His 102 chapter 22 - imperialism and colonialism 1870-1914

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  • ImperialismImperialism is the process whereby one state extends political, economic, and social control over another. It was not a new phenomenon in late nineteenth-century Europe. The antecedents of imperialism are perhaps as old as human society itself. However, by the last half of the nineteenth century, European imperialism had grown more complex and varied. Economic changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution created an environment in which European capitalists and financiers came to realize the huge profits that could be made by overseas trade. The Industrial Revolution forever changed the pace at which raw materials were consumed and goods were produced. The Europeans needed to seek new sources of raw materials and expand the global markets for their goods.
  • The French Empire and the Civilizing Mission Historians have called the late nineteenth-century quest for empire “new imperialism.” This new imperialism was multifaceted. Some nations sought a direct form of imperialism called colonialism; other nations opted for a more indirect form of rule whereby agreements were reached between Europeans and indigenous leaders. Regardless of what form the new imperialism took, it is certain that economic interests played a major role. However, focusing solely on economic causes would necessarily overlook other significant factors that caused late nineteenth-century imperialism. For instance, some historians have stressed strategic or nationalist motives over economic interests. Meanwhile, the great powers of Europe—Britain, France, Germany, and Russia—and the United States supported imperialism as a means of restoring national prestige and honor. There were cultural forces at work as well. The “civilizing mission” of France highlights the notion that there were regions outside of Europe that needed to be civilized. In England, Rudyard Kipling wrote about the “white man’s burden” to civilize what he and others considered the “barbaric” territories outside of Europe. This cultural dimension was indeed important since nations could never have embarked on the perilous path of imperialism without the support of their own people. Newspapers, magazines, and popular literature made significant contributions to the popular support for imperialism by making it appear to be both natural and necessary. In addition, the Social Darwinists and proponents of eugenics all made clear that the survival of the fittest, which meant the fittest race, depended on subduing the “uncivilized” peoples of the world. 
  • Crises of Empire at the Turn of the Twentieth Century Today’s world is based on the principles of globalization, a sort of “new” new imperialism. In the twentieth century, the new imperialism would haunt the great powers, which took such pains to build their empires in the late nineteenth century. All the great empires of the nineteenth century have been dismantled to some degree. But something remains: a much more subtle form of imperialism—neocolonial relationships—that has had profound ramifications throughout the twentieth century and beyond.
  • His 102 chapter 22 - imperialism and colonialism 1870-1914

    1. 1. Imperialism andColonialism 1870-1914Chapter 22
    2. 2. Introduction Britain, France, Egypt, and the Suez Canal Technology, money, and politics Western superiority
    3. 3. The Inauguration of the Suez Canal.
    4. 4. Imperialism Definitions  The process of extending one state’s control over another  Formal imperialism  Colonialism or direct control  Annexed territories outright  Established new governments
    5. 5. Imperialism Definitions  Informal imperialism  Conquering nations reached agreements with indigenous leaders and governed through them  Allowed weaker state to maintain its independence while reducing its sovereignty  Carving out zones of European sovereignty and privilege
    6. 6. Imperialism Imperialist endeavors  1875–1902: Europeans took up 90 percent of Africa  1870–1900: small group of European states colonized one-quarter of the world’s lands
    7. 7. European Empires in 1900
    8. 8. Imperialism Eighteenth-century losses  The British in the North American colonies  French Atlantic trade  Spanish and Portuguese in South America
    9. 9. Imperialism Nineteenth-century imperialism  Appeared against the backdrop of industrialization, liberal revolutions, and the rise of nation-states  The need for raw materials  Imperialists sought to distance themselves from earlier histories of conquest
    10. 10. Imperialism Nineteenth-century imperialism  Colonial resistance and rebellion forced Europeans to develop new strategies of rule  Nineteenth-century empires established carefully codified racial hierarchies  Guided more by ―settlement and discipline‖ than independent entrepreneurial activity  The creation of new kinds of interaction between Europeans and indigenous peoples
    11. 11. Images of Women in the Colonies
    12. 12. Photograph of a group of Afghani women posed in front of a tent in Afghanistan, taken by an unknown photographer in the 1890s.During the nineteeth century it was the scene of conflict between the expanding British and Russian empires and led to threeAnglo-Afghan Wars, to stop Russia gaining control of the Khyber Pass.
