Africa Physical Geography and Early Civilizations
 
 
Five Regions of Africa <ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><li>East </li></ul><ul><li>West </li></ul><ul><...
Landscape Features <ul><li>Escarpment:  steep cliff </li></ul><ul><li>cataract:  large waterfall </li></ul>
Four Climate Zones <ul><li>Above all else, climate has affected population density in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical <...
 
Early Civilizations <ul><li>Civilization:  organized group of people with their own languages and way of life </li></ul><u...
Early Civilizations <ul><li>They also found remains of early kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt : polytheistic, were ruled b...
Early Civilizations <ul><li>2.  Kush :  polytheistic, same gods as Egyptians </li></ul><ul><li>- Achievements of Kush: </l...
Early Civilizations <ul><li>3.  Axum :  monotheistic, Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>- Achievements of Axum: </li></ul><ul...
Early Civilizations Red= Kingdom of Egypt Blue= Kingdom of Kush Black= Kingdom of Axum <ul><li>Why have these great kingdo...
Early Civilizations <ul><li>Many of the traditions of early tribes and societies have been passed down through the generat...
African Development Growth, Imperialism
Early Patterns of Life <ul><li>Began with traditional societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional societies usually have: ...
<ul><li>Traditional societies usually have: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional religions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Imperialism <ul><li>Major kingdoms developed over time </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning in the early AD years, Africa had a ste...
European Imperialism <ul><li>Circa 1450, Prince Henry “The Navigator” of Portugal sent ships to explore the West Africa </...
<ul><li>European Motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw materials/ natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diamonds of...
<ul><li>The Atlantic Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Middle Passage :  the second leg of the Atlantic slave trad...
 
<ul><li>Effects of the slave trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased tensions among tribes and societies </li></ul></ul><ul>...
The Scramble for Africa <ul><li>European colonial rivalries spurred the meeting of the  Berlin Conference  (1884) </li></u...
 
A New Conference? <ul><li>Does Africa need a new Berlin Conference? </li></ul>
Resistance to Imperialism <ul><li>Africans continually fought of European imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>South African resi...
Independence <ul><li>Nationalism grew out of European imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European boundaries put African tr...
<ul><li>WWII weakened European countries (1945) </li></ul><ul><li>African independence movements were able to gain strengt...
Implications <ul><li>African nations have struggled to maintain stable governments and stable economies </li></ul><ul><ul>...
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Physical To Imperialism

978 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
978
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
17
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Physical To Imperialism

  1. 1. Africa Physical Geography and Early Civilizations
  2. 4. Five Regions of Africa <ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><li>East </li></ul><ul><li>West </li></ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul>
  3. 5. Landscape Features <ul><li>Escarpment: steep cliff </li></ul><ul><li>cataract: large waterfall </li></ul>
  4. 6. Four Climate Zones <ul><li>Above all else, climate has affected population density in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul>2. Tropical Wet/Dry (savannah) 3. Mediterranean 4. Desert
  5. 8. Early Civilizations <ul><li>Civilization: organized group of people with their own languages and way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeologists: study remains left by early people </li></ul><ul><li>What have archaeologists discovered in Africa? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The earliest civilizations were tribes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nomads : travel in search of food and shelter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 9. Early Civilizations <ul><li>They also found remains of early kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt : polytheistic, were ruled by pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>- Achievements of Egypt: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pyramids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heiroglyphics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt Video </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Early Civilizations <ul><li>2. Kush : polytheistic, same gods as Egyptians </li></ul><ul><li>- Achievements of Kush: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use and spread of iron </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>A stele from the Kingdom of Kush, inscribed with Merotic cursive.
  8. 11. Early Civilizations <ul><li>3. Axum : monotheistic, Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>- Achievements of Axum: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large trading kingdom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>A stone obelisk from Axum
  9. 12. Early Civilizations Red= Kingdom of Egypt Blue= Kingdom of Kush Black= Kingdom of Axum <ul><li>Why have these great kingdoms grown and thrived in the same general region? </li></ul>
  10. 13. Early Civilizations <ul><li>Many of the traditions of early tribes and societies have been passed down through the generations. </li></ul><ul><li>“ African Folklore and Oral Traditions” </li></ul>
  11. 14. African Development Growth, Imperialism
  12. 15. Early Patterns of Life <ul><li>Began with traditional societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional societies usually have: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting/gathering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsistence farmers : produce enough for own needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extended families living in clans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of governments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus : common agreement; the way many small communities made decisions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Traditional societies usually have: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional religions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many were monotheistic with a belief in lesser gods/spirits </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ancestors can help or harm your society </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diviners provide a special link to the spiritual world </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Early Patterns of Life
  14. 17. Imperialism <ul><li>Major kingdoms developed over time </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning in the early AD years, Africa had a steady stream of outside traders and explorers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brought new ideas and tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 18. European Imperialism <ul><li>Circa 1450, Prince Henry “The Navigator” of Portugal sent ships to explore the West Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They brought gold and Africans back with them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It began the trade between Europe and Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>With new colonies in the Americas, Europeans needed workers </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>European Motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw materials/ natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diamonds of South Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubber from rainforests in Central Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political rivalries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To be the best and have the biggest empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain vs. Spain vs. Portugal vs. France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread Christianity and western civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism: &quot;The White Man's Burden&quot; by Rudyard Kipling </li></ul></ul></ul>European Imperialism
  17. 20. <ul><li>The Atlantic Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Middle Passage : the second leg of the Atlantic slave trade in which horrible injustices were committed against Africans who were to be sold as slaves </li></ul></ul></ul>European Imperialism PBS: The Atlantic Slave Trade
  18. 22. <ul><li>Effects of the slave trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased tensions among tribes and societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small African communities disappeared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African diaspora : scattering of people and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in the spread of African culture to new regions of the world, especially Europe and the Americas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>European Imperialism
  19. 23. The Scramble for Africa <ul><li>European colonial rivalries spurred the meeting of the Berlin Conference (1884) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Split Africa into regions owned by European countries (page 99) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 25. A New Conference? <ul><li>Does Africa need a new Berlin Conference? </li></ul>
  21. 26. Resistance to Imperialism <ul><li>Africans continually fought of European imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>South African resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zulus: trained warriors who fought off British soldiers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boer Wars : Fights between Dutch settlers (Boers), British, and Zulus for diamonds and gold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both Dutch and Zulus eventually absorbed into British empire </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 27. Independence <ul><li>Nationalism grew out of European imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European boundaries put African tribal rivals under the same governments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalists called for a movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan-Africanism : movement to unite all Africans based on common heritage </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. <ul><li>WWII weakened European countries (1945) </li></ul><ul><li>African independence movements were able to gain strength </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During the 1950s and 1960s many new independent African nations were created </li></ul></ul></ul>Independence
  24. 29. Implications <ul><li>African nations have struggled to maintain stable governments and stable economies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans gave no government training to Africans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extracting and selling natural resources </li></ul></ul></ul>

×