Philosophy lecture 03


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  • What is this? Did this bridge appear by chance? Could this bridge come into existence given billions of years? Is this evidence of a designer? Why?
  • What is this? Did this bridge appear by chance? Could this bridge come into existence given billions of years? Is this evidence of a designer? Why?
  • Philosophy lecture 03

    1. 1. Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 3
    2. 2. Socrates <ul><li>No Writings </li></ul><ul><li>What we know of Socrates comes from the writings of others such as Plato and Xenophon. </li></ul><ul><li>A Native of Athens, Greece </li></ul>
    3. 3. Socrates Oracle of Delphi <ul><li>Priestess of Apollo gifted in prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>She was asked, “Is there anyone wiser than Socrates?” She answered no. </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates felt this we wrong because he knew that he didn't know anything. </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates tried to refute the Oracle by questioning the Wise Men of Athens. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Socrates Oracle of Delphi <ul><li>Socrates learned that the men who “claimed” to be wise really knew very little but were ignorant about their lack of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Though Socrates knew very little he was aware of his ignorance and was therefore wiser. </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates' paradoxical wisdom comes from realizing his own lack of knowledge. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Socrates Trial and Death <ul><li>Socrates public questioning of Athen's elite caused those in power to look foolish. </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Moral critic of Athens. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticized the common notion that “might is right” in Athens. </li></ul><ul><li>Accused of corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods of the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentenced to drink poison hemlock. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Socrates The Socratic Method <ul><li>What is Justice? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Socrates The Socratic Method <ul><li>What is Love? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Socrates The Socratic Method <ul><li>DIALECTIC: A method of seeking truth through a series of questions and answers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Socratic method is a “dialectic” method teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>To solve a problem, it is broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Socrates <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates' primary concern in philosophy was, “How should we live?” </li></ul><ul><li>3 Questions </li></ul><ul><li>What is good? </li></ul><ul><li>What is right? </li></ul><ul><li>What is just (justice)? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Socrates <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates' ethics assumes that Education is the key to living an ethical life. </li></ul><ul><li>No one desires evil. </li></ul><ul><li>No one errs or does wrong willingly or knowingly. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue—all virtue—is knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue = positive moral behavior </li></ul>
    11. 11. Socrates <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>The worst thing for a person is the corruption of his/her soul. </li></ul><ul><li>It is better to suffer injustice than to commit injustice. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Socrates <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Common Properties universal characteristics of words (meanings) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Behind the word “justice” is a common property about justice that has an existence apart from our understanding. </li></ul>“ Justice”
    13. 13. Socrates <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Common Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Universal characteristics of words (meanings) </li></ul><ul><li>An aspect of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Non-physical (abstract) </li></ul>“ Justice”
    14. 14. Plato <ul><li>Socrates' Student </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Academy – </li></ul><ul><li>First institution for higher education </li></ul><ul><li>First Western philosopher whose writings have survived </li></ul><ul><li>Most of what we know about Socrates comes from Plato's writings </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed with Pythagoras that Mathematics were essential in understanding the world </li></ul>
    15. 15. Plato <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed with Socrates that the only real harm to a human is corruption of the soul – it is better to suffer wrong than to commit wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreed with Socrates that virtue is simply a matter of knowing what is right </li></ul>
    16. 16. Plato <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are made of 3 conflicting elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Passions </li></ul><ul><li>Intellect </li></ul><ul><li>Will </li></ul><ul><li>Most people live life allowing the PASSIONS, INTELLECT and WILL to be in conflict with one another. </li></ul>WILL INTELLECT PASSIONS
    17. 17. Plato <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal living is when the INTELLECT controls the PASSIONS through the WILL </li></ul>INTELLECT WILL PASSIONS
    18. 18. Plato <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Reality can be divided into two realms: </li></ul><ul><li>The Visible World </li></ul><ul><li>Forms - Ideas </li></ul>
    19. 19. Plato <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>The Visible World </li></ul><ul><li>Lower - Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>World experienced by our senses </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Bound by Space and Time </li></ul><ul><li>Always changing </li></ul><ul><li>Always “becoming” </li></ul>
