Western Civilization Lecture 3


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Western Civilization Lecture 3

  1. 1. Western Civilization IS-VNU Mr. Mike Beard Session 3 Foundations of Western Civilization – Part 3
  2. 2. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Rise of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Conquests </li></ul><ul><li>The Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Renaissance </li></ul>
  3. 3. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Rise of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad (c. 570–632) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to be the last messenger of God, through which the Qur'an was revealed. </li></ul><ul><li>629 AD – Conquered Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>United the Tribes of Arabia into a Single Religious Polity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Rise of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Judaism, Christianity and Arabian Paganism </li></ul><ul><li>Believers of Islam are called Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>5 Pillars of Islam - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Creed – “There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is His Prophet” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer 5 times/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting During Ramadan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alms-giving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Caliphate and Civil War (632–750) </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad Died in 632 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr becomes 1 st Caliph </li></ul><ul><li>Islam Spits into Sunni and Shi'a branches because of disputed leadership </li></ul><ul><li>The Umayyad Caliphate Expands Islam West and East </li></ul>
  6. 6. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Golden Age of Islam (750 – 1258 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Philosopherss such as Ibn Rushd preserve and revive Ancient Greek philosophy, especially Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Scholars made major advances in Science, Medicine and Mathematics (i.e. Algebra) </li></ul><ul><li>Islam Golden Age had a direct impact on Western Renaissance </li></ul>Ibn Rushd
  7. 7. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Golden Age of Islam (750 – 1258 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  8. 8. Western Civilization <ul><li>Expansion of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>638 AD - Jerusalem Captured by Islamic Caliphate </li></ul><ul><li>By 661 AD Islam controls most of the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>By 750 AD Islam expanded into North Africa and controlled parts of Europe (especially Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>1453 AD - Mehmed II leads the Ottomans in conquest of Constantinople </li></ul>
  9. 9. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of the expansion of Islam during its Golden Age, much of the “Holy Land” had been captured by Islamic forces including Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam was beginning to spread into Europe and had taken over much of the Eastern Christian territories. </li></ul><ul><li>A series of 9 Crusades were launched over a 200 year period to reclaim the Holy Lands. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine emperor Alexios I appeals to Pope Urban II to help him resist Muslim advances into territory of the Byzantine Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1095 AD – Pope Urban II preached a sermon at the Council of Clermont offering the remission of sins for fighting to defend the Byzantines </li></ul>
  11. 11. Western Civilization <ul><li>Early Christian Teaching about Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse...Do not repay anyone evil for evil. Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody. If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone. Do not take revenge, my friends, but leave room for God’s wrath, for it is written: “It is mine to avenge; I will repay,” says the Lord. On the contrary: “If your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink. (Romans 12:14–20) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Western Civilization <ul><li>Early Christian Teaching about Violence </li></ul><ul><li>“ Blessed are the peacemakers” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I urge that prayers be made for all people, for kings and all who are in high positions, that we may lead a peaceful and quiet life, godly and dignified in every way.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Western Civilization <ul><li>The 1 st Crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Return lands conquered by Muslims to Byzantine Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1097 AD – Crusader invaded Antioch and massacred most of the Muslim inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>Ma'arrat al-Numan (a town near Antioch) was captured and the Crusaders ate the bodies of Muslims they killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Radulph of Caen, an eyewitness to events at Ma'arra in 1098, wrote, &quot;In Ma'arra our troops boiled pagan adults in cooking-pots; they impaled children on spits and devoured them grilled.&quot; </li></ul>
  14. 14. Western Civilization <ul><li>The 1 st Crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims controlled Jerusalem for 400 years </li></ul><ul><li>Jews, Christians and Muslims lived together in Jerusalem in peace </li></ul><ul><li>1099 AD – Crusaders enter Jerusalem and massacre Jews and Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>300 Jews burned alive in a Synagogue </li></ul><ul><li>Crusaders killed 30,000 Jews and Muslims </li></ul>
  15. 15. Western Civilization <ul><li>Kingdom of Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Kingdom established in Jerusalem after the 1 st Crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted for about 200 years </li></ul><ul><li>1100 AD Baldwin of Boulogne became king of the Latins of Jerusalem </li></ul>
  16. 16. Western Civilization <ul><li>The 3 rd Crusade </li></ul><ul><li>1187 AD – Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, conquered Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Saladin spared the civilians and for the most part left churches and shrines untouched </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Gregory VIII called for a crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Richard the Lionhearted ordered the execution of Muslim prisoners captured during the crusade. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard failed in his attempt to recapture Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard negotiated a treaty to all Christian to visit Jerusalem for pilgrimage </li></ul>
  17. 17. Western Civilization <ul><li>The 4 th Crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Western Crusaders sack Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>This attack was Western Christians against Eastern Christians </li></ul><ul><li>1209 AD – Crusaders in Europe began a 20 year military campaign against heretics in France </li></ul><ul><li>Though Jerusalem remained the ultimate goals many several crusades were aimed at non-Catholic Christians </li></ul>
  18. 18. Western Civilization <ul><li>Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Video (1:19:50) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Crusaders returned to Europe with art, literature, and knowledge developed by Islam and the ancient Greeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam preserved and further developed what the Greeks and Romans produced. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Inquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Near the end of the Crusades the Catholic began to devote attention to heretics </li></ul><ul><li>Those accused of heresy stood trial before the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>The Inquisition was a Church court system under the authority of the Pope. </li></ul><ul><li>Those found guilty were often tortured until they repented or killed </li></ul>
  21. 21. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Inquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>1233 Gregory IX introduced the tribunal to the south of France on a systematic basis. </li></ul><ul><li>5,000 heretics were burned alive </li></ul>
  22. 22. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Inquisition of Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo believed the sun was at the center of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church taught the opposite </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo was put on trail for heresy and found guilty </li></ul><ul><li>Under threat of torture he “repented” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Western Civilization <ul><li>Impact of the Crusades and Inquisitions on Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Very little development in philosophy or the arts for fear of offending the Church authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Salvation was no longer a simple matter of faith in Christ. Salvation was now something mediated by the Roman Catholic Church. </li></ul><ul><li>The Church offered salvation to those who fought in the Crusades. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Western Civilization <ul><li>Impact of the Crusades and Inquisitions on Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences - the full or partial remission of temporal punishment due for sins which have already been forgiven </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest record of a plenary indulgence was Pope Urban II's declaration at the Council of Clermont (1095) that he remitted all penance incurred by crusaders </li></ul>
  25. 25. Western Civilization <ul><li>Impact of the Crusades and Inquisitions on Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences were soon sold by the Church not just offered in exchange for fighting the Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences became a way for Catholic rulers to fund expensive projects, such as Crusades and cathedrals </li></ul>
  26. 26. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Black Death </li></ul><ul><li>1347–51 Disease entered Europe through ships arriving from the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Within 4 years 1/3 of the population of Europe died from disease </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent epidemics occurred regularly in every decade until the beginning of the eighteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  27. 27. Western Civilization <ul><li>Medieval Music </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Flute </li></ul><ul><li>Recorder </li></ul><ul><li>Lute </li></ul><ul><li>Pipe Organ </li></ul><ul><li>Harp </li></ul><ul><li>Lyre </li></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul>
  28. 28. Western Civilization <ul><li>Medieval Music </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><li>Gregorian Chant </li></ul><ul><li>Directed to heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Monophonic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melody without a harmony </li></ul></ul></ul>