Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike  Lecture 9
Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Idealism Continued </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatism </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalism  </li></ul>
Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Idealism Continued </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatism </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalism  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   </li></ul><ul><li>(1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Set out to complete the philosophy that Kant...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   </li></ul><ul><li>(1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Set out to complete the philosophy that Kant...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Kant's Basic Premise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Aspects of Realit...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Kant's Basic Premise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Aspects of Realit...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Kant's Basic Premise </li></ul><ul><li>Science is capable of p...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Kant's Basic Premise </li></ul><ul><li>Science is capable of p...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Correcting Kant's Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Kant  – Since ...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Correcting Kant's Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Kant  – Since ...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Since space and time are aspects...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Since space and time are aspects...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Kant – Acts of the Will are part...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Kant – Acts of the Will are part...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Schopenhauer – If the phenomenal...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Schopenhauer – If the phenomenal...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>Phen...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>Phen...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal Noumenal Will </li></...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal Noumenal Will </li></...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Since noumenal reality is essential O...
<ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer   (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Since noumenal reality is essential O...
<ul><li>Fredrich Shelling  (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is total reality perpetually...
<ul><li>Fredrich Shelling  (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is total reality perpetually...
<ul><li>Fredrich Shelling  (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics   </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are the most advanced aspe...
<ul><li>Fredrich Shelling  (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics   </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are the most advanced aspe...
<ul><li>Fredrich Shelling  (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics  </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is in the continual process ...
<ul><li>Fredrich Shelling  (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics  </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is in the continual process ...
<ul><li>Fredrich Shelling   (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate Question  </li></ul><ul><li>Why does anything exist at ...
<ul><li>Fredrich Shelling   (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate Question  </li></ul><ul><li>Why does anything exist at ...
<ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel   (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics   </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is an organic unity  <...
<ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel   (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics   </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is an organic unity  <...
<ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel   (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics   </li></ul><ul><li>Geist : </li></ul><ul><li>Mental/...
<ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel   (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics   </li></ul><ul><li>Geist : </li></ul><ul><li>Mental/...
<ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel   (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics   </li></ul><ul><li>Hegel's Dialectic : </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel   (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics   </li></ul><ul><li>Hegel's Dialectic : </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Political Philosophy  </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Sup...
<ul><li>Edmund Burke   (1729-1797)   </li></ul><ul><li>Supported Limiting the power of the monarchy  </li></ul><ul><li>Mul...
<ul><li>Edmund Burke   (1729-1797)   </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed modern forms of Democracy (open and free elections)  </li><...
<ul><li>Edmund Burke   (1729-1797)   </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed modern forms of Democracy (open and free elections)  </li><...
<ul><li>Political Philosophy  </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes the importance of Government protecting Liberty and providing Equ...
<ul><li>Thomas Paine   (1737-1809)   </li></ul><ul><li>Invented the term “United States of America”  </li></ul><ul><li>Ins...
<ul><li>Thomas Paine   (1737-1809)   </li></ul><ul><li>One of the first writers to call for the  abolishment of slavery </...
<ul><li>Thomas Paine   (1737-1809)   The Rights of Man </li></ul><ul><li>All men are created equal and are born with equal...
<ul><li>Thomas Paine   (1737-1809)   The Rights of Man </li></ul><ul><li>The only moral form of government is a democratic...
<ul><li>Jeremy Bentham   (1748–1832)   Utilitarianism  </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize Pleasure & Minimize Pain  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Jeremy Bentham   (1748–1832)   Utilitarianism  </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Trolley Car Il...
<ul><li>John Stuart Mill   (1806–1873)   Utilitarianism  </li></ul><ul><li>Follower of Bentham  </li></ul><ul><li>Actions ...
<ul><li>John Stuart Mill   (1806–1873)   Utilitarianism  </li></ul><ul><li>Bentham saw all pleasures and pains as equal – ...
<ul><li>John Stuart Mill   (1806–1873)   The Subjection of Women   </li></ul><ul><li>As a Member of the British Parliament...
<ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft   (1759–1797)   Feminist Thomas Paine   </li></ul><ul><li>Vindication of the Rights of Man   <...
<ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft   (1759–1797)   Feminist Thomas Paine   </li></ul><ul><li>Vindication of the Rights of Women  ...
