The Vietnam War

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The Vietnam War

  1. 1. The Vietnam War 1954 - 1975
  2. 2. Background to the War <ul><li>France controlled “Indochina” since 1883. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan took control during World War II </li></ul><ul><li>With U.S. aid, France attempted re-colonization in the postwar period </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes of the Vietnam War <ul><li>Vietnam’s desire for freedom from colonial rule </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. fears of the spread of communism </li></ul><ul><li>South Vietnam’s failure to comply with the Geneva Accords </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts by North Vietnam to reunite the nation under Communist Rule </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. support for the anti-Communist government of South Vietnam </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background to the War <ul><li>Ho Chi Minh’s leader of North Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Viet Minh group organized to resist occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Domino Theory Vietnam falls to communism, Southeast Asia would follow </li></ul>
  5. 5. Background to the War <ul><li>International Conference at Geneva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam was divided at 17 th parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh’s nationalist forces controlled the North </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ngo Dinh Diem , a French-educated, Roman Catholic claimed control of the South </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Background to the War <ul><li>A date was set for democratic elections to reunify Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Diem backed out of the elections, leading to military conflict between North and South </li></ul>
  7. 7. U.S. Military Involvement Begins <ul><li>Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diem’s family holds all power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth is hoarded by the elite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist majority persecuted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torture, lack of political freedom prevail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. aided Diem’s government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ike sent financial and military aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>675 U.S. Army advisors sent by 1960. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Early Protests of Diem’s Government Self-Emolation by a Buddhist Monk
  9. 9. War protesters gathered in Saigon to express dissatisfaction with the way the Diem government was handling South Vietnam ’ s internal political dissension. Antiwar Protest in Saigon
  10. 10. U.S. Military Involvement Begins <ul><li>Kennedy elected 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Increases military “advisors” to 16,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1963: JFK supports a Vietnamese military coup d’etat – Diem and his brother are murdered (Nov. 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy was assassinated just weeks later (Nov. 22) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Johnson Sends Ground Forces <ul><li>Remembers Truman’s “loss” of China </li></ul>I’m not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.
  12. 12. Johnson Sends Ground Forces <ul><li>Tonkin Gulf Incident  1964 Johnson to Congress, the attacks were unprovoked) </li></ul><ul><li>USS Maddox </li></ul><ul><li>Tonkin Gulf Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the US. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. US Forces Mobilize <ul><li>Professional soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>100 % men registered to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers of African Americans and low income men </li></ul><ul><li>Young men excused from draft </li></ul><ul><li>25% for health reasons </li></ul><ul><li>30% deferments or postponements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>college </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draft monitored student progress </li></ul><ul><li>Lottery system </li></ul>
  14. 14. Noncombats <ul><li>10,000 military women </li></ul><ul><li>20,000-45,000 civilian women </li></ul><ul><li>Served as nurses, red cross, or humanitarian relief workers </li></ul>
  15. 15. U.S. Troop Deployments in Vietnam 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 1961 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 U.S. Troops
  16. 16. The Air War 1965-1968 <ul><li>1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965) </li></ul><ul><li>1966-68: Ongoing bombing of Hanoi nonstop for 3 years! Ho Chi Minh Trail . </li></ul><ul><li>Downed Pilots: P.O.W.s </li></ul><ul><li>Carpet Bombing, Cluster Bombs, Napalm </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Air War: A Napalm Attack
  18. 18. Results of Napalm Attack
  19. 19. The Ground War 1965-1968 <ul><li>No territorial goals </li></ul><ul><li>Body counts on TV every night (first “living room” war ) </li></ul>
  20. 21. Who Is the Enemy? <ul><li>Vietcong : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers by day; guerillas at night. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very patient people willing to accept many casualties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The US grossly underestimated their resolve and their resourcefulness. </li></ul></ul>The guerilla wins if he does not lose, the conventional army loses if it does not win. -- Mao Zedong
  21. 22. Who Is the Enemy?
  22. 23. The Ground War 1965-1968 <ul><li>General Westmoreland </li></ul>We can see the “light at the end of the tunnel.” Search and destroy
  23. 24. <ul><li>U.S. Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>US. Forces instituted a program of pacification </li></ul><ul><li>“ win the hearts and minds” of the South Vietnamese people </li></ul><ul><li>resentment </li></ul>The Ground War 1965-1968
  24. 25. <ul><li>Declining Morale </li></ul><ul><li>Vietcong knew geography </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers faced constant danger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paths could lead into an ambush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could trip a deadly mine or booby trap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impossible to tell the difference between a Vietcong and a civilian </li></ul>The Ground War 1965-1968
  25. 26. Public Opinion <ul><li>Reporters and TV crews followed soldiers on patrol and interviewed people throughout South Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Accused the government of inflating body count to show success </li></ul>
  26. 27. Public Opinion <ul><li>Hawks </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the war </li></ul><ul><li>More troops and heavier bombing were necessary to victory </li></ul><ul><li>Doves </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed the war </li></ul><ul><li>Not crucial to national security </li></ul><ul><li>Against the wishes of the Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>Drained resources from Great Society programs </li></ul>
