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  1. 1. COMMUNICATION SKILLS Dr.R.PRAKASH Kerala Agricultural University
  4. 4. <ul><li>WITH OUR GLOBAL COVERAGE NEWS KNOWS NO BOUNDARIES </li></ul><ul><li>BBC WORLD </li></ul><ul><li>GROWTH IS LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>RELIANCE </li></ul><ul><li>EXPRESS YOURSELVES </li></ul><ul><li>AIRTEL </li></ul><ul><li>ALL THE NEWS THAT IS FIT TO PRINT </li></ul><ul><li>THE NEWYORK TIMES </li></ul><ul><li>BECAUSE YOU DESERVE TO KNOW </li></ul><ul><li>THE HINDU </li></ul><ul><li>THE WORLD IS CLOSER THAN YOU THINK </li></ul><ul><li>THE BRITISH AIRWAYS </li></ul><ul><li>PROFIT FROM IT </li></ul><ul><li>C.N.B.C TV </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cook food and serve love </li></ul><ul><li>Bharath gas </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready </li></ul><ul><li>Scouts and guides </li></ul><ul><li>The complete man </li></ul><ul><li>Raymonds </li></ul><ul><li>A million strong organisation and not one a stranger </li></ul><ul><li>Indian army </li></ul><ul><li>Live your dream </li></ul><ul><li>Samsung </li></ul>
  6. 6. Communication Defined: “ Communication is any form of human expression – written, verbal, or even body language.” (Davis,1994) “ Communication is the transference and understanding of meaning.” (Robbins, 1980) “ A process by which messages of meaning are shared by senders and receivers. Communication takes place at multiple levels: interpersonally, in groups and via mass media .” (text p. 213)
  7. 7. The Communication Process <ul><li>Communications: managing the customer relationship over time </li></ul><ul><li>Notes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications flow in both directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fields of experience need to overlap to ensure that meanings attached to the symbols used to communicate are similar </li></ul></ul>Figure 15.2 <ul><ul><li>Senders need to know and understand who they want to reach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need feedback channels to be able to assess effectiveness of the message sent </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. “ The first step in good communication is to stop assuming that the other person understands what you are saying, because you understand.” Bryson, 1991
  9. 9. Points to remember about communication <ul><li>Some of the most effective communication efforts are also the simplest </li></ul><ul><li>Body language is a powerful form of communication </li></ul><ul><li>The absence of communication can be a form of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Know your audience before you communicate a message </li></ul>
  10. 10. Points to remember about communication (continued) <ul><li>People tend to accept facts, information and opinions from those whom they have confidence in and in whom they trust </li></ul><ul><li>Timing is an essential component of effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is vital to good communication </li></ul>
  11. 11. Adults spend 70% of their waking day in communication.
  12. 12. “At least 80% of a manager’s waking hours are spent in verbal communication.” (Whetten & Cameron: 1991)
  13. 14. <ul><li>45% of a person’s day is spent listening </li></ul><ul><li>30% of a person’s day is spent talking </li></ul><ul><li>16% of a person’s day is spent reading </li></ul><ul><li>9% of a person’s day is spent writing </li></ul>
  14. 15. Communication is all about establishing good relationships!
  15. 16. “… the presence of good interpersonal relationships between managers and subordinates was three times more powerful in predicting profitability in 40 major corporations over a five year period than the four next most powerful variables—market share, capital intensity, firm size, and sales growth rate– combined!! (Whetten & Cameron: 251)
  16. 17. Communicating Effectively <ul><li>Be aware </li></ul><ul><li>Be congruent </li></ul><ul><li>Value straight talk </li></ul><ul><li>Be personal </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for what is not being said </li></ul><ul><li>Be an active listener </li></ul><ul><li>Be a sensitive listener </li></ul>
  17. 18. A Perceptual Model of Communication Noise Sender Receiver decodes Receiver creates meaning Transmitted on medium Message Encoding Encoding Message Transmitted on medium Source decodes
  18. 19. Sources of Distortion in Upward Communication Situational Antecedents Patterns of Distortion in Upward Communication <ul><li>Supervisor’s upward influence </li></ul>Low High Increased distortion because employees send more favorable information and withhold useful information. Low High 2. Supervisor’s power Increased distortion because employees screen out information detrimental to their welfare. Low High 3. Subordinate’s aspiration for upward mobility Less accuracy because employees tend to pass along information that helps their cause. Low High 4. Subordinate’s trust in the supervisor Considerable distortion because employees do not pass up all information they receive.
