Introduction Late 19 th century expansion is called imperialism . “ A national policy of conquest of other regions or peoples for the purpose of extending political and economic control and of exploiting the resources of other regions or people.”
Background As Ottoman and Qing empires weakened, European states expanded. Nationalist sentiments allowed mobilization of populations. Industrialization game them the tools to expand. Trade connections gave them information about the rest of the world.
Effects of Imperialism Trade encouraged between dominant states and their colonies. Migrations of people based on labor needs and opportunities. Modern racism developed. Development of nationalism in colonial lands.
Motives of Imperialism Colonies served as a supplier of raw materials. A market for manufactured goods. An outlet for surplus population.
Political Motives Colonies provided: Strategic sites on trade routes. Harbors to supply naval ships. To gain advantages and withhold from rivals. Domestic pride in imperialist success.
Cultural Motives Open new lands to Christian missionaries. To fulfill a civilizing mission (the White Man’s Burden).
The Tools of Imperialism Based on European technical advantages such as: Transportation: railroads, steam ships. Military technology: rifled gun barrels, breech-loading machine guns. Communications: telegraph.
European Imperialism The British in India Decline of Mughal state in India allowed the British East India Company to expand its influence. By the 1750’s, it won the right to rule from local authorities and Mughal emperors.
An army of British and natives called Sepoys enforced rule. The Sepoy Revolt 1857-1858. Sparked by the use of animal fat to lubricate cartridges! The British Government imposed direct control after this mutiny.
The Transformation of India Encouraged export crops of tea, coffee, and opium Constructed transportation and communications infrastructure. English schools taught British culture. Suppressed Indian customs that conflicted with westen values, especially the sati .
Imperialism in Asia As the Qing grew weaker, central Asian republics came under Russian control. Dutch East Indies came under Dutch control. The British established colonies in Malaya and Singapore. Indo-China: France controled Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos by 1890’s.
Belgium Belgan King Leopold administered an abusive colonial regime in the Congo. Abuses caused the Belgian government to take control in 1908.
The British in Egypt Muhammad Ali and Egyptian leaders borrowed heavily from Britain to build the country. When loans were not repaid, Britain took control of Egyptian finances. Egypt was occupied by the British Army in 1882 after a rebellion.
The Berlin Conference 1884-1885 Established ground rules for occupation of unclaimed territory in Africa. Used as a justification to take over. African forces were defeated easily with modern military equipment. Only Liberia, a U.S. protectorate, and Ethiopia remained free.
The Pacific Settler colonies were established by Britin in Austalia and New Zealand after Capt. James Cook explored there. Convict settlement established near Sydney in 1788. Land drew other free men. Good land in New Zealand attracted others.
Native populations in both countries treated much like North American native populations. Many killed by disease, others driven into scrub lands. Australian natives pushed into reservations by 1900.
The Maori in New Zealand placed under British protection by Treaty of Waiangi in 1840. Land wars in early 1860’s ended with Maori confined to reservations.
United States Imperialism The Monroe Doctrine proclaimed the Americas a U.S. protectorate in 1823. Justified U.S. intervention in American Affairs. Mostly guaranteed free trade in the region benefiting U.S. and European merchants.
Hawaii became a U.S. possession in 1898 after planters and businessmen overthrew the monarchy in 1893. Panama rebellion against Columbia was assisted to get approval for the Panama Canal. U.S. military also protected American economic interests in Central America (gunboat diplomacy).
Japanese Imperialism Japan resented unequal treaties they were forced to accept in the 1860’s. Japan rapidly modernized its military. Developed a modern navy and used it to dominate Korea.
Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895 War over the control of Korea. Resulted in an easy Japanese victory over Qing forces. 1895: Peace treaty freed Korea and ceded Taiwan, and other territory to Japan. Japan also aquired treaty rights like Europeans in China.
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 War over control of Korea and influence in Manchuria. Japanese easily defeated the Russian Navy and drove the Russians out of southern Manchuria. Japan received recognition of interests in Korea and China.
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 Victory made Japan a major imperial power.
Empire and Economy Colonies were built up as suppliers of natural resources. Mines and agriculture built up. Most of the benefits went to the colonial powers.
In India… Raw cotton went for export rather than local use. Railroads aided this process. Indian textile producers lost out. New crops also introduced to meet European demand, tea, lumber, rubber, etc. Opium was planted in India to export to China.
European Labor Migrations European migrants went to temperate lands as free cultivators and industrial laborers. From 1800-1914, 50 million left for overseas opportunities. About 32 million went to the U.S. Free land and labor shortages drew them. Some went as indentured laborers.
Indentured Laborers Most indentured labor came from Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. Most went to tropical and subtropical regions. Laborers offered free travel to destination, a small salary, and free transportation home after second term of seven years.
Empire and Migration European migrations were possible because settler societies were established in many areas. Indentured movement made possible by European control of mines and plantations.
Scientific Racism English philosopher Herbert Spencer developed the Social Darwinism Theory. Stronger races dominated just like stronger species in Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. Justified domination by Europeans. U.S. and Japanese developed same ideas.
Colonial Conflict Conflicts between subject people and colonizers developed as resentments grew. Sepoy Rebellion in India is the best known.
The Indian National Congress The most important Indian reform group Founded in 1885 to allow educated Indians to express their views on public affairs. By 1900 began to call for self-rule as part of the British Empire.
Demands resulted in limited franchise (vote) for the wealthy in 1909. This was too little, too late….. Mass movement developed that called for independence. A few turned to violence.
Mohandas Ghandi pushed for peaceful resistance to British rule.
Ghandi and the Indian National Congress formed a model for independence leaders in other countries.
Conclusion European influence came from wealth and economic power. Imperialism had large influence on colonies. Shaped economies and societies. Created multicultural societies.
Conclusion Developed subject peoples sense of national identity. Still influences colonial countries today!