  27. 28. Anti-War Movement <ul><li>Members </li></ul><ul><li>Students (SDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights workers </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors </li></ul><ul><li>Homemakers </li></ul><ul><li>Retirees </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>College Campuses </li></ul><ul><li>War rallies </li></ul><ul><li>Debates </li></ul><ul><li>Teach-ins </li></ul><ul><li>Protested ROTC </li></ul><ul><li>Burned draft cards </li></ul>
  28. 29. The Tet Offensive, January 1968 <ul><li>N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon) </li></ul><ul><li>Take every major southern city </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensive </li></ul><ul><li>Viet Cong destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>N. Vietnamese army debilitated </li></ul><ul><li>BUT…it’s seen as an American defeat by the media </li></ul>
  29. 30. The Tet Offensive, January 1968 Page 613
  30. 31. Impact of the Tet Offensive <ul><li>Domestic U.S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Hey, Hey LBJ! How many kids did you kill today? </li></ul>
  31. 33. Johnson’s popularity dropped in 1968 from 48% to 36%.
  32. 34. Election of 1968 <ul><li>Democratic Candidates </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ </li></ul><ul><li>Hubert Humphrey </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy Assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Convention </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 protesters </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago Mayor dispatched police and National Guard </li></ul><ul><li>Protesters threw rocks and bottles </li></ul><ul><li>Police clubbed and threw tear gas </li></ul>
  33. 35. Generation Gap <ul><li>Teenagers and young adults found themselves at odds with their parents </li></ul><ul><li>(experienced Great Depression and WWII) </li></ul>
  34. 36. Impact of the Vietnam War <ul><li>… I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President. </li></ul>Johnson announces (March, 1968):
  35. 37. American Morale Begins to Dip <ul><li>Disproportionate representation of poor people and minorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe racial problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Major drug problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Officers in combat 6 mo.; in rear 6 mo. Enlisted men in combat for 12 mo. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Nixon on Vietnam <ul><li>Expansion of the conflict  The “Secret War” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agent Orange (chemical defoliant) </li></ul>
  37. 39. Vietnamization <ul><li>Peace with Honor </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer fighting to south Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>Troop in country </li></ul><ul><li>1969 – 540,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1972 -- 24,000 </li></ul>
  38. 40. Are We Becoming the Enemy? <ul><li>Lt. William Calley , Platoon Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Mylai Massacre , 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>At least 450 unarmed villagers (women, children, elderly) </li></ul>Charlie Company, 1 st Battalion, 20 th Infantry
  39. 41. Pentagon Papers 1971 <ul><li>Published collection of secret government documents that traced US involvement in Vietnam since Truman’s term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary reason for fighting not to eliminate communism, but to avoid humiliating defeat . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New York Times v. United States (1971) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Anti-War Demonstrations Columbia University 1967
  41. 44. Hell no, we won’t go!
  42. 45. Democratic Convention in Chicago, 1968 Student Protestors at Univ. of CA in Berkeley, 1968 Anti-War Demonstrations
  43. 46. “ Hanoi Jane” Jane Fonda: Traitor?
  44. 47. Anti-War Demonstrations <ul><li>May 4, 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>4 students shot dead. </li></ul><ul><li>11 students wounded </li></ul>Kent State University <ul><li>Jackson State University </li></ul><ul><li>May 10, 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>2 dead; 12 wounded </li></ul>
  45. 49. The Ceasefire, 1973 <ul><li>Peace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Vietnam attacks South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Massive U.S. bombing commences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1973: Ceasefire signed between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S., South Vietnam, & North Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace with honor (President Nixon) </li></ul>
  46. 50. Peace Negotiations <ul><li>US & Vietnamese argue for 5 months over the size of the conference table! </li></ul>Dr. Henry Kissinger & Le Duc Tho
  47. 51. The Ceasefire, 1973 <ul><li>Conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. to remove all troops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North Vietnam would resume war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No provision for POWs or MIAs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>1975: North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City </li></ul>
  48. 52. The Fall of Saigon South Vietnamese Attempt to Flee the Country
  49. 53. The Fall of Saigon America Abandons Its Embassy April 30, 1975
  50. 54. The Fall of Saigon North Vietnamese at the Presidential Palace
  51. 55. Formerly Saigon A United Vietnam
  52. 56. The Costs <ul><li>3,000,000 Vietnamese killed </li></ul><ul><li>58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded </li></ul><ul><li>Under-funding of Great Society programs </li></ul><ul><li>$150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. morale, self-confidence, trust of government, decimated </li></ul>
  53. 57. The Impact <ul><li>26 th Amendment : 18-year-olds vote </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon abolished the draft  all-volunteer army </li></ul><ul><li>War Powers Act, 1973 ٭ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President must notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying military force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President must withdraw forces unless he gains Congressional approval within 90 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disregard for Veterans  seen as “baby killers” </li></ul><ul><li>POW/MIA issue lingered </li></ul>
  54. 58. Some American POWs Returned from the “Hanoi Hilton” Senator John McCain (R-AZ)
  55. 59. 2,583 American POWs / MIAs still unaccounted for today.
  56. 60. <ul><li>If we have to fight, we will fight. You will kill ten of our men and we will kill one of yours, and in the end it will be you who tires of it. </li></ul>And in the End…. Ho Chi Minh:
  57. 61. The Vietnam Memorial, Washington, D.C.
  58. 62. Memorial to US Servicemen in Vietnam
  59. 63. Memorial to US Nurses in Vietnam
  60. 64. 58,000
  61. 65. These colors don’t run
  62. 66. &quot;Ghost of the Night Watchman&quot;
  63. 68. &quot;The Wall at Night&quot;
  64. 70. Rubbings
  65. 72. President Clinton formally recognized Vietnam on July 11, 1995
  66. 73. Where Were You in the War, Daddy? This war haunts us still!
  67. 74. AND TODAY….. The “Light” at the End of This Tunnel? 2002 to ? : “ Operation Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom” 5300+ American dead and counting… ?

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