    13. 13. Imperialism in South Asia India and the British empire  The ―jewel of the British Crown‖  The British East India Company  Had its own military divided into European and Indian divisions  Held the right to collect taxes on land from Indian peasants
    14. 14. Imperialism in South Asia India and the British empire  The British East India Company  Held legal monopolies over trade in all goods (the most lucrative was opium)  Constituted a military and repressive government  British policy divided  One group wanted to Westernize India  Another thought it safer and more practical to defer to local culture
    15. 15. Imperialism in South Asia The Sepoy Rebellion (1857–1858)  Uprising began near Delhi  Social, economic, and political grievances  Indian peasants attacked law courts and burned tax rolls
    16. 16. Imperialism in South Asia The Sepoy Rebellion (1857–1858)  A protest against debt and corruption  The British response  Systematic campaign of repression  Rebel-supported towns and villages were destroyed  Defeat of the rebellion fired the imagination of the British public
    17. 17. Imperialism in South Asia After the mutiny: reorganizing the Indian empire  East India Company was abolished  British raj governed directly  Military reorganization  Reform of the civil service  Missionary activity subdued
    18. 18. Imperialism in South Asia India and Britain  India as Britain’s largest export market  India provided Britain with highly trained engineers and bureaucrats  1.2 million Indian troops fought with the British in World War I
    19. 19. Imperialism in South Asia India and Britain  British indirect rule sought to create an Indian elite to serve British interests  Large social group of British-educated Indian civil servants and businessmen
    20. 20. Imperialism in China Europe and China  Forced trade agreements  Set up treaty ports  Established outposts of missionary activity
    21. 21. Imperialism in China The opium trade  A direct link between Britain, British India, and China  Opium—one of the few products Europeans could sell in China  Northeast India as richest opium-growing area  Opium production was labor-intensive
    22. 22. British Opium Trade
    23. 23. Imperialism in China The Opium Wars (1839–1842)  The first Opium War  Drugs not the main focus  The issue was sovereignty and economic status  Treaty of Nanking (1843)  British trading privileges  Hong Kong
    24. 24. Imperialism in China The Opium Wars (1839–1842)  The second Opium War  Britain granted further rights  Other countries demand similar rights and economic opportunities  The United States and the ―open door‖  Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895)  Forced China to concede trading privileges  The independence of Korea
    25. 25. Imperialism in China The Opium Wars (1839–1842)  The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864)  Radical Christian rebels challenged the authority of the emperor  China’s agricultural heartland was devastated
    26. 26. Imperialism in China The Boxer Rebellion (1900)  The Boxers  Secret society of men trained in martial arts  Antiforeign and anti-missionary  Attacked foreign engineers, destroyed railway lines, and marched on Beijing
    27. 27. Imperialism in China The Boxer Rebellion (1900)  The European response  Great powers drew together  Repression of the Boxers  The rebellion highlighted the vulnerability of European imperial power
    28. 28. Imperialism in China The new imperialism in 1900  Asia is partitioned  Japan alone retains its independence  British: India, Burma, Malaya, Australia, and New Zealand  Dutch: Indonesia
    29. 29. Imperialism in China The new imperialism in 1900  French: Indochina  Problems  Struggle between great powers exacerbated nationalist feelings  The destabilizing effects of the new imperialism
    30. 30. Imperialism in South and East Asia, c. 1914
    31. 31. Imperialism in China Russian imperialism  Policy of annexation  Southern colonization  Georgia (1801)  Bessarabia, Turkestan, and Armenia  Brought Russia and Britain close to war, especially over Afghanistan
    32. 32. Building the Russian Empire
    33. 33. The French Empire andthe Civilizing Mission The French in Algeria  Algeria as a settler state  Under the Third Republic (1870), Algeria was made a department of France  Gave French settlers full rights of republican citizenship  Consolidated privileges  Disenfranchised indigenous populations
    34. 34. The Scramble for Africaand the Congo The Congo Free State  The 1870s  A new drive into central Africa—the fertile valleys of the Congo River  European colonizers under the Belgian king, Leopold II (1835–1909, r. 1865–1909)  Herbert M. Stanley and his ―scientific‖ journeys
    35. 35. The Scramble for Africaand the Congo The Congo Free State  The 1870s  International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of the Congo (1876)  Signed treaties with local elites  Opened the Congo to commercial exploitation (palm oil, rubber, diamonds)  Other colonizers reacted (especially Portugal)
