The new imperialism notes


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The new imperialism notes

  1. 1. The New Imperialism<br />
  2. 2. New Imperialism and its Causes<br />Colonization of Americas, South Asia, Africa and China<br />Europe had little influence on lives of the people<br />Strong, centrally governed nation-states had emerged<br />
  3. 3. New Imperialism and its Causes<br />Economic Interests<br />Manufacturers wanted access to natural resources<br />Rubber, manganese, palm oil<br />Colonies offered a valuable outlet for Europe’s growing population<br />Political and Military Interests<br />Steam-powered merchant ships and naval vessels needed bases<br />Industrial powers seized islands or harbors<br />Western leaders claimed colonies cause of national security<br />Increased nation’s prestige<br />
  4. 4. New Imperialism and its Causes<br />Humanitarian Goals <br />Missionaries, doctors and colonial official believed they had a duty to spread the blessings of western civilization<br />Social Darwinism<br />Embraced natural selection and survival of the fittest<br />European races were superior to all others<br />Imperial conquest and destruction of weaker races were simply nature’s way of improving the human species<br />
  5. 5. Success of Western Imperialism<br />Weakness of Nonwestern States<br />Older civilizations in decline<br />Ottoman Empire, Mughal India, Qing china<br />Wars among African people and the slave trade<br />Western Advantages<br />Strong economies, well-organized governments, powerful armies and navies<br />Superior technology & improved medical knowledge<br />Quinine, Maxim machine guns, repeating rifles, steam-driven warships<br />
  6. 6. Success of Western Imperialism<br />Resistance<br />Ruling areas tried to strengthen their societies against reforming their own Muslim, Hindu, or Confucian Traditions.<br />Many western-educated Africans and Asians organized nationalist movement to expel the imperialists from their lands<br />Criticism at Home<br />Anti-imperialists argued colonialism was a tool of the rich and immoral<br />Westerners were moving toward greater democracy at home but were imposing undemocratic rule on other people<br />
  7. 7. Forms of Imperial Rule<br />Colonies<br />French<br />French practiced direct rule, sending officials and soldiers from France to administer their colonies, impose French culture<br />British<br />British relied on a system of indirect rule, using sultans, chiefs, or other local rulers<br />Encouraged the children of the local ruling class to get an education in Britain<br />
  8. 8. Forms of Imperial Rule<br />Protectorates<br />Local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European advisors<br />Cost less to run than a colony, did not require a large commitment of military forces<br />Spheres of Influence<br />Area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges<br />
  9. 9. The Partition of Africa<br />
  10. 10. Africa in the Early 1800s<br />Spoke hundreds of languages and varied governments<br />North Africa<br />Sahara Desert and Fertile land along the Med.<br />Close ties to Muslim world<br />Under rule of Ottoman Empire<br />
  11. 11. Africa in the Early 1800s<br />West Africa<br />Islamic reform movement brought change<br />Usman dan Fodio preached jihad<br />New Muslim states arose, built on trade, farming, and herding<br />Forest regions<br />Asante Kingdom <br />
  12. 12. Africa in the Early 1800s<br />East Africa<br />Port cities carried profitable trade<br />Cargoes were often slaves<br />Marched from interior to coast with slaves<br />Ivory and Copper from Central Africa<br />
  13. 13. Africa in the Early 1800s<br />Southern Africa<br />Shaka united the Zulu nation<br />Mass migration and wars<br />Zulus were battling Boers<br />
  14. 14. Africa in the Early 1800s<br />Slave Trade<br />Europeans began to outlaw slave trade<br />Slave trade continued to Middle East and Asia <br />Britain and US helped freed slaves resettle in Africa<br />1787 Sierra Leone as colony former slaves<br />Liberia free blacks from U.S.<br />
