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  1. 1. ***BIOFERTILIZERS*** 1.Production 2.Use 3.Marketing
  3. 3. Biofertilizers  - Biofertilizers are defined as biologically active products or microbial inoculants of bacteria, algae and fungi (separately or in combination), which may help biological nitrogen fixation for the benefit of plants. Biofertilizers also include organic fertilizers (manure, etc.), which are rendered in an available form due to the interaction of micro-organisms or due to their association with plants. Biofertilizers thus include the following: (i) symbiotic nitrogen fixers Rhizobium spp.; (ii) asymbiotic free nitrogen fixers (Azotobacter, Azospirillum, etc.);  (iii) algae biofertilizers (blue green algae or BGA in association with Azolla); (iv) phosphate solubilising bacteria; (v) mycorrhizae; (vi) organic fertilizers.
  4. 5. Common microorganisms as Bio-fertilizers Rice   a) Fixes 40-80 kg N/ha b) Used as green manure because of large bio-mass 5.   Azolla Rice a) 20-30 kg N/ha in submerged rice fields. b) Production of growth substances like auxins, IAA, giberellic acid  4.   Blue Green Algae {bga} Rice, sugarcane, fingermillet, wheat, sorghum bajra etc.;   a) Fixes 20-40 kg Nitrogen b) Results in increase mineral and water uptake. c) Root development d) Vegetative growth and crop yield. 3. Azospirillum Mustard, sunflower, banana, sugarcane, grapes,papaya,watermelon, tomato, chilly ladyfinger,coconut,spices,flower,plantation crops, forest sp.     a) Supplies 20-40mg N/g of carbon source b) Promotion of growth substances like vitamins, B Group, IAA and Gibberellic acid c)10-15% increase in yield d)Maintains soil fertility e)Biological control ofplant disease, suppresses plant pathogens 2)   Azotobacter Pulses legumes:  Cowpea, Green gram, Black gram, Pea, Gram Oil legumes:  Groundnut, Soyabean Fodderlegumes:  Berseem, lucerne Fodderlegumes: Subabul,Shisan,Wheat,Jowar,Bajra, Maize a)      Fixes 50-30 kg N/ha b)      Leaves residual nitrogen c)      Increase yield by 10 –30% d)      Maintains soil fertility A)  Nitrogen 1)    Rhizobium  {Symbiotic} Beneficiaries Contribution  Name of bio-fertilizer            
  5. 6. SOME IMPORTANT POINTS to REMEMBER:- *Contain live or latent cells of microbes. *Ready to use formulations. *Efficient strains of microbes. *Applied to seed/seed material/seedling/soil/waste material/crop residue in order to increase their population. *Accelerate some biochemical processes. *Make more nutrient available to the crops.
  6. 7. ROLE OF BIOFERTILIZERS:- *Makes availability of nutrients. *Make the root rhizosphere more lively. *Growth Promoting Substances are produced. *More root proliferation. *Better germination. *Improve quality and quantity of produce. *Improve fertilizer use efficiency. *More biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. *Improve soil health. *Residual Effect. *Make the system more sustainable.
  7. 8. First, because increase in the use of fertilizers leads to increased crop productivity, second, because increased usage of chemical fertilizer leads to damage in soil texture and raises other environmental problems. Therefore, the use of biofertilizers is both economical and environment friendly. The pragmatic approach will be to develop the integrated nutrient supply system involving a combination of the use of chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers. Moreover, India is not self sufficient in fertilizer production. Realizing the  importance of biofertilizers in supplementing the use of chemical fertilizers, the Government of India had launched the 'National Project on Development and use of biofertilizers during the sixth year plan. need of biofertilizers:-
  8. 9. Biofertilizers like Rhizabium, azotobacter, Azospirillum and blue green algae (BGA) are in use since long. These organisms fix atmospheric nitrogen and supply it to plants. Hence, bio fertilizers to some extent. The bacterial biofertilizers contribute 20-30 kg  N/ha/season. Rhizobium inoculant is used for leguminous crops. Azotobacter can be used with crops like wheat, maize, mustard, cotton, potato and other vegetable crops. Azospirillum inoculants are recommended mainly for sorghum, millets, maize, sugarcane and wheat. Blue green algae belonging to genera Nostoc, Anabaena, tolypothrix and Aulosira fix atmospheric nitrogen and are used as inoculants for paddy crop grown both under upland and low land conditions. However, the inoculants are most effective under low land rice cultivation and contribute 20-30 kg N per ha per season with better quality of grains.  Anabaena in association with water fern Azolla contributes nitrogen up to 60 Kg/ha/season and also enriches soils with organic matter. DESCRIPTION:-
