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  1. 1. IMPERIALISM WORLD DOMINATION Hegemony Rise of European Powers
  2. 2. Pattern of change Enlightenment/Age of Reason Scientific Revolution Logic & Reason French Rev/Napoleon Industrial Revolution Romanticism/Emotions Glory/Honor/Pride Nationalism Cultural Pride Restoration of Old Order Need for Colonies New Weapons National Competition
  3. 3. Imperialism <ul><li>Mixed motives. Imperial powers claimed economic necessity, strategic imperatives, and a high-minded &quot;civilizing mission.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently motives were confused, so it became &quot;the white man's burden&quot; to convert Africans to Christianity while at the same time enslaving them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competition between imperial powers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scramble for Africa and later for the Pacific islands illustrates the intense competition between imperial nations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States took over the Philippines in order to be on an equal footing with other powers already in China. Japan seized Korea and Taiwan for the same reason. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different models of colonial rule. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In practice, the new imperialism varied considerably; including settler colonies such as Australia, indirect rule as in British Africa, direct rule as in French Indochina, and even the private fiefdom of Leopold II in the Belgian Congo. In all cases, ultimate authority rested with the imperial state, and local rulers had little real power. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic colonialism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of the colony was to supply cheap raw commodities to the imperialist state and to be a market for manufactured goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All resources, natural and human, were directed to this effort. Forests were transformed into plantations, and workers impressed into service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There was no effort to develop a colonial industry that might compete with the imperial state. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contempt for local cultures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With few exceptions, the imperial powers regarded colonial people as their inferiors and treated them as such. The French made an effort to convert and educate colonial peoples. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British also employed colonials as soldiers and minor civil servants, but made little provision for education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This disrespect contributed to a growing nationalism in India. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Imperialism <ul><li>Reasons- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic-raw materials for industry, markets for goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military-bases for ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian-help under developed cultures, spread Christian religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racism-”social darwinism” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on military might </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social, Religious, and Economic justifications </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of governance <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Britain –England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>indirect rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>protectorates </li></ul><ul><li>Spheres of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Mandates </li></ul><ul><li>Settler colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietory colony – area granted to one or more individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Dominion – British Commonwealth of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>transmigration </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from puppet states or satellite states </li></ul>
  6. 6. Imperialism – Neo Imperialism (post Franco Prussian War) <ul><li>Old Imperialism beginning with the Age of Exploration until the early 1700s with Spain and Portugal acquiring territory in Central and South America while mostly trading companies established for Britain, France, Netherlands, Russia) </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutions severed political ties but maintained the series of economic dependencies and trading stations during 1700s and by 1800s new pattern occurred and intensified following the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 which upset the balance of power as we have Germanic and Italian unity. </li></ul><ul><li>The Berlin Conference legitimized both the scramble for Africa and the solidification of the Europeans in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>1 st period of Imperialism the companies used the local political entities to gain entry and establish their trading posts in the New phase they conquered the area and had to occupy to control. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st phase had more economic ramifications while the second phase became more political and because they had to hold the territory – more military. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Direct - Indirect <ul><li>Direct Rule- (usually the French method) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The imperialist power controlled all levels of government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A French man or a German would be the head of the government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sultans or chieftans in the areas of Africa would be subservient to the chosen imperial governor (often a military general then later a person of noble lineage that may have been in government service). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The French assimilated many peoples into their own society, often giving citizenship much like the Romans did at their first conquests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was an easier process because the peoples in French colonies were required to learn French and adopt the French educational system and government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although many areas resented the change and this caused problems is did allow for greater integration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also allowed for greater culture exchange in that the French often adopted the colonial ways and the colonist who were granted citizenship often moved to France or were sent to France to study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were greater numbers of marriages between French nationals and colonists than British nationals and their colonists. