What is Syntax? The study of rules for forming sentences. Noun Language of Origin – Greece 1605 Synonym = Sentence Structure
What is a sentence? Subject (The performer of an action) Predicate (the action) Hewalked. His favorite catexploded. The turtlewondered into the tiger’s cage. Martywas buried in tuna fish for eleven years.
Simple Subject / Simple Predicate Simple Subject = One word (NOUN or PRONOUN) The performer of the action Simple Predicate = One word The action (VERB)
Phrase A group of words missing either the subject, predicate, or both The wicked queen (missing predicate) Fighting the dragon (missing subject) Under the bridge (missing both)
Clause A group of words with a subject and a predicate Independent Clauses Subordinate (Dependent) Clauses
Independent Clause A Clause that makes sense on its own A COMPLETE SENTENCE ! Jenny left early. Todd and Terry went to the mall. The book was very interesting.
Subordinate (Dependent) Clause A Clause that does not make sense on its own. It needs to be attached to an independent Clause. After it stopped raining… Unless Jesse stops snoring… Until the team arrives…
Simple Sentences Only one Independent Clause Can have many phrases I will visit Paris this summer. Over the river, and through the woods, to grandmother’s house I go.
Compound Sentences Two independent Clauses combined together with a coordinating conjunction or a semi-colon ( ; ) Marty brought the sandwiches, and Carmen brought the drinks. Marty brought the sandwiches; Carmen brought the drinks.
Coordinating Conjunctions Used to bring independent clauses together FANBOYS For And Nor But Or Yet So
Complex Sentences One dependent clause combined together with an independent clause using a subordinating conjunction. After she receives the prize, Molly will go to Disneyland.
Subordinating Conjunctions Used to begin a dependent clause Always at the beginning of a dependent clause after, although, as, because, before, if, in order that, no matter, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, wherever, which, while, even though
Fragment A phrase or dependent clause acting as if it were a sentence. After dinner. “Ouch!” Running through the grass. Why me?
Summary Simple Subject = the doer (noun or pronoun) Simple Predicate = the verb Clause = Subject + Predicate Phrase = missing subj. or pred. or both Simple Subject = 1 Independent Clause Compound Sentence = 2 Ind. Clauses w/coordinating conjunction Complex Sentence = 1 Ind. Clause + 1 Dep. Clause w/subordinating conjunction