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Philosophy lecture 09

  1. 1. Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 9
  2. 2. Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Idealism Continued </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatism </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalism </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Idealism Continued </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatism </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalism </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer </li></ul><ul><li>(1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Set out to complete the philosophy that Kant started </li></ul><ul><li>First openly Atheist philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>First Western philosopher to seriously study Eastern philosophy </li></ul>Idealists
  5. 5. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer </li></ul><ul><li>(1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Set out to complete the philosophy that Kant started </li></ul><ul><li>First openly Atheist philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>First Western philosopher to seriously study Eastern philosophy </li></ul>Idealists
  6. 6. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Kant's Basic Premise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Aspects of Reality: (1) Phenomenal Reality (what we perceive) and (2) Noumenal Reality (reality in itself) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since Reality in itself is beyond our to perceive it we can never know reality as it is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenal Reality is a mental construct of our mind </li></ul></ul>Idealists Noumenal Reality Sensory Experience of Reality Events & Things Mental Construct of Reality
  7. 7. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Kant's Basic Premise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Aspects of Reality: (1) Phenomenal Reality (what we perceive) and (2) Noumenal Reality (reality in itself) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since Reality in itself is beyond our to perceive it we can never know reality as it is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenal Reality is a mental construct of our mind </li></ul></ul>Idealists Noumenal Reality Sensory Experience of Reality Events & Things Mental Construct of Reality
  8. 8. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Kant's Basic Premise </li></ul><ul><li>Science is capable of providing knowledge of the phenomenal (perceived) world </li></ul><ul><li>The Noumenal world and the Phenomenal world are essentially different things </li></ul><ul><li>Science is not capable of providing any knowledge of the noumenal world. </li></ul>Idealists Noumenal Reality Sensory Experience of Reality Events & Things Mental Construct of Reality
  9. 9. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Kant's Basic Premise </li></ul><ul><li>Science is capable of providing knowledge of the phenomenal (perceived) world </li></ul><ul><li>The Noumenal world and the Phenomenal world are essentially different things </li></ul><ul><li>Science is not capable of providing any knowledge of the noumenal world. </li></ul>Idealists Noumenal Reality Sensory Experience of Reality Events & Things Mental Construct of Reality
  10. 10. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Correcting Kant's Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Kant – Since the noumenal and phenomenal are essentially different it is impossible for the noumenal to be the cause of the phenomenal </li></ul><ul><li>Also, “cause” is an aspect of the phenomenal (i.e. “causes” are organizational constructs of the mind) </li></ul><ul><li>Schopenhauer – Phenomenal reality and noumenal reality are not DIFFERENT realities. They are the SAME reality. </li></ul>Idealists Noumenal Reality Phenomenal Reality
  11. 11. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Correcting Kant's Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Kant – Since the noumenal and phenomenal are essentially different it is impossible for the noumenal to be the cause of the phenomenal </li></ul><ul><li>Also, “cause” is an aspect of the phenomenal (i.e. “causes” are organizational constructs of the mind) </li></ul><ul><li>Schopenhauer – Phenomenal reality and noumenal reality are not DIFFERENT realities. They are the SAME reality. </li></ul>Idealists Noumenal Reality Phenomenal Reality
  12. 12. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Since space and time are aspects of the phenomenal world that we can perceive, they have no meaning in the noumenal world. </li></ul><ul><li>If space and time do not exist then there can be no differentiation between things – Everything is One </li></ul>Idealists
  13. 13. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Since space and time are aspects of the phenomenal world that we can perceive, they have no meaning in the noumenal world. </li></ul><ul><li>If space and time do not exist then there can be no differentiation between things – Everything is One </li></ul>Idealists
  14. 14. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Kant – Acts of the Will are part of the noumenal world but are also the causes of the phenomenal world </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A person wills to move his arm (noumenal) which is followed by the bodily movement (phenomenal) </li></ul>Idealists
  15. 15. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Kant – Acts of the Will are part of the noumenal world but are also the causes of the phenomenal world </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A person wills to move his arm (noumenal) which is followed by the bodily movement (phenomenal) </li></ul>Idealists
  16. 16. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Schopenhauer – If the phenomenal and noumenal are different (Kant) then the acts of the will cannot cause anything in phenomenal reality. </li></ul>Idealists
  17. 17. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Schopenhauer – If the phenomenal and noumenal are different (Kant) then the acts of the will cannot cause anything in phenomenal reality. </li></ul>Idealists
  18. 18. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenal and Noumenal are not different. </li></ul><ul><li>Motives (will) are internal and noumenal. Bodily movement is external (phenomenal). </li></ul><ul><li>Motives and Bodily movements are the same event apprehended in two different ways (internal and external) </li></ul>Idealists