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Direct - Indirect <ul><li>Indirect Rule-(Usually the British method) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The British advisors and a Governor made colonial laws that were almost always in favor of Great Britain but they did allow some local rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Africa the Sultans would consult with the Governor on international and economic issues but often local issues were decided by the area rulers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British did not wish for these people to become part of their society and kept them very separate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In India the peoples who worked for the British were required to act British but not every allowed into British circles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were not invited into each others homes partially because of the intolerance of the British to recognize or understand some religious differences or cultural taboos. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. World before WWI
  10. 10. South and East Asia
  11. 12. Imperialism Africa
  12. 13. Africa <ul><li>Reasons- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closeness to Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History of Slave Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No unified countries to resist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romanticism or lure of interest in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edgar Rice Burroughs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>David Livingston </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Africa
  14. 15. African Resistance <ul><li>Many tribes fought back but were no match for the European weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Only Ethiopia, led by Menelik II, resisted </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated Italy </li></ul>
  15. 16. Imperialism Middle East-Egypt
  16. 17. Ottoman Empire
  17. 18. Southwestern Asia <ul><li>Ottoman Empire (Turkey)- Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Armenia-Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman’s thought the Armenians were plotting with the Russians to attack </li></ul><ul><li>1890-1914 massacre or “genocide” of Armenians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to separate from Ottomans </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Issues with expansion and Russia <ul><li>Treaty of Adrianople – 1829 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>was settled between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire gave Russia access to the mouths of the Danube and additional territory on the Black Sea, opened the Dardanelles to all commercial vessels, commerce is liberated for cereals, live stocks and wood, granted autonomy to Serbia , promised autonomy for Greece , and allowed Russia to occupy Moldavia and Walachia until the Ottoman Empire had paid a large indemnity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crimean War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan Slavism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France and Great Britain side with Ottomans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1852-1855 </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Southwestern Asia
  20. 22. Egypt <ul><li>Remained independent from Europe due to efforts of Mohammed Ali </li></ul><ul><li>Used Europeans to build army </li></ul><ul><li>Modernized irrigation, taxes, trade </li></ul><ul><li>Died in 1849 </li></ul><ul><li>Successors not as strong </li></ul>
  21. 23. Egypt <ul><li>France builds Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand de Lesseps </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually controlled by Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt becomes a protectorate of Britain </li></ul>
  22. 24. Imperialism India
  23. 25. Britain and India <ul><li>Britain uses military force to subdue local independent rulers in India </li></ul><ul><li>British East India Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traded Indian drugs to China for tea for English </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. The Good and the Bad <ul><li>Britain improved- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws & safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved status for women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain ruined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-determination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habits/customs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased racism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic exploitation </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. India-Sepoy Rebellion 1857 <ul><li>Sepoys- Indians who became British soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu & Muslim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social customs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rifles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Massacre of British </li></ul><ul><li>British retaliation brutal </li></ul>
  26. 29. British Government Take Over <ul><li>After the Sepoy Rebellion-British government takes control </li></ul><ul><li>Viceroy or governor set up </li></ul><ul><li>India becomes main source of cotton for English textile mills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finished goods were resold in India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed local hand-made clothes </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. India Independence <ul><li>1880’s India sets up a national congress to work towards independence </li></ul><ul><li>Britain reluctant to give up prize </li></ul><ul><li>World War I and World War II interrupt India’s independence </li></ul><ul><li>Mohandas Gandhi leader in peaceful movement to gain independence in 1848 </li></ul><ul><li>India divides into Pakistan (Muslim) and India (Hindu) </li></ul>
  28. 32. Imperialism China
  29. 33. China <ul><li>China trade with Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silks, tea, porcelain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain brings Indian opium in exchange for tea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China demanded it stop-Britain says no; Opium War 1839 </li></ul><ul><li>Britain wins easily </li></ul><ul><li>Demands- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indemnity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra-territoriality </li></ul></ul>
