Chapter 27

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Chapter 27

  1. 3. The Path of Empire 1890-1899 Schneider/Emmons 2012
  2. 4. Imperialism Looms <ul><li>Isolation difficult when exports increase </li></ul><ul><li>New sense of power with booming population, wealth, and industry </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow-journalism stimulated interest in overseas activities </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries convert “backwards people” </li></ul><ul><li>Darwinism now interpreted as earth belonging to strong and fit, ie Uncle Sam </li></ul>
  3. 6. Imperialism Looms <ul><li>Europe and Asia had colonies for decades </li></ul><ul><li>America needed to follow-suit to better compete </li></ul><ul><li>Steel navy made sea power more realistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Thayer Mahan - The Influence of Sea Power Upon History , control of seas key to world dominance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pan-American Conference: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creates plan for economic cooperation via reciprocal tariff reduction </li></ul></ul>
  4. 7. Imperialism Looms <ul><li>Manifestation of international interest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Big Sister” policy: rally Latin Am. behind US leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>open L. Am markets to American traders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diplomatic Crises: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 Italians lynched in New Orleans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US and German navies conflict in Samoan Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 US sailors die in Chile’s port of Valparaiso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US and Canada argue over seal hunting </li></ul></ul>
  5. 8. Reinforcing the Monroe Doctrine <ul><li>1895-1896, gold discovered in disputed boundary area b/w Venezuela and British Guiana </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. of State Olney sent GB strongly worded letter declaring its attempt to dominate Ven. violated M. Doctrine and arbitration should commence </li></ul><ul><li>Added America now calls W.Hemisphere shots </li></ul><ul><li>GB took 4 months to reply, denied relevance of MD, shot down arbitration </li></ul>
  6. 10. Reinforcing the Monroe Doctrine <ul><li>Cleveland asked Congress for a “boundary designation” commission, if GB did not accept the line the US would fight for it </li></ul><ul><li>GB not willing to fight, accepted arbitration </li></ul><ul><li>Monroe Doctrine strengthened </li></ul><ul><li>Many L. Am countries happy with determination of America’s protection </li></ul>
  7. 11. Hawaii <ul><li>Natural provision supply point for ships </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries arrived as early as 1820 </li></ul><ul><li>By 1840s State Dept says hands off </li></ul><ul><li>1887, treaty secures Pearl Harbor rights </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar cultivation hurt by 1890 McKinley Tariff </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: annex Hawaii so products can’t be taxed </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Liliuokalani not in favor </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrown in 1893 </li></ul>
  8. 13. Hawaii <ul><li>Whites saw it ready for annexation like TX </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty rushed to DC, but Harrison’s term ended </li></ul><ul><li>Cleveland believed Queen Liliuokalani had been wronged </li></ul><ul><li>1893, treaty withdrawn, investigation started </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of HI natives anti-annexation </li></ul><ul><li>White Ams wouldn’t reinstate Queen L. </li></ul><ul><li>First legitimate debate over imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as new Manifest Destiny </li></ul>
  9. 14. Causes of Spanish-American War <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic interests </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Public opinion </li></ul>
  10. 15. Cuba <ul><li>1895, revolt against ________ </li></ul><ul><li>Also hurt by sugar tariff </li></ul><ul><li>Scorched earth policy </li></ul><ul><li>USA sympathized with fight for independence </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish General “Butcher” Weyler put civilians behind barbed wire in reconcentration camps, no sanitation, death rampant </li></ul><ul><li>Am. public outraged, Cleveland did not want war </li></ul>
  11. 16. Enter Yellow Journalism <ul><li>“ You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war” ~Hearst </li></ul><ul><li>Depictions of male Spanish official brutally disrobing and searching an Am. woman </li></ul><ul><li>1898, battleship Maine sent to Cuba to protect and evacuate Americans if situation worsens </li></ul><ul><li>Hearst headlined a private letter by the Spanish Minister in DC badmouthing McKinley </li></ul>
  12. 18. Remember the Maine <ul><li>Feb 15, 1898, the Maine explodes in Havana harbor, 260 die </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish investigation said internal accident </li></ul><ul><li>American investigation said submarine mine </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitration denied, public wants war </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow journalism led public to believe Spanish government guilty of intolerable treachery </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain! </li></ul>
  13. 20. Road to Spanish-American War <ul><li>DC made two demands to Madrid: end the reconcentration camps, sign armistice with Cuban rebels...Madrid agreed </li></ul><ul><li>McKinley did not want hostilities </li></ul><ul><li>Public burned with war fever, yellow journalism, Cuban exiles in America </li></ul><ul><li>McKinley gave in, also thought Spain might break promises, didn’t want to lose political clout </li></ul>