    20. 20. Plato <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Ream of Forms-Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Higher - Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>ULTIMATE REALITY </li></ul><ul><li>Not accessible to our senses </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Not Bound by Space and Time </li></ul><ul><li>Never Changing </li></ul><ul><li>Always “is” </li></ul>HORSE
    21. 21. Plato's Cave
    22. 22. Plato <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Mortal </li></ul><ul><li>Changes (Birth, Growth, Death) </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>Non-material </li></ul><ul><li>Soul </li></ul><ul><li>Our permanent FORM </li></ul><ul><li>Timeless – Spaceless </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Immortal </li></ul><ul><li>The REAL You </li></ul>Soul Body
    23. 23. Plato <ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Life is </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearal for Death </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this life is to achieve enlightenment – Penetrate the Ultimate Reality </li></ul><ul><li>Death releases the Soul from bondage to the physical body </li></ul>Soul Body
    24. 24. Plato <ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>The Arts attempt to represent Physical Reality </li></ul><ul><li>The Physical Reality is an imperfect representation of Ultimate Reality (Forms) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the Arts are twice as deceptive at Physical Reality </li></ul><ul><li>The Arts only further confuse people about Ultimate Reality </li></ul>
    25. 25. Plato Politics: The Ideal Republic <ul><li>Philosophically Aware Rulers (Governing Class) </li></ul><ul><li>Police Class </li></ul><ul><li>(Protective Class) </li></ul><ul><li>General Population </li></ul><ul><li>(Worker Class) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Aristotle <ul><li>Area of Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul>
    27. 27. Aristotle <ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>3 Areas of Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical </li></ul><ul><li>Practical </li></ul><ul><li>Productive </li></ul><ul><li>Logic is a Tool underlying all learning </li></ul>
    28. 28. Aristotle <ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Sets the boundary of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Essential in forming an argument </li></ul>Dogs Pugs Animals
    29. 29. Aristotle <ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle mapped out and developed the system of Western Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Propositions </li></ul><ul><li>Syllogism </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Fallacies </li></ul>
    30. 30. Aristotle <ul><li>The 4 Causes </li></ul><ul><li>To really “know” something you need to know the causes of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>What is a house? </li></ul>
    31. 31. Aristotle <ul><li>Material Cause </li></ul><ul><li>The “materials” that make up the thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Bricks are the material cause of a Brick House </li></ul>
    32. 32. Aristotle <ul><li>Material Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficiency of the Material Cause </li></ul><ul><li>The materials that make up a thing are not the same as the thing itself. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pile of Bricks is not a House </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some things can be made of different materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses can be made of Bricks or Wood or Metal. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Aristotle <ul><li>Formal Cause </li></ul><ul><li>The FORM of the thing. </li></ul><ul><li>The pattern, shape, characteristics of a thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Not the same as Plato's idea of Forms, i.e. no realm of forms. </li></ul><ul><li>The Form does not have an existence apart from the thing as in Plato's concept of Forms </li></ul>
    34. 34. Aristotle <ul><li>Efficient Cause </li></ul><ul><li>The cause that changes the materials into the thing. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tools/Instruments used to create the thing. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Aristotle <ul><li>Final Cause </li></ul><ul><li>The reason, purpose or goal of a thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex . The purpose of a house is to shelter a people. </li></ul><ul><li>Final Cause is evidence of an Intelligent Designer who provides things with purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Teleology – Nature Intelligent Design </li></ul>
    36. 36. Aristotle <ul><li>Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Close Friends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be Equals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of Good Virtue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selfless in the friendship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wants what's best and good for the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual respect for each others strengths </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Aristotle <ul><li>Ethics: Virtues </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired by Habit </li></ul><ul><li>Not innate </li></ul><ul><li>Habit develops a disposition to act virtuously </li></ul><ul><li>The Golden Mean: Mid-point between 2 extremes </li></ul>Courage Cowardice Recklessness
    38. 38. Aristotle <ul><li>Ethics: Virtuous Life </li></ul><ul><li>Know what is Right </li></ul><ul><li>Do what is Right </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Wisdom - Make Right Decisions based on Good Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplation of the Best things NOT just Good things – Good is the enemy of the Best </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation for Doing Anything is Flourishing (Full - Meaningful) </li></ul>