  30. 35. Europe and China <ul><li>Once Britain got it’s special right with China, all major European powers got the same </li></ul><ul><li>To get rid of the Europeans, the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, or “Boxers” rebelled and attacked in 1900 </li></ul>
  31. 36. Boxer Rebellion ( Harmonious Fists ) <ul><li>Rebellion Failed </li></ul><ul><li>Empress Ci Xi loses power, dies 1908; </li></ul><ul><li>Nephew, Henry Pu Yi-”last emperor”; is driven into exile by Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Pay indemnity of $300 m </li></ul><ul><li>China forced to adopt more European customs and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>China expands economically </li></ul><ul><li>But dominated by Europeans </li></ul>
  32. 37. China in Transition 1908-1949 <ul><li>Nationalism grows in China </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Yixian sets up new republic based on- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihood-economic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Through WWI and WWII China is torn apart by civil war and invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually Communists led by Mao Zedong take over in 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Communists still in power today </li></ul>
  33. 38. Imperialism Review <ul><li>European countries dominate world using- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military superiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for raw materials & markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in racial superiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition between powers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of European culture and ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of local cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resentment of European countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms race between European countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of Nationalism in weaker countries </li></ul></ul>
  34. 39. The Conference of Berlin (1884-1885) <ul><li>There was a risk of conflict between colonial countries in the &quot;Scramble for Africa&quot;. Like our own games of Monopoly, Diplomacy or Risk, some rules had to be written down if the game was to be played in an orderly manner. </li></ul><ul><li>All the European powers and the USA met in Berlin in 1885. It was decided that King Leopold of Belgium could have his claim to the huge Congo Basin. It was also decided that new colonies had to be &quot;effectively occupied&quot;. It was not enough simply to put up a flag and say the region was yours. You also had to officially defend and administer the area if you wanted other countries to recognize your claim. </li></ul>
  35. 40. The Fashoda Crisis (1898) <ul><li>The Berlin Conference set the rules for the division of Africa, but it also made the colonial powers even more aggressive in their pursuit of unclaimed territory. A pattern was emerging between the two greatest colonial countries. </li></ul><ul><li>France was clearly expanding in a west to east direction, from French West Africa to French Somaliland, while Britain had expanded in a north-south direction, from Egypt to the Cape. The point where the two axes crossed was the Sudan. Here a small French expedition, under Major Marchand, reached Fashoda, on the Upper Nile, in 1898. This was followed, only two months later, by a much bigger British force under Lord Kitchener. The two leaders did not know whether to sit down and have a drink together or fight. Both claimed Fashoda and the Sudan for their own countries.In London and Paris, for the last time in their histories, there was talk of war between Britain and France. However, the diplomats knew it was absurd for their countries to go to war over a distant African village. Quietly, an agreement was reached. France would recognise the British presence in Egypt and Sudan and Britain would recognise France's presence in Morocco. With colonial differences settled, the two countries could concentrate on a far more pressing subject; coming together in an Entente Cordiale to face a common danger -Germany. </li></ul>
  36. 41. King Leopold’s Ghosts <ul><li>The Congo provides the most curious and the most bloody example of European colonisation in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium had only become independent in 1830 and was obliged by law to be a neutral country. Consequently, it could not engage in any adventures in Europe alongside the big powers. Although the Belgian people and government were not particularly enthusiastic, the king, Leopold, was desperate to give the country an Empire. &quot;There are no small nations .... only small minds&quot;, he is quoted as saying. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating an &quot;Association Internationale Aticaine&quot;, he had, by 1875, laid claim to a huge territory, eighty times the size of his own country, in the Congo basin. It was the king's own property, paid for entirely out of his own pocket. By the 1880's, however, his finances were in difficulty and, by a series of royal ordinances, the colonial tax-collectors were authorised to go into villages and extract quotas of rubber from the villagers as taxation. </li></ul><ul><li>The British Consul in the &quot;Congo Independent State&quot;, Roger Casement, produced a famous report in 1903, in which he revealed how Congolese natives were being systematically mutilated (hands, ears, noses cut oft), ',whipped and executed for not 'producing enough wild rubber for their (taxes. The scandals grew so great that ithe Belgian parliament demanded that their king relinquish his private colony and hand it over to the Belgian state (1908). The Congo had become the most notorious of all European colonies in Africa. </li></ul>
