8 ss - the age of imperialism 1850 -- 1914

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8 ss - the age of imperialism 1850 -- 1914

  1. 1. The Age of Imperialism Chapter 11 1850-1914
  2. 2. What is imperialism? The seizure (takeover) of a country or territory by a stronger country
  3. 3. What is Imperialism? Why do Europeans do this?  Industrialization sparks the need for:  Land perfect for establishing trading and military posts  Natural resources and raw materials  New markets for products
  4. 4. What is Imperialism? Europeans want to control all aspects of their colonies  Politics  Society  Economy  Culture and customs
  5. 5. Types of Imperialism Methods of Management  Direct Control  Paternalism – Europeans provide for local people but grant no rights  Assimilation – adaptation of local people to ruling culture  Indirect Control  Limited self-rule for local governments  Legislative body includes colonial & local officials
  6. 6. Types of Imperialism Forms of Control  Colony  Governed by a foreign power  Protectorate  Governs itself, but under outside control  Sphere of Influence  Outside power controls investments & trading  Economic Imperialism  Private business interests assert control
  7. 7. I. The Scramble for Africa Africa Before European Dominion  Divided into hundreds of ethnic groups  Followed traditional beliefs, Islam or Christianity  Nations ranged from large empires to independent villages  Africans controlled their own trade networks  Europeans only had contact on African coasts
  8. 8. The Scramble for Africa (cont) Nations compete for overseas empires  Europeans wanted more land  Contained large amounts of gold, diamonds, and rubber  Africa was a mystery to many  Europeans who penetrated Africa were:  Explorers – seeking wealth and notoriety  Missionaries – trying to convert Africans to Christianity  Humanitarians – “westernize” the “savages”
  9. 9. The Scramble for Africa (cont) Forces Driving Imperialism  Belief in European superiority  Racism  Social Darwinism  Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa  European technological superiority  Europeans had means to control  New medicines prevent diseases
  10. 10. The Division of Africa The Berlin Conference (1884)  Europeans leaders divide Africa  No African ruler invited  Little or no thought about the complex differences in ethnic groups  By 1914 – Only independent nations  Liberia  Ethiopia
  11. 11. According to thiscartoon, whichEuropean countries werefighting for a position inAfrica?How did the BerlinConference lead to thesituation shown in thecartoon?
  12. 12. South Africa Three Groups Clash for Power  Africans  Zulu nation, led by Shaka, fought the British  Zulu nation lost to British in 1887  Boers  Dutch settlers that had controlled South Africa since the mid 1600s  Also known as Afrikaners  British  Gained control of South Africa after the Berlin Conference
  13. 13. Boer War Fought between the Boers and the British  Many Africans fought with the Boers  First example of “total war”  British win in 1910  Established the Union of South Africa (British Rule)
  14. 14. Effects ofEuropeanImperialismin Africa
  15. 15. II. Case Study: Nigeria Britain’s control of Nigeria  Britain takes control by diplomacy & force  All of Nigeria claimed as a colony in 1914 Nigeria very culturally diverse  250 ethnic groups British utilize indirect rule  Local chiefs resent limits on their rule
  16. 16. African Resistance Africans Confront Imperialism  Broad resistance, but Europeans have superior weapons Unsuccessful Movements  Algeria fights the French for 50 years  German East Africa resistance results in 75,000 deaths Successful Movements  Ethiopia under Emperor Menelik II  Plays Europeans against each other  Stockpiles modern weapons  Defeats Italy and remains independent
  17. 17. Legacy of Imperialism Negative Effects  Africans lose land and independence  Many lives are lost  Traditional cultures breakdown  Division of Africa creates problems that continue today Positive Effects  Reduces local fighting  Sanitation improves  Hospitals and schools created  Technology brings economic growth
  18. 18. III. Europeans Claim Muslim Lands The Ottoman Empire Loses Power  Empire begins to decline in 1566  Death of Suleyman I  Modernization movements are unsuccessful  Greece and Serbia gain independence  European Powers look to gain Ottoman lands
  19. 19. Downfallof theOttoman Empire
  20. 20. Crimean War (1853) Crimean War – Russia vs. Ottoman Empire  Russia seeks Ottoman land  Access to a warm-water port  Russia loses war  Ottomans are shown to be weak  Russia still is able to take land
  21. 21. Europeans Grab Territory England gains control of:  India – natural resources  Suez Canal – international trade  Persia – oil and tobacco Russia gains control of:  Persia – oil, tobacco, & access to Indian Ocean  Afghanistan – oil
  22. 22. TheSuez Canal
  23. 23. IV. British Imperialism in India British Expand Control over India  East India Company  Controls India thru economic imperialism  Company uses an army including Indian soldiers known as “sepoys”  India was seen as the most important colony  Due to its production of raw materials  Known as the “Jewel in the Crown”
  24. 24. Effects of British Rule Impact of Colonialism  Railroads move cash crops and goods faster  British control political and economic power  Cash crops resulted in loss of self-sufficiency and caused famine  Indian culture is disrupted due to racism and missionaries  Britain sought to “modernize” India
  25. 25. The Sepoy Rebellion Indians Rebel  Sepoys refuse to use cartridges due to religious reasons  They had to bite them open – greased with pork fat  Considered unclean by Muslims  Many sepoys were jailed, others rebelled  British put down the rebellion Results  Britain takes direct control of India  Increased distrust between Indians and British
  26. 26. Nationalism in India Call for reforms  India adopts modernization movements  Many Indians adopt western ways Religious Issues Remain  Formation of the Indian National Congress (1885)  Called for independence from Britain  Formation of the Muslim League (1906)  Many Muslims did not trust Hindus within India
  27. 27. Imperialism in Southeast Asia European Powers Invade the “Pacific Rim”  Lands of Southeast Asia that border the Pacific Ocean  Britain – Malaysia, Burmia, and Singapore  Netherlands – Indonesia  France – Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) Why?  Land perfect for establishing trading and military posts  Excellent for plantation agriculture
  28. 28. Imperialism in Southeast Asia Results  Modernization helps the European businesses  Education, health, and sanitation improves  Millions migrate to find work  Racial and religious clashes increase
  29. 29. England’sEmpireGrows
  30. 30. V. Imperialism in China and Japan China vs. The West  China was self-sufficient – no need for trade  China kept a favorable balance of trade  Europeans were able to shift the balance  Sale of Opium – addictive drug from poppy plant Opium War (1839-1842)– China vs. Britain  China loses – signs Treaty of Nanjing  Extraterritoriality – foreigners were not subject to Chinese laws  Chinese power over the West ends
  31. 31. China vs. The West Foreign Influence Grows  Growing Spheres of Influence A Surge in Chinese Nationalism  Boxer Rebellion  Poor peasants and workers who resented foreign priviledge  Beginnings of Reform  China tried to become more western  Further added to internal problems
  32. 32. Imperialismin China
  33. 33. Imperialism in Japan Japan remained isolated from western world for centuries – only traded mainly with China  Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) – ends Japan’s isolation  Meiji Reform – Japan begins to modernize beginning in 1867  Japan was competitive with the west in many modern industries
  34. 34. Imperialism in Japan Russo-Japanese War (1904)  Treaty of Portsmouth  Japan gained Russian territory  Russia forced out of Korea Japan Controls Korea  Takes control of the peninsula in 1910  Begins a period of extreme oppression
  35. 35. THE END

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