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Communication ppt

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Communication ppt

  1. 1. COMMUNICATION Presented by: Dr. Prakashkumar Rathod Asst. Professor and I/C Head Dept. of Veterinary & A.H Extension Education
  2. 2. COMMUNICATION The most important challenge is to find out ways and means to convey the messages to the farmers in an effective manner  Necessary to take appropriate decisions on adoption of the technologies.  Hence, it is important to understand the communication process, extension teaching methods, audio visual aids and their usage for effective communication.  The word communication originated from the Latin word “Communis” which means common. 
  3. 3. CONCEPTS / DEFINITIONS Leagans defined communication as a process by which two or more people exchange ideas, facts, feelings or impression in such ways that each gains a common understanding of the meaning and use of messages. Communication is the process by which the message is transmitted from the source to the receiver (Rogers, 1983) Communication is anything that conveys meaning, that carries a message from one person to another (Brooker, 1949) Communication is a mutual interchange of ideas by any effective means (Thayer 1968).
  4. 4. PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION Most of us are familiar with the five-step process occurring between a sender and receiver when they communicate: 1. The sender generates an idea in the mind. 2. The idea is then converted into words, pictures, sounds, symbols, actions. This is called ‘encoding the idea’. 3. The encoded idea is transmitted to the receiver. 4. The receiver receives the encoded message through the senses and perceives it in the mind. 5. The receiver then decodes or converts the messages back into meaningful ideas in his / her own mind. 
  5. 5. Factors affecting communication/ Key Elements of Communication 1. Communicator      In the context of agriculture and rural development, extension agent is the communicator who starts the process of communication. Knowledge generates through research and as such the Research Institutes, Universities are the originators of sources of message. The extension agent is the communicator, a carrier of information. To enhance the process, extension agents may take the help of some aids, known as audio-visual aids. They also carry back the reactions of the farmers, their problems etc. as feedback information to research for finding out solutions for the same.
  6. 6.  CREDIBILITY means trustworthiness and competence. Before the audience accepts any message he will judge whether the communicator and the organization the individual represents, can be relied upon and is competent enough to give the information. 2. Message The recommendations from research, the technology constitute the content or subject matter, the message.  Information which is relevant to particular set of audiences, constitute the messages, otherwise for them this is ‘noise’.  A good message clearly states what to do, how to do, when to do and what would be the result.  Messages which are relevant, interesting, useful, profitable, credible (latest and best, based on research findings) and complete (neither too much, nor too little) are likely to motivate the people. 
  7. 7. 3. Channel       The medium through which information flows from a sender to one or more receivers. Face-to-face, word-of-mouth is the simplest and yet one of the most widely used and effective means of communication, particularly for the developing countries. The channels of communication may be classified into a number of ways according to different criteria. According to form- spoken or written According to nature of personnel involved- localite or cosmopolite According to nature of contact with the peopleIndividual, group or mass contact
  8. 8. 4.Treatment of message  The way a message is handled, dealt with, so that the information gets across to the audience.  It relates to technique/details of procedure or manner of performance, essential to effective presentation of message.  The purpose of treatment is to make the message clear, understandable and realistic to the audience.  There will be difference in treatment of the message according to the level of literacy, socioeconomic status and progressiveness of the audience. 5. Audience  The audience or receiver of message is the target of communication function.  Audience may consist of a single person or a number of persons.  An audience may be formed according to age, education, occupation groups, farm size, social criteria etc. 
  9. 9. Communication to be successful must be target oriented.  Communicator must know the target, their needs, interests, resources, facilities, constraints, location etc.  The attitude of the audience largely depends upon who gives what message through which channel; to what extent the content of the message satisfy their needs and intentions etc;,  Communicator must be perceived as trustworthy, dependable and having the message through the medium of their choice, and also message must be interesting and comprehensive. 6. Audience response  Response of the audience is the ultimate objective of any communication function.  Response may be in the form of action, mental or physical.  Acceptance Vs rejection -Remembering Vs forgetting  Mental Vs physical action -Right Vs wrong 
  10. 10. MEANING OF FEEDBACK      A communication process is said to have feedback, when the receiver of the message gives his response to the sender’s message. Sending back the knowledge about the message to the communicator is known as feedback. Feedback is one of the important elements of the communication process. A communication process without a provision for feedback is not an effective communication. An effective two-way communication occurs when the sender transmits message and the receivers involves in feedback to the sender which is illustrated below.