  37. 42. White Man’s Burden <ul><li>'Take up the White Man's burden </li></ul><ul><li>The savage wars of peace </li></ul><ul><li>Fill full the mouth of Famine </li></ul><ul><li>And bid the sickness cease; </li></ul><ul><li>And when your goal is nearest </li></ul><ul><li>The end for others sought, </li></ul><ul><li>Watch Sloth and heathen Folly </li></ul><ul><li>Bring all your hope to nought .... </li></ul><ul><li>'Take up the White Man's burden </li></ul><ul><li>Ye dare not stoop to less </li></ul><ul><li>Nor call too loud on Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>To cloak your weariness; </li></ul><ul><li>By all ye cry or whisper, </li></ul><ul><li>By all ye leave or do, </li></ul><ul><li>The silent, sullen peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Shall weigh your Gods, and you. </li></ul><ul><li>'Take up the White Man's burden </li></ul><ul><li>Have done with childish days </li></ul><ul><li>The lightly proffered laurel, </li></ul><ul><li>The easy, ungrudged praise. </li></ul><ul><li>Come now, to search your manhood </li></ul><ul><li>Through all the thankless years, Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom, </li></ul><ul><li>The judgement of your peers!' </li></ul>Rudyard Kipling
  38. 43. Trade and Territory Social Darwinism + Capitalism + Nationalism = Imperialism (increased need for military ergo militarism which fed back into nationalism or jingoism) <ul><li>Colonialism one hundred years ago, then, had several causes. One was strategic, when it was essential for a trading nation, such as Britain, to guard its trade routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Another was national prestige, to build a nation at a time when expanding population, growing cities and class differences seemed to be dividing the Western European societies. </li></ul><ul><li>This was the period when compulsory state education was being established. If school children could be shown a map of the world and told that all the areas in red were British, or all the areas in green were French, they would feel proud to be part of the nation and less likely to be attracted by dangerous new ideas, such as socialism. </li></ul>
  39. 44. The White Man's Burden <ul><li>Some colonists really thought they were having a civilizing effect on Afiica and Asia, bringing not only the benefits of ports and railways, but also a justice system and the Christian religion. It is less likely that economic factors played a large part in the &quot;Scramble for Africa&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>It is true that the African colonies supplied raw materials (metals, food stuffs, timber etc.), but they never became the markets for manufactured goods that some had hoped for. The colonies were expensive to administer and expensive to defend. They never really made any money. As a famous English historian, A.J.P. Taylor, wrote after the Second World War: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Tot up the national balance sheet of any imperial country over the last fifty years and you will find the community is staggeringly out of profit.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Interestingly, some of the biggest overseas profits were made in countries which were not colonised. China, Persia, the Ottoman Empire, Brazil and Argentina, for example, offered some of the best sources of raw materials and markets for manufactured goods, without Europeans having to pay the costs of colonization. </li></ul>
  40. 45. PHASES OF ONGOING INCORPORATION INTO THE WORLD SYSTEM <ul><li>FORM OF CAPITAL - POLITICAL ORDER1450-1750 </li></ul><ul><li>1st Age of Imperialism colonization of Latin America and limited colonization in Asia the Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>MERCANTILE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iberia (Spain and Portugal)1750-1875 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age of Informal Empire decolonization of Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial England1875-1945 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic Age of Imperialism Africa and Asia cut up into colonies, informal empire in Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Atlantic Rivalries (and Japan)1945-1970s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decolonization and Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TransnationalUS/USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War1970s-present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transnational US (EU/Japan) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 46. Africa before Partition <ul><li>New States and Stronger Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Muslim leaders started new states in west Africa that depended on the heavy trade of the Sahara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. The Sokoto empire, in 1804, took over many small kingdoms in West Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. In 1819, Shaka and the Zulu Empire took over most of the southeastern Africa by using new kinds of spears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Egypt gains land and prospers through the rule of Mohammed Ali and his grandson, Ismail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Trading Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Due to loss of slave trade, Africa offered major exports of Ivory and Palm Oil to industrial Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Foreign Presence in Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Liberia, in 1847, is Africa's first republic, with it's govt. being modeled after the govt. of the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Missionaries come to Africa to offer medical treatment and education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Many explorers set off to Africa to find new goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>early Colonization of Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Dutch colonized a supply post at the Cape of Good Hope and called it Cape Colony. They later lost it to Britain in the Napoleonic Wars. Britain outlaws further expansion into Africa and, in 1833, ends slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Between 1835 and 1845, Dutch farmers migrated Northeast, which is know as the Great Trek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. In 1830 through 1848, france takes over Algeria and guides Tunisia and Morocco, gaining almost total control of the Barbary Coast </li></ul></ul>
  42. 47. US Intervention <ul><li>Monroe Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>US Platt amendment – US attempt to legalize control over Cuba after an initial three year occupation </li></ul>
  43. 48. Cultural Life <ul><li>Romanticism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Literature and poetry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological advances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin (1809-1882) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Realism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impressionism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post Impressionism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>