Imperialism Power Point


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Imperialism is very similar to colonialism, with one major difference: colonial powers settle the countries of which they gain control, while imperial powers do not. The term “imperialism” does not seem to exist prior to the 1800s. Nineteenth-century imperialism was spurred in large part by the Industrial Revolution. The development of new industrial economies in the 1700s and 1800s necessitated the acquisition of raw materials and the desire to gain control of marketplaces; thus, by the mid-1800s, imperialistic actions of strong nations (most notably European nations) started to become policy.

1 Definition is from America: Pathways to the Present (New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005, p. 981).

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Imperialism Power Point

  1. 1. Imperialism
  2. 2. Imperialism: The policy by a stronger nation to attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, or militarily.
  3. 3. How Did Imperialism Begin? A coaling station for steamships, Cape Town, South Africa
  4. 4. The Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the mid-18th century • Britain’s advantages • The spread of industrialization
  5. 5. Economic Motives Industrialized nations sought: • Raw materials • Natural resources • A cheap labor supply • New marketplaces for manufactured goods
  6. 6. Technological • The steam engine Advances • Better transportation • Increased exploration • Improvements in communication The steamboat Herald (with mounted machine guns) on the Zambezi river in Africa One of the first steam engines
  7. 7. The Maxim Gun British troops fighting forces in Benin in 1897
  8. 8. Exploration • David Livingstone • Mapping the “Dark Continent” David Livingstone
  9. 9. Ideological Motives • A desire to “civilize” non-Europeans also spurred the development of imperialism • Social Darwinism Darwin’s handwritten cover page for Herbert Spencer The Origin of Species
  10. 10. ―The White Man’s Burden‖ By Rudyard Kipling Take up the White Man’s Take up the White Man's burden— burden— Send forth the best ye In patience to abide, breed— To veil the threat of terror Go, bind your sons to exile And check the show of pride; To serve your captives’ need; By open speech and simple, To wait, in heavy harness, An hundred times made plain, On fluttered folk and wild— To seek another's profit Your new-caught sullen peoples, And work another's gain. Half-devil and half-child.
  11. 11. The “White Man’s Burden” appeared in children’s books and even in advertisements of the time period.
  12. 12. Nationalism • 19th-century political changes • Allegiance to one’s country rather than to a monarch • Role of the “common people” • Unification movements Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi (on • Militarism horseback) leading an attack in Palermo, Sicily
  13. 13. German Unification Other strong nations emerged in the mid- 1800s as the result of political and economic changes in Europe and beyond.
  14. 14. The Scramble for Africa Begins King Leopold II of Belgium
  15. 15. “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” Henry Morton Stanley in 1869
  16. 16. The International African Association Steamboat Stanley on the Congo River
  17. 17. The Berlin Conference Established a set of agreed-upon rules regarding the competition among the great powers for colonies in Africa
  18. 18. Egypt The Suez Canal in 1875, six years after it opened • The Suez Canal • Shares in the canal held by France, Egypt • Britain buys out Egypt’s interest • Egyptian financial crisis • 1882 uprisings • British invade and occupy Egypt
  19. 19. European Control of Africa By 1914, only two African nations remained independent
  20. 20. Cecil Rhodes • British imperialist who made huge profits from Africa’s natural resources • Founder of the state of Rhodesia in Africa
  21. 21. “The Rhodes Colossus” This cartoon depicts British imperial ambitions to control the entire African continent.
  22. 22. A Closer Look at Imperialism in Africa • European quest to control natural resources • Doing so led to drastic changes in the infrastructure of the continent The port of Zanzibar around 1900
  23. 23. Improvements in Transportation and Communication
  24. 24. Direct vs. Indirect Rule European nations chose one of two different paths when it came to colonial rule: Indirect rule: colonies were given a Direct rule: the colony was directly degree of internal autonomy administered by the colonizer Example: Nigeria Example: Senegal
  25. 25. South Africa • The Dutch first arrived on the Cape of Good Hope in the late 17th century. • Europeans soon began to settle on the Cape, taking land and forcing the natives out. Jan van Riebeeck landing on the Cape of Good Hope in 1652
  26. 26. The Great Trek, 1835–1843
  27. 27. Diamonds and Gold In 1867, diamonds were discovered in South Africa; in 1886, gold was discovered. Diamond mining in South Africa
  28. 28. The Boer War, 1899–1902 • Dutch and British troops fought for control of the Cape • The British prevailed British troops landing on the Cape
  29. 29. China In the 1700s, China enjoyed a favorable balance of trade.
  30. 30. The Power of Opium • By 1779, the British East India Company was importing opium into China • Within a generation, opium addiction in China became widespread Mandarin with Opium Pipe
  31. 31. The East India Company’s opium factory stacking room