  19. 19. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenal and Noumenal are not different. </li></ul><ul><li>Motives (will) are internal and noumenal. Bodily movement is external (phenomenal). </li></ul><ul><li>Motives and Bodily movements are the same event apprehended in two different ways (internal and external) </li></ul>Idealists
  20. 20. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal Noumenal Will </li></ul><ul><li>The Whole Noumenal Realm has the character of Will </li></ul><ul><li>Noumenal Will – Impersonal, energy/force behind the Phenomenal world </li></ul><ul><li>Reality has no purpose, intelligence or goal. </li></ul>Idealists Noumenal Reality = Will Phenomenal Reality
  21. 21. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal Noumenal Will </li></ul><ul><li>The Whole Noumenal Realm has the character of Will </li></ul><ul><li>Noumenal Will – Impersonal, energy/force behind the Phenomenal world </li></ul><ul><li>Reality has no purpose, intelligence or goal. </li></ul>Idealists Noumenal Reality = Will Phenomenal Reality
  22. 22. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Since noumenal reality is essential ONE, then there is no real distinction between individual people </li></ul><ul><li>People only “appear” as individuals in the phenomenal realm </li></ul><ul><li>Humanity's ONENESS creates compassion between humans </li></ul><ul><li>Human compassion (based on essential oneness) is the foundation of all Ethics </li></ul>Idealists
  23. 23. <ul><li>Authur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Since noumenal reality is essential ONE, then there is no real distinction between individual people </li></ul><ul><li>People only “appear” as individuals in the phenomenal realm </li></ul><ul><li>Humanity's ONENESS creates compassion between humans </li></ul><ul><li>Human compassion (based on essential oneness) is the foundation of all Ethics </li></ul>Idealists
  24. 24. <ul><li>Fredrich Shelling (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is total reality perpetually evolving (constantly changing) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is One (unity) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is a constant on-going process </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have emerged from within the process of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Man does not exist outside of nature but is part of nature </li></ul>Idealists
  25. 25. <ul><li>Fredrich Shelling (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is total reality perpetually evolving (constantly changing) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is One (unity) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is a constant on-going process </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have emerged from within the process of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Man does not exist outside of nature but is part of nature </li></ul>Idealists
  26. 26. <ul><li>Fredrich Shelling (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are the most advanced aspect of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are the only aspect of nature that is self-aware </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are matter spiritualized </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are nature that has become self-aware </li></ul>Idealists
  27. 27. <ul><li>Fredrich Shelling (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are the most advanced aspect of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are the only aspect of nature that is self-aware </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are matter spiritualized </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are nature that has become self-aware </li></ul>Idealists
  28. 28. <ul><li>Fredrich Shelling (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is in the continual process of creation </li></ul><ul><li>Humans reflect this aspect of nature through creative arts </li></ul><ul><li>The creative artists are the highest form of existence </li></ul>Idealists
  29. 29. <ul><li>Fredrich Shelling (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is in the continual process of creation </li></ul><ul><li>Humans reflect this aspect of nature through creative arts </li></ul><ul><li>The creative artists are the highest form of existence </li></ul>Idealists
  30. 30. <ul><li>Fredrich Shelling (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate Question </li></ul><ul><li>Why does anything exist at all? </li></ul><ul><li>Why not nothing? </li></ul>Idealists
  31. 31. <ul><li>Fredrich Shelling (1775-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate Question </li></ul><ul><li>Why does anything exist at all? </li></ul><ul><li>Why not nothing? </li></ul>Idealists
  32. 32. <ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is an organic unity </li></ul><ul><li>Reality is in an ongoing process of development </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal of reality is self-awareness and self-understanding </li></ul>Idealists
  33. 33. <ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is an organic unity </li></ul><ul><li>Reality is in an ongoing process of development </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal of reality is self-awareness and self-understanding </li></ul>Idealists
  34. 34. <ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Geist : </li></ul><ul><li>Mental/spiritual aspect of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Non-material </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate essence of being </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Idealism </li></ul>Idealists
  35. 35. <ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Geist : </li></ul><ul><li>Mental/spiritual aspect of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Non-material </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate essence of being </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Idealism </li></ul>Idealists
  36. 36. <ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Hegel's Dialectic : </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis – Current state of things </li></ul><ul><li>Antithesis – Conflicting forces </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis – Resolution of the Thesis and Antithesis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis become the new thesis </li></ul>Idealists
