His 2002 Ch 20


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His 2002 Ch 20

  1. 1. The High Tide of Imperialism 20
  2. 2. The Spread of Colonial Rule <ul><li>Expansion into Africa and Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Christians and Spices” said Vasco da gama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>raw materials and markets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Grandeur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From: Limited to controlling regional trade network and established a few footholds for trade and missionary work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To: solidifying hold over their territories for security control, national prestige, before economic interests </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Spread of Colonial Rule, cont’d <ul><li>Global land grab </li></ul><ul><li>By 1900, almost all Africa and Asia under colonial rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy of political and economic reform </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used as buffer state </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afghanistan and Ethiopia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remote location and mountainous terrain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iran </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Colonial System <ul><li>Resistance from societies with long traditions of national cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and indirect rule </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Colonialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism – “survival of the fittest” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfortable theory: brought benefits of Western democracy, capitalism, and Christianity to tradition-ridden societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabled primitive peoples to adapt to challenges of modern world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignored brutal aspects of colonialism; persuaded that both parties would benefit </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Colonial System, cont’d <ul><li>Assimilation or Association? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The French rationalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation: Transform colonial societies in the Western image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Association: Collaboration with local elites while leaving local traditions alone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aroused resentment among local population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Returned to ‘force by arms” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No assimilation - treated subjects as culturally and racially distinct </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. India Under the British Raj <ul><li>Territories owned by East India Company, British crown, local maharajas, and rajas </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order and stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education - Thomas Babington Macaulay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educated elites, and girls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawed sati, ended brigandage, thuggee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced railroads, the telegraph, and postal service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costs of Colonialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British textiles supplanted Indian textile industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zamindar system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failed to bring benefits of modern science and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological effects </li></ul>
  7. 7. India Under British Rule, 1805-1931
  8. 8. The Company Resident and His Puppet
  9. 9. Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia <ul><li>“ Opportunity in the Orient”: The Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British – Malayan peninsula: Singapore, Burma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French – Indochina: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American – Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Nature of Colonial Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect rule and some direct rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administration and Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow to create democratic institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow to adopt educational reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctant to take up “white man’s burden” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow economic development </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Colonialism and the Countryside <ul><li>Many continued to live by subsistence agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis of cash crops for exports created plantation agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants worked as wage laborers on rubber and tea plantations for poverty wages “shanghaied” </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes and population growth were a burden on rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Migration to the sitty led to squatter settlements </li></ul><ul><li>modern economy created “Modernizing elite” or entrepreneurial class </li></ul>
  11. 11. Colonial Southeast Asia
  12. 13. Empire Building in Africa <ul><li>The Growing European Presence in West Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished by all major countries in the world by 1880s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Legitimate trade” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More permanent presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gold Coast and Sierra Leone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New class of Africans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Informal Empire” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imperialist Shadow over the Nile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muhammad Ali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suez Canal, 1854-1869 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algiers </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. The Opening of the Suez Canal
  14. 15. The Suez Canal
  15. 16. Empire Building in Africa <ul><li>Arab Merchants and European Missionaries in East Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase slave trade for plantation agriculture in East Africa and islands off the coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R éunion (sugar), Zanzibar (cloves) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of Western interest against slave trade and Christian missionary activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>David Livingstone – 1841 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abolitionist cause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slave market at Zanzibar closed in 1873 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Legacy of Shame
  17. 18. Bantus, Boers, and British in South Africa <ul><li>Boers – Afrikaans-speaking farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Trek – mid-1830s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that white superiority was ordained by god </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished slavery in British Empire in 1834 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More sympathetic to rights of local African population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zulus, a Bantu people, fought Europeans but were defeated and confined to reservations </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Struggle for Southern Africa
  19. 20. The Scramble for Africa <ul><li>European rivalries </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Missionary factor </li></ul><ul><li>Superiority in firearms </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium’s claim on the Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Conference of Berlin, 1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France at Fashoda; France backs down </li></ul>
  20. 21. Colonialism in Africa <ul><li>European governments ruled with least effort and expense </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Rule in West Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserve African political traditions because thought Africans were inherently inferior to white race so incapable of adopting European customs and institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relied on existing political elites and institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cameroon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nigeria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Africa in 1914
  22. 23. Colonialism in Africa, cont’d <ul><li>British Rule in East Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White settlers sought self-government and dominion status, but British avoided racial tensions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British established separate government organs for European and African populations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British Rule in South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher percentage of European settlers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing division between English-speaking and Afrikaner elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of gold and diamonds source of problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boer War – British defeated Afrikaans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concession: gave power to vote only to whites in self-governing colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British created independent Union of South Africa for Afrikaans in 1910 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cape Colony, Natal, and Boer republics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representative government only for European population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British: Basutoland (Lesotho), Bechuanaland (Botswana), Swaiziland, Rhodesia </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Revere the Conquering Heroes
  24. 25. Colonialism in Africa, cont’d <ul><li>Direct Rule, French style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct rule – centralized administrative system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor-general, commissioners, local administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilate Africans into French culture rather than preserve natives traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africans eligible to run for office and serve in French National Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative absence of racist attitudes, superiority of Gallic culture, belief in universality of human nature </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Women in Colonial Africa <ul><li>Mixed impact on rights and status of women in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual relationships changed </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial governments tried to bring an end to forced marriage, bodily mutilations (clitoridectomy), and polygamy. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries educated women and encouraged them to organize themselves to defend their interests </li></ul><ul><li>End of matrilineal systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European settlers dealt with males while women restricted to traditional farming methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men used chemical fertilizer, women used manure </li></ul><ul><li>Men transported goods using bikes and trucks, women carried goods on heads </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on women’s freedom </li></ul>
  26. 28. The Emergence of Anticolonialism <ul><li>Stirrings of Nationhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism brought a consciousness of modern nationhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of western ideas of citizenship and representative government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New elite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional Resistance: A Precursor to Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by existing ruling class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance in India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasant revolts </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Religious Resentment <ul><li>Sudan – Mahdi – strong Islamic overtones </li></ul><ul><li>India - The Sepoy Rebellion – 1857 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sipahi , horseman or soldier – native troops hired to protect British interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enfield rifle had cartridges covered with animal fat or lard which had to be bitten off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindus do not eat animal products and Muslims do not eat pork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-scale mutiny supported by uprisings in rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British suppressed rebellion with arms and armies </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Discussion Questions <ul><li>What were the causes of the new imperialism of the 19 th C, and how did it differ from European expansion in earlier periods? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the major consequences of British rule in India, and how did they affect the Indian people? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors were behind the “scramble for Africa,” and what impact did it have on the continent? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the subject peoples respond to colonialism, and what role did nationalism play in their response? </li></ul>