Second Industrial Revolution The first Industrial Revolution gave rise to textiles, railroads, iron, and coal.•The Second Industrial Revolution gave rise to steel, chemicals,electricity and petroleum.•Steel was the first major change in industry between 1870 and 1914. Newmethods of shaping steel made it useful in building lighter, smaller, andfaster machines, engines, railways, ships, and weapons.•Electricity was a new form of energy that proved to be of great value; itcould be easily converted to other forms of energy, like heat or light, andmoved easily through space because of wires. By 1910, hydroelectricpower stations were providing homes and factories to be tied to a single,common source of power. •Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell were both inventors that used electricity to power their inventions – the light bulb and the telephone
Travel RevolutionStreetcars and Subways were developed aselectricity became a reliable energy source.This eventually led to the development of theinternal-combustion engine, which is stillused in cars and airplanes.
A World Economy New PatternsIndustrial production grew at a rapid pace because of The Secondgreatly increased sales of manufactured goods. Industrial Revolution,Europeans could afford to buy more products for combined with theseveral reasons: growth of•Wages for workers increased transportation, fostered a true•Prices for goods decreased because of reduced world economy.transportation costs European capitalSome nations did not benefit from the Second was investedIndustrial Revolution; Europe was divided into two abroad to developeconomic zones: manufacturing and markets for•Great Britain, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, European goods.Germany, and western Austro-Hungarian Empire,and Northern Italy made up the advancedindustrialized core Europe dominated•Southern Italy, Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the world economythe Balkan Kingdoms and Russia made up a little- by the beginning ofindustrialized area that provided food and raw materials the 20th century.to the rest of Europe
Organizing the Working ClassesThe desire to improve the working and living conditionsof the working classes led many industrial workers toform socialist political parties and trade unions.The theory these parties and unions were built on werebased on earlier theories by Karl Marx.Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto in 1848(with Friedrich Engels). In it, they proposed a newsocial system, called communism.Marx believed that all of world history was a series of“class struggles” between the oppressors – or thosewho owned the means of production, like money, orland, and thus controlled the government and society.This group was called the bourgeoisie, or the middleclass oppressors.
Karl Marx, continuedThe other end of society were called the proletariat, orthe working class – the oppressed, in Marx’s view.Marx predicted the struggle between the two groupswould lead to open revolution where the proletariatwould violently overthrow the bourgeoisie and then forma dictatorship (government in which a person or grouphas the absolute power) to organize the means ofproduction. Marx believed this revolution wouldeventually lead to a classless society, in which everyoneis equal and the state would wither away.Working-class leaders used Marx’s ideas to developpolitical parties. Most important was the German SocialDemocratic Party (SPD), which emerged in 1875. TheSPD advocated revolution while competing in electionsfor the German parliament, where they believed theirmembers could improve working-class lives. Iteventually became the largest political party inGermany.
Trade UnionsOne problem with socialist political parties were theMarxist parties sometimes were divided over their goals.Pure Marxists thought there would need to be violentrevolution to achieve their goals. Another group, calledrevisionists, rejected the revolutionary approach andargued that workers must continue to organize and workwith other parties to gain reforms. They believed asworkers gained the right to vote, they could make reformswithin the system.Another force working for change were trade unions.Unions were organized group of workers. In Great Britain,unions won the right to strike (stop work to pressure anemployer) in the 1870s. Soon after, workers in factoriesorganized into unions so they could use strikes to achievereforms.By 1900 there were 2 million workers in British tradeunions. By 1914, there were almost 4 million. By 1914,they had made considerable progress in changing workingconditions for the working class.
New Urban Environments Urban Example: Frankfurt, GermanyBy the end of the 19th century, the new industrialworld led to the emergence of a mass society inwhich the concerns of the majority of the In Frankfurt,population – the lower classes – were central. Germany, theMore people lived in cities; in the 1850s, urban working class liveddwellers made up about 40% of the English in filthy conditions.population; between 1800 and 1900, London grew The city of Frankfurtfrom 960,000 to 6.5 million. began a public campaign to developUrban populations grew as a result of migration a new sewer systemfrom rural areas to cities. The fast growth rate led so the working poorto problems like disease and poor living conditions could have cleanfor the working poor. water and the city would have lessReformers tried to implement laws and disease. Programsregulations to help the working poor. Things like like this helped theclean water, building inspections, and working poor live inproviding health services eased some of the better conditions.problems for the working classes.
