands </li></ul>
  69. 78. Edison’s inventions <ul><li>Motion picture camera </li></ul>
  70. 79. Efficient industry <ul><li>While some progressives fought industry with labor unions and government regulation, others helped industry by using science in the workplace. </li></ul>
  71. 80. Ford’s assembly line
  72. 81. Industrial efficiency <ul><li>Henry Ford learned that the less people had to move, the faster they would work. </li></ul>
  73. 82. <ul><li>The first cars were very expensive. </li></ul>
  74. 83. Model T <ul><li>The Model T was the first car that middle class people could afford. </li></ul>
  75. 84. Model T <ul><li>The assembly line lowered the cost of the Model T from $825 to $300. </li></ul>
  76. 85. Philosophical Reactions to Industrialization Adam Smith Thomas Malthus David Ricardo Charles Darwin Social Darwinism John Stuart Mills Unions Women’s Suffrage Slavery Abolition
  77. 86. Adam Smith- CAPITALISM <ul><li>Free market- Laissez- Faire </li></ul><ul><li>S/C/S laws= </li></ul><ul><li>S elf interest </li></ul><ul><li>C ompetition, </li></ul><ul><li>S upply and </li></ul><ul><li>demand </li></ul>
  78. 87. Thomas Malthus <ul><li>Population increases faster than the food supply! </li></ul><ul><li>Malthusian…….. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is this true? When? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  79. 88. “Iron law of wages” <ul><li>David Ricardo </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that workers should only be paid enough to survive </li></ul><ul><li>If they make more, they will only have more children and therefore become poor again or die off from starvation </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Underclass (like Malthus) </li></ul>
  80. 89. “Iron law of wages” <ul><li>Workers should be satisfied with their wages because they are maintained at a natural level </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to the idea that poverty is caused by character flaws in an individual </li></ul>
  81. 90. <ul><li>Natural selection of the fittest </li></ul><ul><li>Species develop specialized traits to fit their environment </li></ul>
  82. 91. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Separate notion from the biological argument. Not something Charles Darwin would have likely advocated! </li></ul><ul><li>Society should allow the weak and less fit to fail and die. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-existing prejudices were rationalized by the notion that colonized nations, poor people, or disadvantaged minorities must have deserved their situations because they were “less fit” than those who were better off. (rationalized colonies and eugenics) </li></ul>
  83. 92. REFORM Brought by the IR <ul><li>Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machines </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and better </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growth </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions in one area often led to inventions in others </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced </li></ul>
  84. 93. Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Cities begin to dominate the western world </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a new social order with the rise of an influential middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Poor working conditions for lower classes eventually lead to new social and political movements-Getting organized for reforms! </li></ul><ul><li>Need for markets and resources force Europeans to take over foreign lands ( imperialism ) </li></ul>
  85. 94. Reforms <ul><li>By late 1800’s most European countries granted all men right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Child labor laws </li></ul><ul><li>1909-8 hour work day for miners </li></ul><ul><li>Public schools set up- kids required to have basic education </li></ul>
  86. 95. Women’s Suffrage and Slavery Abolition
  87. 96. Suffragists <ul><li>We hold these truths to be self evident that all men and women are created </li></ul><ul><li>equal. </li></ul>
  88. 97. Suffragists <ul><li>Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the grandmother of the movement </li></ul><ul><li>Open up the text to p. R 57 in the back. </li></ul><ul><li>Stanton Group reading </li></ul>
  89. 98. <ul><li>Women all over the USA and Britain paraded and protested for suffrage. </li></ul>
  90. 99. Women’s suffrage <ul><li>Stanton and Susan B. Anthony fought for women’s rights. </li></ul>
  91. 101. Suffering Til Suffrage
  92. 103. <ul><li>WWI helped women get the vote because they worked so hard during WWI. </li></ul>
  93. 104. <ul><li>The Nineteenth Amendment gave women’s suffrage. </li></ul>
  94. 105. Labor Reform <ul><li>Labor unions struggled in the 1800s to fight for better working conditions (shorter work day, workers’ comp). </li></ul>
  95. 106. Labor reform <ul><li>Unions went on strike, and they turned violent most of the time. </li></ul>
  96. 109. Workers Strike
  97. 110. Labor unions <ul><li>Skilled labor unions were more successful because they were harder to replace. </li></ul>
  98. 111. <ul><li>Progressives got laws passed that prohibited child labor. </li></ul>
  99. 112. <ul><li>Progressives passed laws limiting hours women worked. </li></ul>
  100. 113. <ul><li>Progressives passed laws requiring workplace safety. </li></ul>
  101. 114. <ul><li>Workplace safety. </li></ul>
  102. 115. Rise of Socialism <ul><li>Critics of the Industrial Revolution began advocating for a more even distribution of the wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilitarianism- government needed only to create greatest good for greatest number of people. </li></ul><ul><li>John Stuart Mills- Questioned unregulated capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More reforms in legal system and education </li></ul></ul>
  103. 116. Rise of Socialism <ul><li>Robert Owen set up an utopian system in his factories, creating an ideal working community – workers worked less, children were taken care of while parents worked, productivity and profit increased </li></ul>Robert Owen
  104. 117. Two Conflicting Economic Systems <ul><li>CAPITALISM </li></ul><ul><li>(Adam Smith) </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNISM </li></ul><ul><li>(Marx and Engels) </li></ul>
  105. 118. Marx and Engles <ul><li>Karl Marx and Frederick Engels witness the horrors of industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Together they write the Communist Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>Believed capitalism would fail. </li></ul><ul><li>Took socialism to a new level </li></ul><ul><li>Proletariat will rise up against Bourgeoisie </li></ul>Karl Marx
  106. 119. Marx and Engels Proletarian cry for justice against the growing bourgeoisie: “ The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite !”
  107. 120. Founders and their Works The Communist Manifesto Wealth of Nations Karl Marx/ Frederick Engels Adam Smith Communism Capitalism
  108. 121. Views on Government Communism Capitalism <ul><li>Everything owned by government </li></ul><ul><li>Government closely regulates economy (sets prices, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Government should not interfere with economy – laissez faire </li></ul>
  109. 122. View on people <ul><li>People should cooperate to obtain success, eliminating competition </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should have an equal share of the available wealth/property </li></ul><ul><li>People become wealthy because they offer something – a product or service, that others want </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has the opportunity to succeed </li></ul>
  110. 123. Social Conditions <ul><li>Government ownership of the economy will end unemployment, poverty, hunger, and slave-like working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Through hard work people can lift themselves out of poverty </li></ul>Communism Capitalism
  111. 124. Individual Freedom <ul><li>Government determines job placement </li></ul><ul><li>Religion considered a burden </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrifice freedom for security </li></ul><ul><li>People are free to choose their own careers </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of religion </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom is more important than security </li></ul>Communism Capitalism
  112. 125. Future <ul><li>Capitalism is self-destructive </li></ul><ul><li>Workers will eventually rise up in a violent revolution and take power </li></ul><ul><li>The future of the world is communism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism is the only efficient economic system </li></ul>