  9. 10. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) are a group of microbes capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphorus from insoluble sources. In alkaline and acidic soils, the availability to phosphorus is low.  These microbes can be useful to reverse this process. PSM when used with rock phosphate can save about 50% of the crop requirement of phosphatic fertilizer like single super phosphate. Simple inoculation of seeds with PSM gives crop yield responses equivalent to 30 kg P2O5/ha of phosphatic fertilizers. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi are found to be associated with a majority of agricultural crops. VAM have been associated with increased plant growth and enhanced accumulation of plant nutrients, mainly phosphorus, zinc, copper and sulphur through greater soil exploitation by mycorrhizal hyphae. Maximum root colonization and sporulation occurs in soils with low phosphorus. CONT'D
  10. 11. A schematic diagram of Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza
  11. 12. production of biofertilizers:- FOR FREE LIVING ORGANISMS: Small quantity of inoculum of BGA and azolla can be obtained from laboratories and they can be multiplied in the farmers’ field for subsequent application. BGA inoculum is multiplied in iron trays of 2m*2m*0.25m size. Each tray is filled with 20kg soil and 400gms superphosphate. BGA inoculum is sprinkled on it standing water of 5-10cm is maintained. A thick algal scum is formed within a week. Then, water is drained out and soil is allowed to dry. Then the flakes are ready for application. Same procedure is followed in case of azolla except that it is multiplied in 4m*2m nursery beds. Moreover azolla can be used as a green manure crop.
  12. 13. COMPOSTING Composting is a process of biological decomposition of organic waste that is carried out by a group of active micro-organisms which break down the cellulolytic material and hasten the process of composting under aerobic condition at an elevated temperature. Factors influencing composting are Number and species of micro-organisms, Oxygen levels, Particle size, Nutrient levels, Temperature, pH etc. Advantages of composting :- • Reduction of volume and weight • Soil conditioner • Means of land reclamation • Quality of soil making it more productive • Compost increases soil aeration • It makes heavier soils easier to till • Reduces soil erosion • Buffer effect as a protection against that of chemical fertilizer.
  13. 14. Methods of Application:- BGA(Rice) Soil Application @4kg algal culture/ac at 7DAT Azolla(Rice) As Green Manure (4t/ac) at planting As Dual Crop/inter crop (400-500kg/ac) at 7DAT Rhizobium (all legumes) 1.Treatment Seed 2.Soil Application Azotobacter and Azospirillum (all non legumes) 1.seed treatment 2.Seed material treatments (potato/sugarcane/sweet potato etc.) 3.Seedling Root dipping (vegetables/flowers those are transplanted) 4.Soil application
  14. 15. PSM (all legumes and non-legumes) 1.seed treatment 2.Seed material treatment(potato/sugarcane/sweetpotato etc.) 3.Seedling Root dipping (vegetables/flowers those are transplanted) 4.Soil application VAM (Vescicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza) 1.Inoculation of seedlings on the seedbed 2.Inoculation of potted soil Waste Decomposers 1.Compost pit decomposition 2.Field(in situ) decomposition
  15. 16. Table : Use intensity of Biofertilizers (BF) and Chemical fertilizers in Indian Agriculture 0.04 82.90 100.00 90.04 Total 0.01 61.73 18.32 70.63 East 0.06 57.07 40.91 60.82 West 0.01 127.65 22.32 130.43 North 0.05 107.06 18.46 125.21 South Bio-fertilizers(kg/ha.) Chemical (NP)(kg/ha.) Cropped area(%) Chemical(NPK kg/ha.) Region
  16. 17. marketing aspects:- To attain production targets, the Government of India implemented a central sector scheme called National Project on Development and use of Biofertilizers (NPDB) during the Ninth Plan for the production, distribution and promotion of biofertilizers. The government also plays a dominant part in marketing biofertilizers in three possible channels: (a) State government via District level Officers and Village level workers to farmers, (b) State Marketing federation via cooperative bodies to farmers and (c) State Agro-industries Corporations via Agro service Center to farmers.
  18. 19. finally...points to remember:- <ul><li>Biofertilizers are not replacement of fertlizers but can supplement their requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of biofertilizers is being empasized along with chemical fertilizers and organic manures. This makes INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>For best results use both nitrogenous and phosphatic biofertilisers </li></ul>Biofertilisers are live products and require care in storage ,transport,,application and maintaining field condition.
  19. 20. Thank you
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