Social Structure of Mass Society Wealthy Elites make up 5% of population.Middle class is 15% of population Working class & poor are 80% of population.
Social Structures in Mass SocietyThe wealthy elite controlled up to 40% ofthe wealth during the Second IndustrialRevolution (compare that to their controlof 99% of the wealth today). The wealthyelite included landed aristocrats, bankers,industrialists, and merchants.The middle classes were made up ofeducated lawyers, doctors, scientists, andbusinessmen. Beneath this group werethe lower middle class, made up of smallshopkeepers, traders, and prosperousfarmers or peasants.The largest group, the working class, was nearly 80% of Europe’s population.Many were landholding peasants, farm laborers, sharecroppers, skilled andunskilled laborers, and some artisans. Urban workers experiencedimprovement in their lives after 1870. Reforms created better living conditions incities, and this, combined with wage increases and a decline in costs made liveseasier for workers.
Experiences of WomenIn 1800, women were defined mainly by family and household roles. In the 19thcentury, new job opportunities created a high demand for low paid white-collarworkers. This, coupled with a shortage of male workers, led many employers to hirewomen.Traditional views of the sexes were strengthened during the Industrial Revolution; menwere the chief wage earners and women were left with the care of the family.In the middle and upper classes, family was the central institution, with women runninghomes and men working. The working class experience was different, however, asmany working-class women worked outside the home in factories, offices, or in otherhouseholds as domestic servants.
Movement for Women’s RightsFeminism, or the movement forwomen’s rights, grew in the 19thcentury. In the 1830s, a number ofwomen in the United States andEurope argued for the right of womento divorce and own property. Theseearly efforts were not successful.The fight for property rights was onlythe beginning of the movement.In the late 1800s, women began to demand access to universities andoccupations dominated by men. By the 1850s, women were demanding equalpolitical rights, as well, including the right to vote. Women would protest andperform publicity stunts for recognition.Before World War I, demands for women’s rights were heard throughout Europeand the United States. Before 1914, however, women only had the right to vote inFinland and Norway and a few American states. It would take the end of WorldWar I and the dramatic changes it wrought to force male-dominated governmentsto give in on the basic issue of rights for women.
Universal EducationUniversal education was a product of the mass society ofthe late 19th and early 20th century. Between 1870 and1914, most Western governments set up state-financedprimary schools. Boys and girls between 6 and 12 were Compulsoryrequired to attend these schools; states took the education alsoresponsibility of training teachers. created more opportunities forWhy make a huge commitment to education? During women to workthe Industrial Revolution, unskilled labor was enough to outside the home.meet factory needs. During the Second Industrial Demands forRevolution, skilled workers were needed. teachers, mostly women,Another motive for education was political. Giving more increased with thepeople the right to vote created a need for educated increasedvoters. Primary schools were also used to instill patriotism educationaland nationalism. opportunities.The most immediate result of compulsory education wasan increase in the literacy rate, or the ability to read. Thiscreated opportunities for newspapers and books to beavailable to everyone.
National States and DemocracyBy the end of the 19th century, progress was made in establishing constitutions and representativegovernments throughout the major European states.In 1875, France created the Third Republic, and gained a republican constitution. The newgovernment had a president and a two-house legislature. The government was led by the primeminister, who was elected by the legislature.Italy was a united national state by 1870, but was divided along class lines. The government wascorrupt and unable to deal with many of the country’s problems.In Germany, the constitution of the new imperial Germany begun by Otto von Bismarck in 1871provided for a two-house legislature. The lower house was elected based on universal male suffrage.The emperor controlled the armed forces, foreign policy and the government bureaucracy. Bismarckworked to keep Germany from becoming a democracy. By the reign of William II, who was emperorfrom 1888 to 1918, Germany had the strongest military in Europe.Austria-Hungary enacted a constitution in 1867, but the emperor ignored it. Austria remainedtroubled by conflict throughout the region.Russia was led by a czar who had absolute power. With industrialization, however, came demandsfor representation in government. On January 22, 1905, a massive procession of workersdemonstrated in front of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg and sent a petition of grievances to theczar. Troops opened fire on the peaceful demonstration, killing hundreds. This Bloody Sunday,caused workers throughout Russia to call strikes. Eventually the czar was forced to create the Duma,a legislative body.