  14. 21. War Begins <ul><li>April 1898, McKinley sends Congress war message, war declared, pass Teller Amendment : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuban freedom when Spain overthrown, USA would not annex it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>America jubilant, but army is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unprepared for climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outmanned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America’s navy 5th in world, Spain’s is in shambles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TR had Commodore George Dewey take the Asian fleet to Philippines just in case </li></ul>
  15. 22. War <ul><li>May 1898, Dewey in Manila </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish fleet destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Americans only needed cough drops to soothe raw throats from cheering for victory </li></ul><ul><li>Victory short-lived, while waiting for reinforcements, foreign ships gather to protect their nationals </li></ul><ul><li>German navy superior, defiesAm blockade regulations, both lose patience, Dewey threatens war, disagreement blows over </li></ul>
  16. 23. War <ul><li>USA troops arrive August 1898, collaborate with Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo </li></ul><ul><li>Resurgence in desire to annex HI, could be supply station </li></ul><ul><li>Formally annexed in July 1898 </li></ul><ul><li>Residents given citizenship </li></ul>
  17. 24. War <ul><li>Spain sends warships and torpedo boats to Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Panic on coast, CW ships sent for morale </li></ul><ul><li>Am sends General Shafter with Ams provided with heavy woolen underwear, uniforms for sub-zero weather </li></ul><ul><li>Enter Rough Riders </li></ul>
  18. 25. Rough Riders <ul><li>Volunteers, cowboys, ex-polo players, ex-convicts </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Col Leonard Wood, organized by TR </li></ul><ul><li>Rough Riders in Cuba, most without horses </li></ul><ul><li>Shafter lands near Santiago, no real opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting starts July 1898, Rough Riders charge San Juan Hill </li></ul>
  19. 27. End of War <ul><li>2 days after San Juan Hill,Spain’s fleet destroyed, 500 Spaniards and 1 American killed </li></ul><ul><li>Santiago surrenders </li></ul><ul><li>American army rushes to Puerto Rico before war ends, greeted as liberating heroes </li></ul><ul><li>August 1898, Spain signed armistice: Treaty of Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Could Spain have won after a few more months? Americans suffered greatly from malaria, typhoid, dysentery, and yellow fever...400 died from battle wounds, 5,000+ died from disease </li></ul>
  20. 28. Treaty of Paris <ul><li>Spain ceded Philippines for $20 million, </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico, Guam, West Indies, recognized American presence in Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Teller Amendment Replaced by </li></ul><ul><li>Platt Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba could transfer land only to USA </li></ul><ul><li>American intervention in Cuban affairs permitted when USA deemed it necessary </li></ul><ul><li>restricted Cuba’s foreign policy/commercial activity </li></ul><ul><li>leased Guantanamo Bay to USA </li></ul>
  21. 29. Outcome <ul><li>Hawaii annexed, America in possession of Cuba and Puerto Rico </li></ul><ul><li>Island bases Wake Island, Guam, Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Plethora of stepping stones for Pacific empire </li></ul><ul><li>Emilio Aguinaldo didn’t want to be under American rule either, led revolt: Sp-Am war ~3 months, Philippine incursion ~3 years, 5,000 Americans died, less civility b/c they’re “brown” </li></ul><ul><li>TR emerges as war hero </li></ul>
  22. 30. An American Empire...or Not <ul><li>First time American presence in distant land, thickly populated, alien race, culture, language, religion, government </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Imperialist League not quiet, stressed Filipino desire for freedom...imperialism against Dec. of Ind. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-imperialists emphasized trade profits </li></ul><ul><li>The White Man’s Burden --Rudyard Kipling supported American imperialism </li></ul>
  23. 31. The White Man’s Burden <ul><li>White men should colonize and rule other nations for the benefit of those people </li></ul><ul><li>Makes imperialism sound noble </li></ul><ul><li>White nations have a duty and obligation to rule so nations that are “behind” can adopt western ways </li></ul>
  24. 34. What to do with Puerto Rico <ul><li>Foraker Act of 1900 -PR’s given limited degree of popular government, citizenship in 1917 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education, sanitation, transportation improved, but some PR’s still wanted independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did the Constitution follow the flag? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insular Cases , 1901, Supreme Ct decided flag outruns Const.--full Const. rights do not necessarily extend to people living in areas under American control </li></ul></ul>
  25. 35. What to do with Cuba <ul><li>Military govt had been set up under Rough Rider Leonard Wood, very successful in improving Cuban govt, finance, education, agriculture, and public health </li></ul><ul><li>Abiding by Teller Amendment , USA withdrew in 1902, but Platt Amendment let it maintain a presence </li></ul>
  26. 36. America Looking Forward <ul><li>Sp-Am War did not CAUSE America to become a world power, it PROVED that Am already was </li></ul><ul><li>More international respect </li></ul><ul><li>Did not necessarily enter war with imperialistic goals, but certainly came out of it with imperialistic results </li></ul><ul><li>Britain pleased, Germany jealous, Latin Am suspicious/nervous </li></ul><ul><li>North and South more unified--fought together </li></ul>

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