  32. 32. China and Britain Clash over Opium In 1839, a Chinese official demanded that the opium trade in Guangzhou (Canton) stop. The British refused, and war ensued. Chinese unloading opium from a British ship
  33. 33. The Opium War: 1839–1842 The British navy attacks
  34. 34. The Treaty of Nanjing Britain gained • Control of Hong Kong • The right to trade in five major cities • Extraterritoriality • The legalization of opium in China The signing of the Treaty of Nanjing aboard the British ship Cornwallis
  35. 35. Treaty Ports
  36. 36. The Open Door Policy • Turmoil in China • “Spheres of influence” • “Open Door” policy formulated by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay • No nations formally accepted Hay’s proposal, but they didn’t counter the Open Door policy’s U.S. Secretary of State John Hay provisions either
  37. 37. Catholic cathedral in Shanghai
  38. 38. The Boxer Rebellion, 1899 American, Japanese, and British troops storming Beijing
  39. 39. The Boxer Protocol • China was forced to sign the Boxer Protocol • Required to pay damages to Europeans • Forced to allow foreign soldiers to live in Beijing Signing of the Boxer Protocol
  40. 40. Chinese Nationalism Nationalism increased in China as groups fought to not only rid China of foreigners, but to end centuries of imperial rule.
  41. 41. Japan Japan had closed its doors to the world in the 1600s
  42. 42. The ―Opening‖ of Japan In the mid- 1800s, the U.S. opened Japan to trade; soon, it too became a strong industrialized nation. Japanese admire gifts brought by U.S. Commodore Perry
  43. 43. The Meiji Restoration • Tokugawa Shogunate overthrown by imperial forces • Emperor Mutsuhito ruled 1867–1912 • Modernization Japanese Emperor Mutsuhito
  44. 44. Japanese Modernization Japanese battleship Shikishima
  45. 45. Japanese Industrialization
  46. 46. The Russo-Japanese War • 1904–1905 • Japan and Russia fought for control of Manchuria • Japan won easily; Russia was humiliated A Japanese print depicting Japan's naval victory in the Russo-Japanese War
  47. 47. Japanese Empire-Building, 1929–1939 Axis rally in Tokyo, 1937
  48. 48. The United States Women at work on a power loom mill
  49. 49. The Monroe Doctrine • Part of President Monroe’s 1823 Message to Congress • Warned European powers not to interfere with Western Hemisphere affairs or overthrow independent republics there • Promised the U.S. Political cartoon titled “Keep Off!” wouldn’t interfere with European affairs or colonies
  50. 50. Hawaii • Independent kingdom in the Pacific Ocean • Became a republic in 1894 • Annexed by the United States in 1898 Queen Liliuokalani, the last reigning queen of Hawaii
  51. 51. The Spanish-American War The United States gained control of Spanish colonies in the Pacific and the Caribbean, most notably Cuba and the Philippines. The wreck of the Maine
  52. 52. • Filipino rebels The Philippines fought alongside U.S. soldiers against the Spanish • U.S. fails to grant the Philippines independence after the war • U.S.-Filipino fighting breaks out in 1899 and continues for years • Philippines didn’t gain independence A native district of Manila burning until 1946
  53. 53. The Panama Canal Construction of the canal’s Miraflores Lock • De Lesseps obtains canal rights from • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty Colombia • Panama as U.S. • U.S. buys rights in 1903 protectorate • U.S. backs Panamanian independence • Canal completed in 1914
  54. 54. Imperialism in India • Vasco da Gama • Post in Calicut • The spice trade Vasco da Gama and the ruler of Calicut
  55. 55. The British East India Company • Sir Thomas Roe meets with Mughal Emperor Jahangir • The British East India Company gains a monopoly on trade with India Mughal Emperor Jahangir receives Sir Thomas Roe
  56. 56. Cash Crops in India Cotton bales on Cotton Green, Bombay, early 1900s
  57. 57. The Battle of Plassey, 1757 • Nabob of Bengal seizes Calcutta, imprisons British East India Company workers • Nabob supported by the French • British troops win a major victory at Plassey • Victory drives the French from India, giving Britain a monopoly on trade Robert Clive
  58. 58. Improvements in India’s Infrastructure In India, the British built: • The world’s third largest railroad system • Telephone and telegraph lines • Dams, bridges, and canals
  59. 59. • Sepoys: Indian The Sepoy Rebellion soldiers who served under British commanders • 1857: Sepoys refused to use ammunition greased with pork/beef fat • Full-scale rebellion broke out • After quashing the rebellion, the British took control of India
  60. 60. ―The Jewel in the Crown‖ In this 1897 map of the world, British possessions are outlined in red and shaded pink.
  61. 61. French Indochina “French Indochina” encompassed a number of self- governing regions in Southeast Asia, including modern- day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
  62. 62. The French Imperial System in Indochina Saigon harbor, circa 1887
  63. 63. Burma British forces land at Rangoon (now Yangon), Burma, 1824
  64. 64. The Legacy of Imperialism • World War I • Economic Consequences • Third-World Nationalism
  65. 65. World War I British troops on the front line, Somme area, 1916
  66. 66. Economic Consequences Tea workers on a plantation in Assam, India, circa 1950
  67. 67. Third-World Nationalism
  68. 68. The Legacy of Imperialism Caricature of former Ugandan dictator Idi Amin Mozambican war refugees, 1978