Introduction to Imperialism


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An overview of the Age of Imperialism.

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Introduction to Imperialism

  1. 1. Introduction to Imperialism
  2. 2. Definition of Imperialism <ul><li>Process by which one state, with superior military strength and more advanced technology, imposes its control over the land, resources, and population of a less developed region </li></ul>
  3. 3. What did this look like?
  4. 4. The Rationale <ul><li>Think about the last two units (Revolutions, Industrial Revolution) - how did we get here? </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism - large colonies meant power </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization - vast access to natural resources and cheap labor </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarianism - Europeans thought it was their duty to civilize and uplift African people </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism - Survival of the fittest people </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nationalism (1800-1914) <ul><li>French Revolution and Napoleon spread nationalism throughout Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Pride in one’s country was based upon industrial production, military strength, and size of empire </li></ul>
  6. 6. Industrialization (1750-1900) <ul><li>Increased population in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Great technological advances - military, transportation, and communications </li></ul><ul><li>Continued economic expansion requires more resources and markets </li></ul>
  7. 7. Humanitarianism <ul><li>Christian missionaries saw Africa and Asia as fertile ground for converts </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural superiority - Europeans must “save” the rest of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Must stop the Arab slave trade in Africa (still in practice in North/East Africa) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Scramble for Africa <ul><li>Prior to the Age of Imperialism, Europeans only controlled port towns (except for Portugal who had two larger colonies) </li></ul><ul><li>British took South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Gambia in the mid-1800s </li></ul>
  9. 9. Scramble for Africa <ul><li>Between 1875 and 1900 European control of Africa went from 10% to 90% </li></ul><ul><li>Only two nations, Liberia (home to many freed American slaves) and Ethiopia remained independent </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Berlin Conference <ul><li>Tensions began to mount between rival European nations </li></ul><ul><li>Conference called in 1884 by Bismarck of Germany to defuse disputes and set guidelines for colonization </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Berlin Conference <ul><li>Conference in Berlin essentially divided up Africa – no African representatives were in attendance (or were even invited) </li></ul><ul><li>While dividing up the continent tribal territories and rivalries were not considered. Boundaries were drawn that divided tribes and coupled enemies together, leading to modern problems in Africa. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Administrative Styles <ul><li>Colonies (Direct Rule) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French, German, Portuguese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European rule imposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly centralized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No attempt to preserve African institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protectorates (Indirect Rule) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor appointed by British gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local leaders advised by British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supposed to preserve African institutions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Administrative Styles <ul><li>Spheres of Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local rulers maintain control of internal affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans control port towns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Company Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European country grants economic and political control to trading company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India (revoked later) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium Congo (terrible abuses) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Competition for Asia <ul><li>British East India Company had long controlled large parts of India, but other areas were soon being sought after </li></ul>
  15. 15. Competition for Asia <ul><li>Subjugation of Asia less violent and more diplomatic than in Africa (other than the French campaign for Indochina) </li></ul>