    36. 36. The Scramble for Africaand the Congo The Congo Free State  The 1870s  The Treaty of Berlin (1884)  Chaired by Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898)  Established ground rules for a new phase of European expansion  The Congo would be open to free trade and commerce  The Congo Free State  Actually run by Leopold’s private company  Slave trade suppressed in favor of free labor  The Congo becomes a Belgian colony (1908)
    37. 37. Slaves in Chains, 1896
    38. 38. The Scramble for Africaand the Congo The partition of Africa  Britain  Southern and eastern Africa  Cecil Rhodes (1853–1902)  Made a fortune from South African diamond mines (DeBeers)  Prime minister of Cape Colony (1890)  Personal goal was to build an African empire founded on diamonds  Carved out territories in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Botswana
    39. 39. The Scramble for Africaand the Congo The partition of Africa  Colonial powers increase their holdings in Africa (1880s)  Germany  Bismarck was a reluctant colonizer  Seized strategic locations (Cameroon and Tanzania)  France  Aimed to move eastward across the continent
    40. 40. The Scramble for Africaand the Congo The partition of Africa  Britain  The ―Cape-to-Cairo‖ railway  Making Britain self-sufficient
    41. 41. Imperial Culture Images of empire  Advertising  Museums displayed the products of empire  Music halls and imperial songs
    42. 42. The White Man’s Burden and Pears’ Soap
    43. 43. Imperial Culture Empire and identity  The ―civilizing mission‖ of the French  Bringing progress to other lands  Women and empire
    44. 44. Imperial Culture Theories of race  Arthur de Gobineau (1816–1882)  Race as the master key to understanding the world’s problems  The racial question overshadowed all others  Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855–1927)  Making racial theory more scientific  Tied racial theories to Darwinism and Herbert Spencer
    45. 45. Imperial Culture Theories of race  Francis Galton (1822–1911)  Eugenics: the science of improving racial qualities  Selective breeding  Karl Pearson (1857–1936)  Systematic study of intelligence and genius  The rhetoric of progress, the civilizing mission, and race  Provided a rationale for imperial conquest
    46. 46. Imperial Culture Critics  Hobson and Lenin criticized imperialism as an act of greed and antidemocratic arrogance  Joseph Conrad argued that imperialism signified deep problems  The Pan-African Congress (1900)  The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of race
    47. 47. Africa, c. 1886
    48. 48. Imperial Culture Colonial cultures  Growth of Bombay, Calcutta, and Shanghai  Colonialism created new hybrid cultures  Annexed areas as laboratories for creating orderly and disciplined societies  Worry over preserving national traditions and identity  Compromises about ―acceptability‖
    49. 49. Crisis of Empire at the Turnof the Twentieth Century Europe in 1900  Sharp tensions between Western nations  The expansion of European economic and military commitments to territories overseas Fashoda (1898)  Britain and France faced one another for dominance of Africa
    50. 50. Crisis of Empire at the Turnof the Twentieth Century Ethiopia  Italy developed a small empire along the shores of the Red Sea (1880s to 1890s)  Annexed Eritrea and parts of Somalia  An expedition sent to conquer Ethiopia (1896)  The Ethiopians killed six thousand Italians at Adowa
    51. 51. Crisis of Empire at the Turnof the Twentieth Century South Africa: the Boer War  Afrikaners (Boers)—Dutch and Swiss settlers who had arrived in the early nineteenth century  Troubled relationship with the British in South Africa  Afrikaners set up two free states: Transvaal and the Orange Free State  Afrikaners and British went to war (1899)
    52. 52. Africa, c. 1914
    53. 53. Crisis of Empire at the Turnof the Twentieth Century South Africa: the Boer War  British army was completely unprepared for war  British government refused to compromise  A guerrilla war dragged on for three years  British used concentration camps where Afrikaner citizens were rounded up  The Union of South Africa—British and Boers shared power
    54. 54. Crisis of Empire at the Turnof the Twentieth Century U.S. imperialism  Spanish–American War (1898)  Antecedents  War with Mexico in the 1840s  The conquest of new territories  Conflict with Spain  Spanish imperial authority face problems in the Caribbean and Pacific colonies  American press sided with the rebels
    55. 55. Crisis of Empire at the Turnof the Twentieth Century U.S. imperialism  Panama  U.S.-backed rebellion in 1903  Recognized Panama as a republic  The Panama Canal (1914)  Intervention in Hawaii and Santo Domingo  Renewed missionary activity
    56. 56. Conclusion Rapid extension of formal European control The West as a self-consciously imperial culture

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