Punctuation The Comma


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Punctuation The Comma

  1. 1. Punctuation <br />The Comma<br />
  2. 2. What’s a comma for?<br />To slow the reader down<br />Helps a reader understand the rhythm and flow <br />Helps a reader to understand the meaning of a sentence<br />
  3. 3. 11 Comma Rules<br />
  4. 4. #1 Comma Rule <br />Separates two independent clauses (sentences) connected by a Coordinating Conjunction <br />FANBOYS – For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So<br />Bob was usually a quiet man, but he screamed upon entering the room. <br />
  5. 5. #2 Comma Rule<br />Separate elements in a list or a series<br />Substitutes the word “and”<br />Bob packed his t-shirts, pants, and socks.<br />Instead of<br />Bob packed his t-shirts and pants and socks. <br />
  6. 6. #3 Comma Rule<br />Separate introductory phrases and clauses from the independent clause<br />After catching his breath, Bob squatted next to the man and took his pulse. <br />Eating pizza, Tom suddenly felt sick. <br />
  7. 7. #4 Comma Rule<br />Separate a series of adjectives<br />Replaces the word “and”<br />The nimble, fat raccoon began to climb into the garbage.<br />Instead of<br />The nimble and fat raccoon…<br />
  8. 8. #5 Comma Rule<br />Use commas to set off an appositive<br />Mr. Bowden, my favorite teacher, is retiring this year. <br />
  9. 9. #6 Comma Rule<br />Use a comma when words or phrases interrupt the sentence, and they could be removed and the sentence still makes sense. <br />What the candidate promised, in fact, is impossible to achieve. <br />Now then, let’s get back to work! <br />She wanted to drive the car, too. <br />
  10. 10. #7 Comma Rule<br />To set off non-essential WHICH, WHO, WHOM, or THAT clauses (Clauses that you do not really need)<br />Bananas, which grow in the tropics, do not need refrigeration. <br />The old woman, who lives down the street, drives a red convertible. <br />
  11. 11. #8 Comma Rule <br />To set off or around quoted elements<br />He said, “Can I borrow your car?”<br />“Can I borrow your car,” he said, “mine is in the shop.” <br />
  12. 12. #8 Comma Rule Continued <br />Do not add a comma if the quote ends in a question mark or an exclamation point.<br />“What is that?” he asked.<br />“Watch out!” she screamed. <br />
  13. 13. #9 Comma Rule<br />To separate city and state <br />He lived in Salam, Massachusetts.<br />He visited Albany, New York, on his way to New York City. <br />
  14. 14. #10 Comma Rule<br />Between date and year<br />He was born on July 12, 1999.<br />Born on July 12, 1999, Mark would grow up to an astronaut. <br />
  15. 15. #11 Comma Rule<br />After a greeting or closing in a letter<br />At the beginning of a letter<br />Dear mom,<br />At the closing of a letter <br />Sincerely,<br />
  16. 16. When not to use a comma<br />
  17. 17. Comma misuse #1<br />Do not separate subject from the verb<br />The most important attribute of a ball player, is quick reflexes. **WRONG**<br />The most important attribute of a ball playeris quick reflexes. **CORRECT**<br />
  18. 18. Comma misuse #2<br />Do not separate VERBS or VERB PHRASES in a COMPOUND PREDICATE<br />Mark drove to the store, and bought some groceries. **WRONG**<br />Mark drove to the store and bought some groceries. **CORRECT**<br />
  19. 19. Comma misuse #3<br />When a dependent clause follows an independent clause<br />He feel asleep, after he worked all day.<br />**WRONG**<br />You do use one when the dependent clause comes first<br />After he worked all day, he fell asleep. <br />**CORRECT**<br />
  20. 20. Comma misuse #4<br />Do not add a comma if the quote ends in a question mark or an exclamation point.<br />“What is that?” he asked.<br />“Watch out!” she screamed.<br />