  15. 15. European Contacts Increase<br />Explorers<br />European explorers pushed the interior of Africa<br />Mungo Park and Richard Burton set out to map the course and sources of the Great African rivers<br />
  16. 16. European Contacts Increase<br />Missionaries <br />Catholic and Protestant<br />Sought to win people to Christianity<br />Sincere in desire to help<br />Built schools, medical clinics and churches<br />Saw Africans as children in need of guidance<br />African cultures and religions were degraded<br />Urged Africans to reject their own traditions<br />
  17. 17. European Contacts Increase<br />Livingstone<br />Crisscrossed Africa<br />Sympathy and less bias<br />Opposed slave trade<br />Henry Stanley trekked into Central Africa to find Livingston<br />
  18. 18. Scramble for Colonies<br />King Leopold II of Belgium hired Stanley to explore the Congo River basin<br />Berlin Conference (1884)<br />No Africans were invited<br />European countries must set up government in any claim in Africa<br />Established new Africans borders and frontiers<br />Redrew the map of Africa<br />
  19. 19. Scramble for Colonies<br />Horrors in the Congo<br />Wealthy Belgium's exploited the riches <br />Forced to work for almost nothing, beaten or mutilated<br />Leopold turn colony to Belgian government<br />Little or no role in government or economy<br />
  20. 20. Scramble for Colonies<br />French Expansion<br />Algeria in North Africa<br />Med. into Tunisia<br />West and Central Africa<br />Britain Expansion<br />West and East Africa<br />Egypt and Sudan and Cape Colony (South Africa)<br />Boer War 1899-1902<br />
  21. 21. Scramble for Colonies<br />Portuguese<br />Angola and Mozambique<br />German Empire<br />Eastern and southwestern Africa<br />Italy<br />Libya , horn of Africa<br />
  22. 22. Africans Resist Imperialsm<br />Algerians battled French<br />Samori Toure fought French forces<br />British battled the Zulus<br />Asante in West Africa<br />Maji-maji Rebellion 1905<br />Ethiopia<br />Menelik II modernized<br />Imported weapons and Europeans train army<br />Only nation to preserve independence<br />
  23. 23. European Challenges to the Muslim world<br />
  24. 24. Stresses in the Muslim World<br />Three Muslim Empires<br />Mughals, Ottoman Empire, Safavids<br />1700s in decline<br />Corruption<br />Islamic Reform Movement<br />Stressed religious piety and rules of behavior<br />Returned to purity and simplicity<br />European Imperialism<br />Won treaties giving favorable trading terms<br />
  25. 25. Problems for the Ottoman Empire<br />Extended across the Middle East, North Africa, and Southeastern Europe<br />Nationalists Revolts<br />Balkans, Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians gain independence<br />Arabia, Lebanon and Armenia revolted<br />Lost control of Egypt <br />
  26. 26. Problems for the Ottoman Empire<br />Efforts to Westernize<br />Reorganize bureaucracy and system of tax collection<br />Built railroads, improved education, European officers to train military<br />Men sent to study new sciences and technology<br />Better medical care and revitalized farming<br />
  27. 27. Problems for the Ottoman Empire<br />Young Turks<br />Overthrew the sultan<br />Ended when WWI erupted <br />Massacre of Armenians<br />Brutal genocide of Armenians<br />Muslim Turks distrusted the Christian Armenians accused of supporting Russian plans against Ottoman empire<br />A million + Armenians were killed<br />
  28. 28. Egypt Seeks to Modernize<br />Muhammad Ali<br />Improved tax collection, reorganized the landholding system, large irrigation projects to increase farm output<br />Increased Egyptian participation in world trade<br />Suez Canal (1859)<br />Ferdinand de Lesseps <br />100-mile waterway links the Med. And Red Sea<br />Egypt ruler unable to repay debt, sold his shares to Britain prime minister<br />
  29. 29. Iran and the European Powers<br />Qajar shahs ruled Iran from 1794-1925<br />Gov’t improved finances, sponsored the building of telegraph lines and railroads, experimented with liberal constitution<br />Russia and Britain set up sphere of influence in Iran<br />Iranian gov’t granted concessions<br />
  30. 30. The british take over india<br />
