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Modes of communication. The components of oral discourse.

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Modes of communication. The components of oral discourse.

  1. 1. Subject: Modes of communication. The components of oral discourse. Compulsory cross-disciplinary core courses ACTIVITY 3 > Block 1
  2. 2. Professor: Javier Narciso Romero University Professor
  3. 3. Contents 1. Modes of communication 2. The components of oral discourse
  4. 4. 1. Modes of communication
  5. 5. There are three modes of communication: 1. Modes of communication Narrative mode Descriptive mode Expository mode
  6. 6. 1. Narrative mode: this is used to establish a connection with the recipient, and consists of affective communication. Characteristics and freedoms of the narrative mode: it is of a particular and subjective nature. The speaker may narrate something personally experienced or witnessed, or events heard from other sources. Sequence: the narrative mode may start at the beginning, middle or end. 1. Modes of communication
  7. 7. 2. Descriptive mode: this is used to transmit images to the recipient. It can be used in analytical or literary texts. 2.1 Literary description: this is imprecise, and is constructed on the basis of literary themes. 2.2 Technical description: this is ordered and reliable. It should be objective, accurate, impartial and ordered. 2.3 Types of description: 2.3.1 Static description: this is unchanging, its characteristics do not vary: a place, a thing or a person. 2.3.2 Dynamic description: this is variable. It is usually based on verbs of action. 1. Modes of communication
  8. 8. 3. Expository mode: this is used to convey a message that the recipient is intended to reflect upon and analyse. 3.1 Characteristics: clarity, conciseness, precision, objectivity, accuracy, correct use of language. 1. Modes of communication
  9. 9. 1. The components of oral discourse
  10. 10. Oratory: Oratory refers to the art of speaking eloquently. Greece A compulsory subject of study for citizens. Speaking at the Agora. The present day. Oratory is compulsory at many prestigious universities (Harvard, etc.). 2. The components of oral discourse
  11. 11. Oratory Poor communication has a negative effect on the interlocutor and precludes achievement of the desired objectives. Hence the importance of mastering oratory, in order to communicate properly, convince others and project a positive image.
  12. 12. Who listens to my message and why? Capture the audience's interest and attention to engage them in the subject.  Understand your audience  Correct use of language  Number of attendees  Proximity  Feedback
  13. 13. The structure of a speech A speech can be divided into three sections of equal importance but lasting different amounts of time  Introduction (1/10)  Body (8/10)  Conclusion (1/10)
  14. 14. Oral discourse The ability to deliver a good speech depends on control of the following aspects:  Speed ​​and articulation  Rhythms and silences  Volume  Fillers
  15. 15. Fear of speaking in public In our professional lives we have to speak in public, deliver speeches, attend meetings, and manage relationships with other professionals and subordinates. Fear is a perception that triggers an emotion that generates a reaction. Fear is necessary, it keeps us in touch with reality and allows us to survive in adverse situations. Fear vs respect
  16. 16. Fear of speaking in public  Giving a speech  Asking questions at a conference  Expressing an opinion in a discussion Being afraid of speaking in public is normal.
  17. 17. Fear of speaking in public:  Fear of appearing at a disadvantage (I'll say something stupid).  Negative assessment of the situation (speaking in public is horrible).  Negative assessment of oneself (I'll never be able to do this).  Negative assessment of one's performance (I'm doing this really badly). The public is not our enemy; they are people who think that that the speaker will contribute something. Positive attitude
  18. 18. Body language The main component of communication is not spoken language (7%) but tone of voice (38%) and body language (55%).
  19. 19. Body language - correct stance or posture  A correct stance is one where the body is centred and upright, where the body axis coincides with the mass axis.  Never fidget, move from side to side, stand on tiptoe or on one leg.  The speaker must stand upright, with his or her head facing forward and chest facing the public.
  20. 20. Body language - where to look Where the speaker looks is crucial because it determines his or her connection with the audience. The speaker's gaze must be frank and direct. It should be directed at the entire audience. • Encompassing • Selective
  21. 21. Body language - facial expression The face expresses emotions and personality. The recipient should perceive sincerity, humour and accessibility. Smiling (never forced) is very important.
  22. 22. Body language - gesture This usually refers to hand movements. Professional use has been extensively studied (beyond the scope of this course). Some tips:  Avoid sudden movements  Do not distract with hands  Never put your hands in your pockets  Avoid excessive gesticulation (a failing of the Mediterranean world).
  23. 23. Voice. The voice requires care (voice problems in teachers). • Breathing • Articulation • Volume (intensity) • Projection and clarity One of the best resources is correct intonation, never flat!
  24. 24. The components of oral discourse
  25. 25. Javier Narciso Romero narciso@ua.es University Professor Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

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