International Rivalries Crisis in the BalkansOtto von Bismarck recognized that Germany’s strong The Balkan provinces wereindustry and military upset the balance of power finally free of the Ottomanestablished by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. empire by the end of the 19th century. By 1878, Greece, Serbia, Romania, andFearing the France intended to create an anti-German Montenegro werealliance, Bismarck made a defensive alliance with Austria- independent states.Hungary in 1879. Italy joined the alliance in 1882. In 1908, Austria-HungaryThe united powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy took the drastic step ofwere aligned against France, while Bismarck also annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbia wasnegotiated a separate treaty with Russia and tried to outraged, as they wereremain on good terms with Great Britain. hoping to create a Serbian kingdom.In 1890, Emperor William II fired Bismarck and tookcontrol of Germany’s foreign policy. He dropped the The Russians backed thetreaty with Russia and enacted policies that eventually led Serbs and prepared for war.to Great Britain aligning itself with France and Russia. Germany threatened Russia, who backed down.Europe was now divided into the two opposing The Balkans were awash incamps that would eventually lead to world war. ill-will and divided alliances prior to World War I.
Toward the Modern ConsciousnessScience was one of the chief pillars supporting the optimisticview of the world that many Westerners shared in the 19thcentury.Science, which was based on fact and reason, offered acertainty of belief in the orderliness of nature. Many believedthat by applying already known scientific laws, humans couldarrive at a complete understanding of the physical world. Manyscientists were working on new discoveries, especially inphysics and medicine.Marie Curie discovered radium, an element that gave off energy(radiation). Albert Einstein provided a new view of theuniverse with his theory of relativity, which stated that spaceand time are not absolute but relative to the observer.Sigmund Freud proposed a series of theories that raisedquestions about the human mind. He believed human behaviorwas strongly determined by past experiences. He arguedthat painful and unsettling experiences were repressed, orhidden from a person’s consciousness. He developedpsychoanalysis – a way for therapists to probe deeply into apatient’s memory.
Darwin & RacismBy the late 19th and early 20th century,Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution wassometimes applied (inappropriately) tohuman society by nationalists and racists.Known as Social Darwinism, proponentsargued that social progress came from the“struggle for survival” that advanced thestrong and forced the weak into decline.Extreme nationalists used the same argument in favor of “national greatness.” TheGerman general Freidrich von Bernhardi argued that “war is a biological necessityof the first importance.” to remove the weak. Social Darwinism was seen at itsmost extreme in Germany, where nationalism and racism found prominence.Houston Stewart Chamberlin believed that modern-day Germans were the onlypure successors of the Aryans, who were portrayed as the original creators ofWestern Culture.Social Darwinism eventually led to hostility and discrimination against differentparts of society, but especially of the Jewish peoples.
Zionism Anti-Semitism & Zionism Hundreds of thousandsAnti-semitism – hostility toward and discrimination of Jews decided toagainst Jews – was not new to European civilization. emigrate to escape theJews had experienced discrimination since the Middle persecution. Many wentAges (remember they were blamed for the plague?). to the United States. Around 25,000 moved toIn the 19th century Jews were increasingly granted legal Palestine, which becameequality in many European countries, after centuries of home for a Jewishunequal status. Jews were becoming assimilated with nationalist movementthe cultures around them. called Zionism.However, in Germany and Austria-Hungary, new parties Palestine was thearose in the 1880s and 1890s that used anti-semitism to ancient home of Israel,win votes of people that felt threatened by the changing their ancient homelandeconomic times. and home of their dreams.Eastern Europe had the worst anti-semitism, as RussianJews were forced to live in certain regions, were Settlement in Palestinepersecuted, and had pogroms – organized massacres was difficult because it– that were widespread. was still part of the Ottoman Empire, which was opposed to Jewish immigration.
Culture of ModernityBetween 1870 and 1914, many writers andartists rebelled against traditional literary andartistic styles. The changes they produced arecalled modernism.Literature was revolutionized by symbolists,who believed objective knowledge of the worldwas impossible. They believed the externalworld was a collection of symbols.In painting, impressionism was a movementthat began in France. Artists rejected traditionalstyles in favor of symbolism and examining lightand dark, and other contrasts in the world.Architecture was revolutionized andfunctionalism became the dominantmovement. Functionalism was the idea thatbuildings should be functional, or useful.