  11. 11. Characteristics of feedback         Intention Specificity Description Usefulness Timeliness Clarity Validity and reliability Readiness
  12. 12. Problems in Communication Language or code  Not listening  Too ahead of audience understanding  Lack of empathy  Ignoring the leaders: Also called the concept of opinion leadership.  Beliefs and Prejudices  Disorganized communication  Inarticulateness  Physical environment  Life positions: Essentiality of Proper mindset  Egoism, complacency and over-confidence  Difference in thinking or perceptions  Insufficient information  Information overload  Overconfidence 
  13. 13. Factors affecting Good Communication Homophily: Degree to which two or more individuals are similar to each other in certain characters or factors. Ex: Education, age, farming  Heterophily: Degree to which two or more individuals are different from each other in certain characters or factors. This may create obstacle in the way of communication.  Credibility: It refers to the perceived trustworthiness and expertise accorded to a source by its audience at any given time.  Competence Credibility: It is the degree to which a communication source or channel is perceived as knowledgeable and expert. E.g. Veterinary Doctors are having higher competence credibility than para veterinarians.  Safety Credibility: It is the degree to which a communication source or channel is perceived as trust worthy. E.g. Veterinary doctors unless otherwise popular in an area will have lesser safety credibility than paraveterinarins or local leaders. So, the efforts of the doctors should be such that, besides competence credibility, safety credibility is also developed. 
  14. 14. Distortion: It is the transformation of the meaning of a message by changing its content.  Omission: It is the deletion of all or part of a message.  Redundancy: It is the repeating of a message in different forms, over different channels, or over time. Ex; Written messages  Verification: It is insuring the accuracy of a previous message.  Noise: It is the disturbance created during communication.  Empathy: It is the ability of an individual to project into the role of another. More the empathy homophily will be increased and thus it facilitates effective communication. 
  15. 15. Nature of Communication Communication is a process: dynamic, ongoing, ever-changing and continuous  Communication employs many means: at many levels, for many reasons, with many people, in many ways.  Communication involves interdependence: Interdependence may be defined as the reciprocal and mutual dependence. Communication is a two way process involving stimulus and response.  Communication process comprises a number of distinguishable parts: In its simplest form it involves three phases, i.e expression, interpretation and response.  Communication takes place within participants  Communication takes place at many levels  Varies from one communication situation to another 
  16. 16. Levels of Communication Intrapersonal communication: Communication within an individual or one’s self  Interpersonal communication: Face to face contact or communication  Organizational communication: Distinct form of communication at highly structured setting. It can be downward, upward and horizontal.  Inter-organizational : Communication between the organizations 
  17. 17. Models of Communication      Models are symbolic representations of structures, objects or operations. They are useful theoretical constructs that are frequently used in social sciences for explanatory purposes. They may be used to show the size, shape or relationship of various parts or components of an object or process. A model may also be useful in explaining the working of a system. Purpose of models They describe the process of communication. They visually show relationship among the variables involved in communication  They aid in finding and in correcting communication problems  
  18. 18. Aristotle’s model According to Aristotle, communication has three ingredients  Speaker – the person who speaks  Speech – the speech that the individual produces  Audience – the person who listens 
  19. 19. Shannon- Weaver’s model Also called as mathematical model of communication.  According to them, communication includes: 1. Source 2. Transmitter 3. Signal 4. Receiver 5. Destination   Compared with the Aristotelian model, the source is the speaker, the signal is the speech and the destination is the audience, plus two added ingredients, it transmits which sends out the source’s message and a receiver which catches the message for the destination.
  20. 20. Berlo’s model  According to Berlo (1960) the model of communication consists of 1. Source 2. Encoder 3. Message 4. Channel 5. Decoder 6. Receiver Code is a system of signals for communication. Encode means to put the message into code.  Channel means the medium through which the signals move, the decoder means which converts the message in the code into ordinary language which may be easily understood.  
  21. 21. Schramm’s model  According to Schramm, process involves 1. Source 2. Encoder 3. Signal 4. Decoder 5. Destination  This model of communication is preferably relevant for the mass media. In human communication it is most important whether people can properly encode or decode the signal (message), and how they interpret in their own situations
  22. 22. Leagan’s model  The communication model of Leagans has following elements1. Communicator 2. Message 3. Channel 4. Treatment 5. Audience 6. Response The task of communication is to provide powerful incentives for change.  Success at this task requires thorough understanding of the six elements of communication, a skillful communicator sending useful message through proper channel, effectively treated, to an appropriate audience that responds as desired. 
  23. 23. Rogers and shoemaker’s model  Rogers and shoemaker (1971) thought of the communication process in terms of the S-M-C-R-E model, the components of which are – 1. Source 2. Message 3. Channel 4. Receiver 5. Effects  According to them a source (S) and message (M) via certain channels (C) reach the receiving individual (R), and causes some effects (E) i.e., changing the existing behaviour pattern of the receiver.
  24. 24. Westley and Maclean’s model  A’ is source (Eg., KVAFSU), ‘B’ is receiver or public, ‘C’ is the mass media channel (eg., E-TV Annadata),  ‘A’ gets feedback from the public refines the message and ‘C’ also gets feedback and refines and the total refinements are carried out by the interpreting source that is ‘C’ and then refined messages are transmitted to the users.  This is typical in a TV channel broadcast. Eg., Annadata of E-TV does similar to explained above.
  25. 25. To sum up:          Concepts/ Definitions Process of Communication Factors affecting communication/ Key Elements of Communication Feedback and its characteristics Problems in communication Factors affecting good communication Nature of Communication Levels of Communication Models of Communication
  26. 26. Thank You
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