  31. 31. East India Company<br />Many people and cultures<br />British took advantage of Indian divisions<br />Main goal was to make money<br />Improved roads, preserve peace, and reduce banditry.<br />Tried to convert to Christianity<br />Worked to end slavery and caste system<br />Improved position of women<br />Outlawed sati<br />
  32. 32. Sepoy Rebellion<br />Unpopular moves<br />1st Required sepoys to serve anywhere<br />2nd a law allowing Hindu widows to remarry<br />1857 issued new rifles to sepoys<br />Angry sepoys rebelled<br />Massacred British men, women and children.<br />British rallied and crushed the revolt<br />Revenge – torched villages and killed thousands of unarmed Indians.<br />Parliament ended East India Company rule 1858<br />
  33. 33. British Colonial Rule<br />Viceroy<br />Modernized India adopting technology and culture<br />Market of raw materials<br />Built roads and railroad network<br />New methods of communication<br />Ruined India’s hand-weaving industry<br />
  34. 34. British Colonial Rule<br />Nomadic herders into farmers of cash crops<br />Massive deforestation<br />Population growth put strain on food supply<br />Legal system to promote justice for Indians<br />Upper classes sent sons to British schools<br />
  35. 35. Different Views on Cultures<br />Ram Mohun Roby combined Hindu and Muslim cultures<br />Learn from the west<br />Condemned traditions, rigid caste distinctions, child marriage, sati, purdah<br />Set up educational societies<br />
  36. 36. Indian Nationalism<br />1855 nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress<br />Greater democracy would bring more power to Indians<br />At first Muslims and Hindus worked together<br />Muslims grew to resent domination<br />Worried Hindu’s would oppress Muslims<br />
  37. 37. China and the new imperialism<br />
  38. 38. The Trade Issue<br />China sold silk, porcelain and tea<br />China Enjoyed trade surplus<br />Westerners had a trade deficit<br />Two developments transformed China’s relations<br />1st China entered a period of decline<br />2nd Expanded markets for European goods<br />
  39. 39. Opium War<br />British made huge profits by trading opium grown in India for Chinese tea<br />Chinese became addicted<br />Chinese gov’t outlawed opium / Killed dealers<br />1839 warships clashed with British merchants<br />Chinese easily defeated<br />Treaty of Nanjing<br />Huge indemnity, Hong Kong, opened five ports, extraterritoriality<br />
  40. 40. Internal Problems<br />Qing dynasty in decline<br />Irrigation systems and canals poorly maintained – massive flooding in Huang He Valley<br />Hardships for peasants, tax evasion, official corruption<br />
  41. 41. Taiping Rebellion<br />1850-1864<br />Most devastating peasant revolt in history<br />Hong Xiuquan wanted to establish a “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace”<br />Endorsed social ideas<br /> Land reform, community ownership of property, equality of women and men<br />Taiping rebels won control for 14 years<br />20-30 mil. deaths<br />
  42. 42. Reform Effects<br />Scholar-officials no reasons for new industries<br />Disapproved of western ideas<br />Technology was dangerous<br />Empress Ci Xi<br />Imported western technology<br />Factories, shipyards, railroads, mining <br />
  43. 43. War with Japan<br />Sino-Japanese War 1894<br />Japan gained Taiwan<br />
  44. 44. Spheres of Influence<br />British<br />Yangzi River <br />French<br />Land near Indochina<br />German<br />Northern China<br />Russia<br />Northern China<br />
  45. 45. 100 Days of Reform<br />GuangXu<br />New laws set to modernize civil service exams, streamline government, encouraged new industries<br />Affected schools, military and bureaucracy<br />
  46. 46. Qing Dynasty Falls<br />Boxer Uprising 1899<br />Expelled “foreign devils”<br />China admitted women to schools<br />Expanded economically<br />Business class emerged, new urban working class<br />
  47. 47. Three Principles of the People<br />1st nationalism, freeing China from foreign domination<br />2nd democracy<br />3rd “livelihood”<br />Sun Yixian named president Chinese republic<br />