Western Civilization - Lecture 01


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Ancient Near East
Ancient Israel
The Greeks and Romans

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Western Civilization - Lecture 01

  1. 1. Introduction to Western Civilization <ul><li>IS-VNU </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Mike Beard </li></ul><ul><li>Session 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations of Western Civilization – Part 1 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction to Western Civilization <ul><li>Foundations of Western Civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ancient Near East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient Israel and Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Greeks and Romans </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Ancient Near East
  4. 4. The Ancient Near East The Fertile Crescent
  5. 5. The Ancient Near East Mesopotamia <ul><li>Greek meaning: “The Land Between 2 Rivers” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Located in Modern-day Iraq and Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Early Mesopotamian Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Akkad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assyria </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Ancient Near East The Mediterranean Sea <ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of ideas, art and culture </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Ancient Near East Göbekli Tepe <ul><li>Discovered in 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest known man-made structure </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Temple </li></ul><ul><li>Changes current theories about civilization </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Ancient Near East Göbekli Tepe <ul><li>During the time of hunter-gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>Previous view: settlements then religion </li></ul><ul><li>New view: religion then settlements </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Ancient Near East Sumerian Writing <ul><li>Cuneiform: 1st Western Writing System </li></ul><ul><li>About 3300 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Written on clay tablets using a reed stylus </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Ancient Near East Babylonian Written Law <ul><li>Hammurabi - 6 th King of Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>First Written Code of Law </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Ancient Near East Mesopotamian Architecture <ul><li>Ziggurat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient Temple complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built by Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites, Akkadians, and Assyrians </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Ancient Near East Mesopotamian Art <ul><li>Carved Stone </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Ancient Near East Literature & Mythology <ul><li>Creation Myths </li></ul><ul><li>Enûma Eliš </li></ul><ul><li>> Creation was the result of a battle between Marduk and Tiamat </li></ul><ul><li>> Humans created to serve the gods </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Ancient Near East Literature & Mythology <ul><li>The Epic of Gilgamesh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of a king who tried to find immortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood account </li></ul></ul>Epic of Gilgamesh - Tablet 11
  15. 15. The Ancient Near East Sumerian Writing and Stories Video
  16. 16. Ancient Israel and Judaism <ul><li>Patriarch of Israel is Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham promised to become a Great Nation </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham's son Isaac receives this promise as well </li></ul>Abraham and the Angels, Rembrandt 1630
  17. 17. Ancient Israel and Judaism <ul><li>Isaac has a son – Jacob </li></ul><ul><li>Jacob's name is changed to Israel after he wrestles with God </li></ul><ul><li>Jacob's 12 sons form the 12 Tribes of Israel </li></ul>Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, Eugène Delacroix (1861)
  18. 18. Ancient Israel and Judaism <ul><li>Israel spends 400 years in Egypt as Slaves </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ancient Israel and Judaism <ul><li>Moses called to free Israel from Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>After 10 Plagues Pharaoh releases Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Israel crosses the Red Sea and wanders for 40 years </li></ul>Moses And The Burning Bush Byzantine Mosaic Catherine's Monastery
  20. 20. Ancient Israel and Judaism <ul><li>Under Joshua's leadership, Israel conquers Canaan </li></ul><ul><li>After Joshua, Israel is ruled by Judges </li></ul><ul><li>Saul becomes the 1 st king of Israel </li></ul><ul><li>David become king </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon builds the Temple in Jerusalem </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ancient Israel and Judaism Literature – The Torah <ul><li>Moses Traditionally ascribed to be the Author </li></ul><ul><li>First 5 Books of the Jewish Bible / Christian Old Testament </li></ul><ul><li>Genres include: Narrative History, Law, Poetry </li></ul>Moses , Michelangelo, 1513-1515
  22. 22. Ancient Israel and Judaism The Torah – Creation Video of Genesis 1
  23. 23. Ancient Israel and Judaism The Torah – The Exodus Video of Exodus Story
  24. 24. Ancient Greece <ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Stone Columns </li></ul>Doric Ionic Corinthian The Parthenon in Athens
  25. 25. Ancient Greece Art: Statues <ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Mythological subjects </li></ul>Laocoon and His Sons
  26. 26. Ancient Greece Art: Statues <ul><li>Religious </li></ul><ul><li>Statues of the gods used in temples </li></ul>Zeus or Poseidon
  27. 27. Ancient Greece Art: Statues <ul><li>Statues to celebrate important events like the Olympics </li></ul>Discus Thrower
  28. 28. Ancient Greece Art: Statues <ul><li>Statues to honor important people </li></ul>Homer Socrates
  29. 29. Ancient Greece Literature: Homer Epic Poem Set in the Trojan War Tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. The Iliad
  30. 30. Ancient Greece Literature: Homer Epic poem Greek hero Odysseus' long journey home following the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. The Odyssey
  31. 31. Ancient Greece Drama <ul><li>Drama or the Theatre grew out of ritual practices celebrating the god Dionysos </li></ul><ul><li>Athens is believed to be the birthplace of the theatre </li></ul><ul><li>600 BC, formal lyrics for the dithyramb were written. </li></ul><ul><li>Thespis of Attica added an actor who interacted with the chorus </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ancient Greece Drama: Tragedy <ul><li>Not just a sad ending </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to teach a moral lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Oedipus Rex by Sophocles </li></ul>
  33. 33. Ancient Greece Drama: Comedy <ul><li>Characters are exaggerated stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Laughable people - some kind of blunder or ugliness which does not cause pain or disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Aristophanes </li></ul>
  34. 34. Ancient Greece Philosophy
  35. 35. Ancient Greece Philosophy The Great Western Philosophers: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle Socrates Aristotle Plato
  36. 36. Ancient Greece Philosophy Socrates <ul><li>The Socratic Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching through a series of questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sentenced to death for Atheism and corrupting the youth of Athens </li></ul>The Death of Socrates , Jaques-Louis David (1787)
  37. 37. Ancient Greece Philosophy Plato <ul><li>Student of Socrates </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophical Dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>Founded The Academy in Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that Reality exists in the realm of Ideas or Forms </li></ul>
  38. 38. Ancient Greece Philosophy Plato's Cave
  39. 39. Ancient Greece Philosophy Aristotle <ul><li>Student of Plato </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Ethics – Better to do good than know good </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected Plato's theory of forms </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the 1 st formalized system of logic </li></ul>
  40. 40. Ancient Greece Politics Alexander the Great <ul><li>Student of Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented Aristotle's Political Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered Persian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>After removing Persians from power in Egypt, he order the city of Alexandria to be built in Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread Greek culture around ANE </li></ul>
  41. 41. The Romans <ul><li>The Legend of Romulus and Remus </li></ul>Video
  42. 42. The Romans Architecture
  43. 43. The Romans Architecture
  44. 44. The Romans Architecture
  45. 45. The Romans Architecture: Apartments
  46. 46. The Romans Architecture
  47. 47. The Romans Architecture
  48. 48. The Romans Architecture
  49. 49. The Romans Architecture
  50. 50. The Romans Architecture
  51. 51. The Romans Architecture
  52. 52. The Romans Architecture
  53. 53. The Romans Engineering: Arches and Aqueducts
  54. 54. The Romans Engineering: Concrete and Paved Roads
  55. 55. The Romans Representative Government