Western Civilization Lecture 10


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Western Civilization Lecture 10

  1. 1. Western Civilization Mr. Mike Lecture 10
  2. 2. Western Civilization <ul><li>Charles Darwin & Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Art: Impressionism & Post-Impressionism </li></ul>
  3. 3. Western Civilization <ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>English Naturalist </li></ul><ul><li>Natural explanation of the origins and decent of biological species </li></ul><ul><li>5-year Voyage on HMS Beagle studying/collecting species specimens </li></ul>
  4. 4. Western Civilization <ul><li>Darwin's Theory </li></ul><ul><li>All species of life have descended over time from common ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Transmutation of species – The Process by which one species changes into another species </li></ul>
  5. 5. Western Civilization <ul><li>Darwin's Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Survival of the Fittest : Organisms with traits which are better adapted for immediate, local environment survive to pass the trait on. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Western Civilization <ul><li>Darwin's Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Female choice of suitable males which impacts what traits get passed on to offspring from the male. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Western Civilization <ul><li>Darwin's Theory </li></ul><ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in God as the ultimate natural law giver. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God. – I think that generally ... an agnostic would be the most correct description of my state of mind.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Western Civilization <ul><li>The Enlightenment & Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment concept of “progress” </li></ul><ul><li>Speculated that societies progressed through stages of increasing development – Western logic and science as seen as evidence of more developed cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Societies begin as primitive then progress toward industrialized Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin's theory was seen as “scientific evidence” of progress </li></ul>
  9. 9. Western Civilization <ul><li>Implications of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Wider Gap between Religion and Science </li></ul><ul><li>Origins of man and other species now had a theory that did not need religion </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in Scientific Atheism </li></ul>
  10. 10. Western Civilization <ul><li>Implications of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert Spencer drew parallels between his own economic theories and Darwin's biological ones </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a model that applied the law of the survival of the fittest to society </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarian impulses had to be resisted as nothing should be allowed to interfere with nature's laws. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Western Civilization <ul><li>Implications of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism & Eugenics </li></ul><ul><li>Advocates practices to improve the human gene pool. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in Western countries to support racist immigration laws and laws against inter-racial marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>In severe cases used to advocate genocide. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated the killing of old people because they are no longer productive </li></ul>
  12. 12. Western Civilization <ul><li>Implications of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism & Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire – French: means “let do,” but it broadly implies “let it be,” or “leave it alone.” </li></ul><ul><li>Argued against regulations of any industries </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinists supported Laissez-faire politics as a form of economic “natural selection” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Western Civilization <ul><li>Implications of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism & Racism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic races were categorized into higher and lower </li></ul><ul><li>Led to ideas of racial supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a justification for slavery </li></ul>
  14. 14. Western Civilization <ul><li>Social Implications of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism & Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism - an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinists supported imperialism as an example of cultural evolution </li></ul>
  15. 15. Western Civilization <ul><li>Social Implications of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism & Politics Fascism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purge forces, ideas, and systems deemed to be the cause of decadence and degeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote violence and war as actions that create national regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict as a fact of life that is responsible for all human progress. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Western Civilization <ul><li>Social Implications of Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism & Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Nazism – A form of fascism that incorporated biological racism and antisemitism (against Jews) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in the supremacy of an Aryan Master Race (Germans) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>A period of history from the late 15th to the 20th century when European nation states established colonies on other continents </li></ul>
  18. 18. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained an imperialist ideology </li></ul><ul><li>World is divided between civilized and uncivilized </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Imperialists believed themselves to be agents of civilization </li></ul>
  19. 19. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>The White Man's Burden </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that white people have an obligation to rule over, and encourage the “cultural development” of people from other ethnic backgrounds until they fully adopt Western “civilized” culture </li></ul>
  20. 20. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>The White Man's Burden </li></ul><ul><li>By Rudyard Kipling 1899 </li></ul><ul><li>Take up the White Man's burden-- </li></ul><ul><li>Send forth the best ye breed-- </li></ul><ul><li>Go bind your sons to exile </li></ul><ul><li>To serve your captives' need; </li></ul><ul><li>To wait in heavy harness, </li></ul><ul><li>On fluttered folk and wild-- </li></ul><ul><li>Your new-caught, sullen peoples, </li></ul><ul><li>Half-devil and half-child. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Began in the Age of Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal and Spain discovered new lands and set up trading posts </li></ul><ul><li>Trading posts became colonies under Portuguese and Spanish rule </li></ul>
  22. 22. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Settlements established by Royal trading companies </li></ul><ul><li>1607 First Permanent Settlement in the Americas by the Virginia Company – Names Jamestown after King James I </li></ul>
  23. 23. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1670 - King Charles II granted the Hudson's Bay Company a monopoly on the fur trade in a vast stretch of territory that would later make up a large proportion of Canada. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1672 - the Royal African Company established a supply of slaves to British colonies of the Caribbean </li></ul>
  25. 25. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The Slave Trade became an important part of the colonial economic system in the British Empire, especially in the American colonies </li></ul><ul><li>3.5 million African slaves were brought to the Americas </li></ul>