  37. 37. <ul><li>Georg W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Hegel's Dialectic : </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis – Current state of things </li></ul><ul><li>Antithesis – Conflicting forces </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis – Resolution of the Thesis and Antithesis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis become the new thesis </li></ul>Idealists
  38. 38. <ul><li>Political Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the idea of minimal and gradual change in society </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate Goal = Stability and Continuity in society </li></ul>Conservatism
  39. 39. <ul><li>Edmund Burke (1729-1797) </li></ul><ul><li>Supported Limiting the power of the monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple political parties within a government prevent any one party from abusing power </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed excessive taxation (especially in the American colonies) </li></ul>Conservatism
  40. 40. <ul><li>Edmund Burke (1729-1797) </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed modern forms of Democracy (open and free elections) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government needs an educated class of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common people had dangerous passions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy could remove protection from some minorities </li></ul></ul>Conservatism
  41. 41. <ul><li>Edmund Burke (1729-1797) </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed modern forms of Democracy (open and free elections) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government needs an educated class of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common people had dangerous passions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy could remove protection from some minorities </li></ul></ul>Conservatism
  42. 42. <ul><li>Political Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes the importance of Government protecting Liberty and providing Equal Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Free and Fair Elections </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutionalism – Government authority is based on and limited by a body of fundamental laws </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal Democracy - Multiple Political Parties </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism – Privately owned means of production which generate profit for the owners </li></ul>Liberalism
  43. 43. <ul><li>Thomas Paine (1737-1809) </li></ul><ul><li>Invented the term “United States of America” </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired the American and French Revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to leave England when he attempted to inspire a revolution there </li></ul><ul><li>Influential in the formation of the American Constitution </li></ul>Liberalism
  44. 44. <ul><li>Thomas Paine (1737-1809) </li></ul><ul><li>One of the first writers to call for the abolishment of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Based on his philosophy that all men are born equal and that class distinctions are immoral </li></ul>Liberalism
  45. 45. <ul><li>Thomas Paine (1737-1809) The Rights of Man </li></ul><ul><li>All men are created equal and are born with equal rights (liberties) </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary to establish a State and a constitution which encodes individual rights in law </li></ul><ul><li>The responsibility of the government is to enforce and protect the rights of individuals </li></ul>Liberalism
  46. 46. <ul><li>Thomas Paine (1737-1809) The Rights of Man </li></ul><ul><li>The only moral form of government is a democratic one which allows everyone to freely choose government leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed the monarchies of France and England as immoral forms of government because they deny the right to freely elect government officials </li></ul>Liberalism
  47. 47. <ul><li>Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) Utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize Pleasure & Minimize Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Foundational Principle of Law, Ethics and Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment should be harsh enough to deter crime but not too harsh to cause useless suffering </li></ul>Liberalism
  48. 48. <ul><li>Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) Utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Trolley Car Illustration </li></ul>Liberalism
  49. 49. <ul><li>John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) Utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Follower of Bentham </li></ul><ul><li>Actions are right in proportion as they promote happiness, wrong as they produce the reverse </li></ul><ul><li>Individual should be free to do whatever they want as long as it doesn't cause harm to anyone else </li></ul>Liberalism
  50. 50. <ul><li>John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) Utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Bentham saw all pleasures and pains as equal – Mill felt that there are degrees of pleasure and pain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The death of a relative is a greater pain than the death of a pet </li></ul></ul>Liberalism
  51. 51. <ul><li>John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) The Subjection of Women </li></ul><ul><li>As a Member of the British Parliament he proposed that women should also be given the right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>First philosopher to advocate equal right for women not just for men </li></ul>Liberalism
  52. 52. <ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) Feminist Thomas Paine </li></ul><ul><li>Vindication of the Rights of Man </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed with Paine that all men are born equal </li></ul><ul><li>British people have the Right to remove a bad king </li></ul><ul><li>Injustice and mistreatment of the poor is immoral </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery is immoral </li></ul>Liberalism
  53. 53. <ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) Feminist Thomas Paine </li></ul><ul><li>Vindication of the Rights of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that Men and Women are also born equal </li></ul><ul><li>The greatest crime of her day was the lack of education for women </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated that women must given the right to vote as a basic right </li></ul>Liberalism

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