Philosophy lecture 10


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Philosophy lecture 10

  1. 1. Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 10
  2. 2. Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Socialism </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul>
  3. 3. Socialism <ul><li>Karl Marx </li></ul><ul><li>Marx’s philosophy owes a great deal to Hegel </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental condition of humanity is the need to convert the raw material of the natural world into the goods necessary for survival </li></ul><ul><li>Production (economics) is the primary conditioning factor of life </li></ul>
  4. 4. Marx's Dialectical Materialism Thesis Feudalism Antithesis Industrialism & Creation of Middle Class Synthesis (New Thesis) Industrialist Capitalism Antithesis Proletariat Working-Class Synthesis Socialism
  5. 5. <ul><li>Karl Marx </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism is the necessary outcome of Capitalism and the Proletariat </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism is not necessary for ethical reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism is necessary because Marx believes it to be the most efficient means of production and therefore survival </li></ul>
  6. 6. Evolution <ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>English Naturalist </li></ul><ul><li>Natural explanation of the origins and decent of biological species </li></ul><ul><li>5-year Voyage on HMS Beagle studying/collecting species specimens </li></ul>
  7. 7. Evolution <ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>Biology based on the philosophies of Schelling and Hegel & Ideal of the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Schelling – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature is in a perpetual state of progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are the highest form of natural progress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hegel – Dialectic </li></ul><ul><li>(Thesis ↔ Antithesis) -> Synthesis </li></ul>
  8. 8. Evolution <ul><li>Darwin's Theory </li></ul><ul><li>All species of life have descended over time from common ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Transmutation of species – The Process by which one species changes into another species </li></ul>
  9. 9. Evolution <ul><li>Darwin's Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Survival of the Fittest : Organisms with traits which are better adapted for immediate, local environment survive to pass the trait on. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Darwin's Adaptation of Hegel's Dialectic in Biology (Natural Selection) Thesis - Species Antithesis – Natural Environment Opposing Force Synthesis – New Species better adapted to the natural environment
  11. 11. Evolution <ul><li>Darwin's Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Female choice of suitable males which impacts what traits get passed on to offspring from the male. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Evolution <ul><li>Darwin's Theory </li></ul><ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in God as the ultimate natural law giver. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God. – I think that generally ... an agnostic would be the most correct description of my state of mind.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Evolution <ul><li>Implications of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Wider Gap between Religion and Science </li></ul><ul><li>Origins of man and other species now had a theory that did not need religion </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in Scientific Atheism </li></ul>
  14. 14. Evolution <ul><li>The Enlightenment & Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment concept of “progress” </li></ul><ul><li>Speculated that societies progressed through stages of increasing development – Western logic and science as seen as evidence of more developed cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Societies begin as primitive then progress toward industrialized Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin's theory was seen as “scientific evidence” of progress </li></ul>
  15. 15. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Implications of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert Spencer drew parallels between his own economic theories and Darwin's biological ones </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a model that applied the law of the survival of the fittest to society </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarian impulses had to be resisted as nothing should be allowed to interfere with nature's laws. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Social Darwinism & Eugenics </li></ul><ul><li>Advocates practices to improve the human gene pool. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in Western countries to support racist immigration laws and laws against inter-racial marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>In severe cases used to advocate genocide. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated the killing of old people because they are no longer productive </li></ul>
  17. 17. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Social Darwinism & Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire – French: means “let do,” but it broadly implies “let it be,” or “leave it alone.” </li></ul><ul><li>Argued against regulations of any industries </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinists supported Laissez-faire politics as a form of economic “natural selection” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Social Darwinism & Racism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic races were categorized into higher and lower </li></ul><ul><li>Led to ideas of racial supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a justification for slavery </li></ul>
  19. 19. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>An unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinists supported imperialism as an example of cultural evolution </li></ul>
  20. 20. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Fascism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purge forces, ideas, and systems deemed to be the cause of decadence and degeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote violence and war as actions that create national regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict as a fact of life that is responsible for all human progress. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Nazism </li></ul><ul><li>A form of fascism that incorporated biological racism and antisemitism (against Jews) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in the supremacy of an Aryan Master Race (Germans) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Psychology <ul><li>Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that certain early childhood experiences, are ‘repressed’ into the Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Repression often occurs when a child experiences disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Repression is connected to the child’s sexual identity in relation to one or both of its parents </li></ul>
  23. 23. Psychology <ul><li>Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious : Awareness, thoughts, perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-conscious : Memories, Stored Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious : Fears, Motives, Desires, Needs, Wishes, Shameful experiences </li></ul>
  24. 24. Psychology <ul><li>Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Ego : Realistic, organized aspect of personality. Seeks to satisfy unconscious drives (motives) in realistic ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Id : Unconscious, unorganized aspect of personality. Operates from the “pleasure principle” which attempts to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Comprised of instinctive drives and impulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Super-Ego : The moral conscience. Produces the feeling of guilt what a moral conviction has been acted against. A system of internalized social and cultural regulations for behavior. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Psychology
  26. 26. Psychology <ul><li>Carl Jung (1875–1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Ego : The conscious mind the individual which makes decisions, learns, and obtains wisdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Unconscious : Anything that can be brought to the conscious mind with ease </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Unconscious : This part of the psyche is never consciously called upon, but directs a person’s emotional reactions. It is a collection of the religious, spiritual and mythological symbols which are passed down through the generations and therefore pre-date the individual. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Psychology <ul><li>Carl Jung (1875–1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Archetypes : </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited aspect of the collective unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Represent collective models which represent deep psychological needs </li></ul><ul><li>Example - “Mother” archetype is the person(s) we look to for nurturing, comfort in times of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>It an archetype is not fulfilled then a person will seek one out in different ways. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Psychology <ul><li>B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Studying Animal Behavior is useful to understanding Human Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects Locke's idea that Humans are born as a blank slate </li></ul><ul><li>All organismic action is determined and not free </li></ul>
  29. 29. Psychology <ul><li>Viktor Frankl </li></ul><ul><li>(1905-1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Austrian Neurologist and Psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>Holocaust Survivor </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of Logotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Man's Search for Meaning </li></ul>
  30. 30. Psychology <ul><li>Viktor Frankl </li></ul><ul><li>Logotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the Greek philosophy term “Logos” (meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>Existentialist Analysis of life that focuses on a will to meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Finding Meaning (Purpose) to one's life is the primary, most powerful driving force in Humans </li></ul>
  31. 31. Psychology <ul><li>Viktor Frankl </li></ul><ul><li>Logotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Primary motivation of every individual is to find meaning in life </li></ul><ul><li>Life has meaning (Logos) even under the most miserable circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation for living is to find meaning in life </li></ul><ul><li>We are free to find meaning in our circumstances </li></ul>