  26. 26. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1639 – British East India Company established a trading fort in Madras, India. </li></ul><ul><li>Trading started with spices then eventually turned to textiles after a long dispute and war with the Netherlands. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1757 – At the Battle of Plassey the British defeated the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies </li></ul><ul><li>British controlled Bengal and as the major military and political power in India. </li></ul><ul><li>It gradually increased control by force through the British Indian Army across India. </li></ul><ul><li>British India eventually grew into the Empire's most valuable possession, &quot;the Jewel in the Crown&quot; </li></ul>
  28. 28. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The East India Company helped to expand the British Empire in Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Company's army had first joined forces with the Royal Navy </li></ul><ul><li>Together they took control of Egypt (1799), Java (1811), Singapore (1819) and Burma (1826). </li></ul>
  29. 29. Western Civilization <ul><li>“ The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire” </li></ul>
  30. 30. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of British Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>English as a Global Language – About 1.8 Billion people speak English today </li></ul><ul><li>The USA </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution Spread through the British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Africa ravaged by Slave trade – Many believe that the poverty in Africa today is a result of the Slave Trade </li></ul>
  31. 31. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>French Colonial Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Second Largest Colonial Empire behind the British </li></ul><ul><li>1605 – Founded of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America (now Nova Scotia, Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>1608 – Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec which became the capital of the enormous fur-trading colony of New France </li></ul>
  32. 32. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>French Colonial Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1664 – the colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola. In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>French Colonial Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1624 – Establish trading posts along the coast of West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>1664 – French East India Company was established to compete for trade in the east </li></ul><ul><li>1887 – Formed French Indochina which included: Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies and Trade Posts were established across North and West Africa </li></ul>
  34. 34. Western Civilization
  35. 35. Western Civilization <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Spread “Civilization” </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme National Identities </li></ul><ul><li>Competition between Trading Companies and European powers </li></ul><ul><li>Religious motivation to “Christianize” the world </li></ul>
  36. 36. Western Civilization The Colonial World in 1914
  37. 37. Western Civilization <ul><li>Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>visible brush strokes </li></ul><ul><li>open composition </li></ul><ul><li>common, ordinary subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>perception and experience not reality </li></ul><ul><li>unusual visual angles </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of light </li></ul>
  38. 38. Western Civilization <ul><li>Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul><ul><li>The term Impressionism is derived from the title of his painting Impression, Sunrise </li></ul><ul><li>Painted his “impressions” of subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Several Paintings of his wife Camille </li></ul>
  39. 39. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>Impression, Sunrise 1872
  40. 40. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>On the Bank of the Seine, Bennecourt (1868)
  41. 41. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>Lunch on the Grass (1865)
  42. 42. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>Woman with a Parasol (1875)
  43. 43. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>Vétheuil in the Fog, 1879
  44. 44. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>Camille Monet on her deathbed, 1879
  45. 45. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>Charing Cross Bridge, 1899
  46. 46. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>Rouen Cathedral, Façade (sunset), 1892–1894
  47. 47. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>Bridge over a Pond of Water Lilies, 1899
  48. 48. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>Poplars on the Epte, 1900
  49. 49. Western Civilization <ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul>The Rose-Way in Giverny, 1920–1922
  50. 50. Western Civilization <ul><li>Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul><ul><li>depiction of human isolation </li></ul>
  51. 51. Western Civilization <ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul>A Cotton Office in New Orleans, 1873
  52. 52. Western Civilization <ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul>L'Absinthe, 1876
  53. 53. Western Civilization <ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul>The Amateur, 1866
  54. 54. Western Civilization <ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul>Édouard Manet and Mme. Manet, 1868–1869
  55. 55. Western Civilization <ul><li>Post-Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Thick application of paint </li></ul><ul><li>Vivid Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Unnatural Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Distorted forms for Expressive Effects </li></ul>
  56. 56. Western Civilization <ul><li>Post-Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Cézanne </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional Painter </li></ul><ul><li>New Directions in the use of Color, Design, Composition, and Tone </li></ul><ul><li>Combined realism and abstration </li></ul>
  57. 57. Western Civilization <ul><li>Paul Cézanne </li></ul>The Bathers 1898–1905
  58. 58. Western Civilization <ul><li>Paul Cézanne </li></ul>Jas de Bouffan, 1885–1887
  59. 59. Western Civilization <ul><li>Paul Cézanne </li></ul>Pyramid of Skulls 1901
  60. 60. Western Civilization <ul><li>Post-Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Gauguin </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolist – Subject and items in painting were often metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in “Primitive” Cultures </li></ul>
  61. 61. Western Civilization <ul><li>Paul Gauguin </li></ul>Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?
  62. 62. Western Civilization <ul><li>Paul Gauguin </li></ul>Te aa no areois (The Seed of the Areoi), 1892
  63. 63. Western Civilization <ul><li>Paul Gauguin </li></ul>Spirit of the Dead Watching 1892
  64. 64. Western Civilization <ul><li>Paul Gauguin </li></ul>Vision After the Sermon (Jacob wrestling with the angel), (1888)
  65. 65. Western Civilization <ul><li>Paul Gauguin </li></ul>Self-portrait, 1889
  66. 66. Western Civilization <ul><li>Post-Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Vincent van Gogh </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Painter </li></ul><ul><li>Very thick application of paint </li></ul><ul><li>Vivid Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of Light </li></ul>
  67. 67. Western Civilization <ul><li>Vincent van Gogh </li></ul>The Potato Eaters, 1885
  68. 68. Western Civilization <ul><li>Vincent van Gogh </li></ul>Bedroom in Arles, 1888
  69. 69. Western Civilization <ul><li>Vincent van Gogh </li></ul>The Night Café, 1888
  70. 70. Western Civilization <ul><li>Vincent van Gogh </li></ul>The Starry Night, June 1889
  71. 71. Western Civilization <ul><li>Vincent van Gogh </li></ul>The Church at Auvers, 1890
  72. 72. Western Civilization <ul><li>Vincent van Gogh </li></ul>Irises, 1889