  19. 20. Communication Styles Assertive Pushing hard without attacking; permits others to influence outcome; expressive and self-enhancing without intruding on others. Good eye contact; Comfortable but firm posture; Strong, steady and audible voice; Facial expressions matched to message; Appropriately serious tone; Selective interruptions to ensure understanding. Direct and unambiguous language; No attributions or evaluations of others’ behavior; Use of “I” statements and cooperative “we” statements. Communication Nonverbal Behavior Verbal Behavior Style Description Pattern Pattern
  20. 21. Communication Styles (continued) Communication Nonverbal Behavior Verbal Behavior Style Description Pattern Pattern Aggressive Taking advantage of others; Expressive and self-enhancing at others’ expense. Glaring eye contact; Moving or leaning too close; Threatening gestures (pointing finger; clenched fist); Loud Voice; Frequent interruptions. Swear words and abusive language; Attributions and evaluations of others’ behavior; Sexist or racists terms; Explicit threats or put-downs.
  21. 22. Communication Styles (continued) Communication Nonverbal Behavior Verbal Behavior Style Description Pattern Pattern Nonassertive Encouraging others to take advantage of us; Inhibited; Self-denying. Little eye contact; Downward glances; Slumped postures; Constantly shifting weight; Wringing hands; Weak or whiny voice. Qualifiers (“maybe,” “kind of” ); Fillers (“uh,” “you know,” “well”); Negaters (“it’s really not that important,” “I’m not sure”).
  22. 23. Communication is more than just verbal… <ul><li>Nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words account for only 7% of emotional impact of a message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice tones- 38% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial Expressions- 55% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High context vs. Low Context Cultures </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Categories of Non-Verbal Messages <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Appearance </li></ul>
  24. 25. Categories of Non-Verbal Messages <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Appearance </li></ul>
  25. 26. Skills and Best Practices: Advice to Improve Nonverbal Communication Skills <ul><li>Maintain eye contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Nod your head to convey that you are listening or that you agree. </li></ul><ul><li>Smile and show interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Lean forward to show the speaker you are interested. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a tone of voice that matches your message </li></ul>Positive Nonverbal Actions Include:
  26. 27. Advice to Improve Nonverbal Communication Skills (cont) <ul><li>Avoiding eye contact and looking away from the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Closing your eyes or tensing your facial muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive yawning. </li></ul><ul><li>Using body language that conveys indecisiveness or lack of confidence (e.g., slumped shoulders, head down, flat tones, inaudible voice) </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking too fast or too slow. </li></ul>Negative Nonverbal Actions Include:
  27. 28. Listening Styles Results-style: Interested in the bottom line or result of a message. Reasons-style: Interested in hearing the rationale behind a message. Process-style: Likes to discuss issues in detail.
  28. 29. The Keys to Effective Listening The Good Listener The Bad Listener Keys to Effective Listening Stays with the speaker, mentally summarizes the speaker, weighs evidence, and listens between the lines Tends to daydream 1. Capitalize on thought speed Listens for central or overall ideas Listens for facts 2. Listen for ideas Listens for any useful information Tunes out dry speakers or subjects 3. Find an area of interest Assesses content by listening to entire message before making judgments Tunes out dry monotone speakers 4. Judge content, not delivery Withholds judgment until comprehension is complete Gets too emotional or worked up by something said by the speaker and enters into an argument 5. Hold your fire
  29. 30. The Keys to Effective Listening (cont) The Good Listener The Bad Listener Keys to Effective Listening Gives the speaker full attention Does not expend energy on listening 6. Work at listening Fights distractions and concentrates on the speaker Is easily distracted 7. Resist Distractions Listens to both favorable and unfavorable information Shuts our or denies unfavorable information 8. Hear what is said Treats complex presentations as exercises for the mind Resists listening to presentations of difficult subject manner 9. Challenge yourself Takes notes as required and uses visual aids to enhance understanding of the presentation Does not take notes or pay attention to visual aids 10. Use handouts, overheads, or other visual aids
  30. 31. Special Considerations <ul><li>Positive and Negative Memos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>look for reader benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maximize goodwill when possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimize psychological reactance (loss of freedom) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>never threaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>until proven wrong, assume your audience is logical and willing to engage with you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>look for ways to turn negative memos into positive ones </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Three Types of Personal Skills <ul><li>Sensitivity (affect) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recognition and respect for personal, professional, and cultural differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Awareness (cognition) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>framework for communication based on knowledge of one’s own and others’ identities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adroitness (behavior/ communication skills) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to act effectively to achieve personal and multicultural interdependence/connectedness </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Sensitivity <ul><li>The emotional side of communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept (secure view of yourself) </li></ul><ul><li>Open-mindedness </li></ul><ul><li>Nonjudgmental attitudes (pleasure in meeting and working with others, including those from other cultures) </li></ul><ul><li>Social relaxation (particularly critical in crises) </li></ul>
  33. 34. These four personal attributes expedite the process of psychological adaptation by increasing your psychological well-being, self-satisfaction, and contentment in a new environment
