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CONJUNCTIONS

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These are words used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause.

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CONJUNCTIONS

  1. 1. Conjunction
  2. 2. than although and for then since wherever nor whetherwhile before because even though All of these words, and many more, are conjunctions !!! but or yet so until where if Let us take a closer look . . unless
  3. 3. What is Conjunctions? O Conjunction is the name for those common words that are used to join (conjoin) parts of sentences. Also, conjunctions may be used to begin certain sentences. O In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated CONJ or CNJ) is a part of speech that connects words, sentences, phrases, or clauses
  4. 4. Three types of conjunctions
  5. 5. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
  6. 6. Coordinating Conjunctions O also called coordinators, are conjunctions that join, or coordinate, two or more items (such as words, main clauses, or sentences) of equal syntactic importance. O In English, the mnemonic acronym FANBOYS can be used to remember the coordinators for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so
  7. 7. When to Use Each Coordinating Conjunction: O Reason Coordinating Conjunction O To communicate addition and O To communicate contrast but, yet O To communicate a result/effect so O To communicate a reason/cause for O To communicate a choice or O To communicate a negative choice nor O Use them between two independent clauses.
  8. 8. Here are some examples of coordinating conjunctions in English and what they do: O For – presents rationale ("They do not gamble or smoke, for they are ascetics.") O And – presents non-contrasting item(s) or idea(s) ("They gamble, and they smoke.") O Nor – presents a non-contrasting negative idea ("They do not gamble, nor do they smoke.")
  9. 9. O But – presents a contrast or exception ("They gamble, but they don't smoke.") O Or – presents an alternative item or idea ("Every day they gamble, or they smoke.") O Yet – presents a contrast or exception ("They gamble, yet they don't smoke.") O So – presents a consequence ("He gambled well last night, so he smoked a cigar to celebrate.")
  10. 10. Sample sentences OEx. He only wears striped ties and polka dotted bow ties. ( And joins two words.) OEx. The shoes were not blue suede nor black leather. (Nor joins two phrases.) OEx. It wasn’t a costume party, yet many came dressed as literary villains. (Yet joins two independent clauses.)
  11. 11. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
  12. 12. Subordinating Conjunctions O also called subordinators, are conjunctions that join an independent clause and a dependent clause, and also introduce adverb clauses
  13. 13. Most common subordinating conjunctions O after O although O as O as far as O because O since O unless O so that O until O when O as if O as long as O as soon as O as though O before O even if O whereas O wherever O while O in order that
  14. 14. Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions O As Sherri blew out the candles atop her birthday cake, she caught her hair on fire. O Sara begins to sneeze whenever she opens the window to get a breath of fresh air. O When the doorbell rang, my dog Skeeter barked loudly.
  15. 15. O Pete didn’t go to work yesterday because he was ill. [reason] O As he was feeling unwell, Pete didn’t go to work yesterday. [cause, reason; more formal than because] O I’ll lend you a map so that you can find the place more easily. [reason] O I’ll call you as soon as I get home. [time] O I’ll wait until you arrive. [time] O Did he say anything before he left? [time] O The baby gets very grumpy whenever he’s tired. [time] O If he doesn’t change his attitude, he’ll lose his job. [condition]
  16. 16. O Even if you win a million dollars, it doesn’t mean you’ll be happy. [condition] O I’ll lend you my car, providing you promise to be careful. [condition] O Elliot is tall and blond, whereas his brother is short and has dark hair. [comparison] O Mark’s very tall, although he’s not as tall as his father yet. [comparison] O Although they’re poor, they’re happy. [concession] O Even though he’s rich, I’m not sure that he’s happy. [concession]
  17. 17. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
  18. 18. Correlative Conjunctions O work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight in a sentence O correlate, working in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance within a sentence
  19. 19. Correlative Conjunctions List O As / as O Both / and O Either / or O Hardly / when O If / then O Just as / so O Neither / nor O Not only / but also O No sooner / than O Not / but O Rather / than O Scarcely / when O What with / and O Whether / or
  20. 20. Sample Sentences O She is both intelligent and beautiful. O I will either go for a hike or stay home and watch TV. O Jerry is neither rich nor famous. O He is not only intelligent, but also very funny. O Would you rather go shopping or spend the day at the beach?
  21. 21. QUIZ
  22. 22. 1. _________ the basement flooded, we spent all day cleaning up. O After O Although O Before O Even if
  23. 23. 2. I don’t want to go to the movies ________ I hate the smell of popcorn. O Although O Because O Whenever O So that
  24. 24. 3. I paid Larry, ___________ garden design work is top-notch. O Whenever O Whose O After O If
  25. 25. 4. ___________ spring arrives, we have to be prepared for more snow. O Because O Until O Although O Now that
  26. 26. 5. _____________ the alarm goes off, I hit the snooze button. O As soon as O Because O Before O Now that
  27. 27. 6. She is neither polite _______ funny. O Or O Nor O Not O Yet
  28. 28. 7. _______ that is the case, _______ I’m not surprised about what’s happening. O If / then O No sooner / than O Scarcely / when O Whether / or
  29. 29. 8. Have you made a decision about _______ to go to the movies _______ not? O If / then O Either / or O Whether / or O What with / and
  30. 30. 9. _______ had I put my umbrella away, _______ it started raining. O No sooner / than O If / then O What with / and O Neither / nor
  31. 31. 10. _______ had I put my umbrella away, _______ it started raining. O No sooner / than O If / then O What with / and O Neither / nor

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