  34. 35. Awareness <ul><li>The intellectual side of communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness (social comparison) leading to behavior modification </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural awareness (understanding cultural “maps”) > understanding commonalities/ differences between people </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social values (Hofstede, Trompenaars) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social customs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social norms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Adroitness <ul><li>The performance side of communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Message skills </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate self-disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral flexibility and creativity (repertoire) </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction management (turn-taking, initiation) </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills (politeness, social conventions) </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy (showing openness to others’ emotional needs) </li></ul><ul><li>Identity maintenance (supporting your own and your partner’s identity) </li></ul>
  36. 37. Message Skills <ul><li>Compliment personal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Require knowledge of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualities of successful messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposes of business communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“You-Attitude” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate visual style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic use of style and organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involve a process of iteration (writing and revision; negotiation and compromise ) </li></ul>
  37. 38. These skills maximize your ability to act effectively to achieve interdependence and interconnectedness Communication adroitness improves with practice and performance
  38. 39. Analyze your audiences <ul><li>Look below the demographics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how do they think (logos)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what are their desires and emotions (pathos)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how can you gain their attention and respect (ethos)? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be willing to listen to what they say they need </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate arguments and style to persuade </li></ul>
  39. 40. Make Choices <ul><li>Communication choices include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>channel and genre (technology and type) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>verbal metaphors and visual messages (frames for interpretation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>logical organization (make some order evident) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mood (subjunctive) and tense (active/ passive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>word choice (illocutionary verbs, vivid adjectives and nouns, pronouns) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>graphics (when are visuals better than data?) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Analyze websites as another form of business communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You-Attitude and “Usability” very similar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greater possibilities for persuasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>websites have the power to ingratiate by helping people do what they want </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Suggestions to Increase Your Listening Capability <ul><li>Listen without making value judgements. (e.g. sender to expressing views on abortion, legalization of drugs) </li></ul><ul><li>Allow sender to fully express his or her point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Make eye contact and make facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Expect to learn something </li></ul>
  42. 43. Points to remember about communication (continued) <ul><li>People tend to accept facts, information and opinions from those whom they have confidence in and in whom they trust </li></ul><ul><li>Timing is an essential component of effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is vital to good communication </li></ul>
  43. 44. Communication skills <ul><li>S M C R MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>Source- Message- Channel- Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Who says what to whom with what effect </li></ul>
  44. 45. SOURCE <ul><li>Source-is the person who has an idea or message to communicate to another person or persons </li></ul>
  45. 46. MESSAGE <ul><li>What should be communicated </li></ul><ul><li>Messages are trnasmitted though such means as speaking, writing, acting,or drawing </li></ul>
  46. 47. CHANNELS <ul><li>Channels are the means by which information is transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Words- face to face conversation, telephone conversation, radio and television, book, articles, letters etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The sense of touch, smell and taste are nonverbal channels </li></ul>
  47. 48. RECEIVER <ul><li>Receiver is the recipient of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Give response-ignore, perform some task , store the information etc. </li></ul>
  48. 49. LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Small group </li></ul><ul><li>Public communication </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media communication </li></ul><ul><li>Non verbal communication </li></ul>
  49. 50. The art of conversation <ul><li>A single conversation acrss the table with a wise man is worth a months study of books </li></ul><ul><li>- Chinese proverb </li></ul>
  50. 51. The art of conversation <ul><li>Getting started </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping it flowing </li></ul><ul><li>Improving your style </li></ul><ul><li>Pace and pause </li></ul><ul><li>Be a good listener </li></ul>
  51. 52. Conversation killers <ul><li>Talking too much </li></ul><ul><li>Talking too little </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupting people </li></ul><ul><li>Too much personal disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Getting into too much detail </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to be funny all the time </li></ul><ul><li>Imitating the other persons accent </li></ul>
  52. 53. Listening <ul><li>Whole body listening </li></ul><ul><li>Conveying a positive encouraging attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting in an attractive posture </li></ul><ul><li>remaining alert but comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Nodding in acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Making good eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Tuning into the speakers feelings </li></ul>
  53. 54. Distracting listener behaviour <ul><li>Fidgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Blinking </li></ul><ul><li>Biting your lip </li></ul><ul><li>Frowning deeply </li></ul><ul><li>Playing with your hair/ jewellery </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at your watch </li></ul>
  54. 55. Tips for successful communication <ul><li>Read-expand your knwlede of language </li></ul><ul><li>Listen intelligently </li></ul><ul><li>Think and plan </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate language </li></ul><ul><li>Be open minded </li></ul>
  55. 56. <ul><li>Select appropriate media </li></ul><ul><li>Time your communication appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate laNGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Aim high </li></ul>
  56. 58. Ten Commandments To Feel Good Every Day
  57. 59. BE A KID AGAIN