Verbs Verbs – words that describe action or a state of being.
Action verbs describe activity. The action may be physical, or may describe a quiet activity. Physical actions: eat, walk, run, sleep, swim, scream, read, write, watch Quite actions: love, think, care, grow, forgive, concentrate
Linking Verbs Linking verbs describe a state of being. They connect a noun or adjective to the subject of a clause or sentence. Bob was a great baseball coach. The dinner looks wonderful.
Helping Verbs Helping verbs help the main verb describe action that happened in the past, is happening in the present, or will happen in the future. am being do have must are can does is shall be could had may should been did has might was were will would
The main verb can have up to three helping verbs. He must have been sleeping soundly to sleep through the alarm . She could have gone to the movies if she had finished her homework.
Infinitive Form An infinitive is a main verb usually preceded by the word to . It does the work of both a verb and a noun. It may be used as an adjective or adverb. To go often is his goal. Sid likes to play the flute. Her desire to study often results in perfect scores. Noun Verb Adjective
Verb Tenses There are six main tenses: Present tense – now The boy has brown hair. Past tense – before now The boy had brown hair until he bleached it. Future tense – has not happened yet The boy will have brown hair next week.
Present perfect tense – started in the past and continuing up to the present. The dog has had fleas for five years. Past perfect tense – finished before some other past action. He had gone to college before he started his business. Future perfect tense – action will start and finish in the future. I will have gone to school for four months before we get a vacation.
Participles A participle is a form of a verb that can be used as a verb or an adjective. There are two kinds of participles – past and present . Present Participles usually end in - ing. Past Participles usually end in -ed or -en, or -d, -t, or –n , and follow the helping verbs have or had .
Examples: Present Participle John is going to the school play. Joey will be playing the part of Captain Lewis. He caught the two boys cheating . The singing choir marched onto the stage.
Examples: Past Participle Jane had decided to try out for the debate team instead of cheerleading. Beth and Mary have been chosen for the team. The boy was frightened .
Principal Parts of Verbs Each verb has three main parts called principal parts . The infinitive – to swim, to throw, to run <ul><li>The Past Tense – swam, threw, ran </li></ul><ul><li>The present Participle – (to be) swimming, (to be) throwing, (to be) running </li></ul><ul><li>The Past Participle – (have/had) swum, (have/had) thrown, (have/had) run </li></ul>
Regular Verbs Regular verbs are verbs that can be changed from the present to the past or past participle by adding –ed or –d . present past past participle jump jumped have jumped walk walked have walked skate skated have skated
Irregular Verbs The past and past participle forms of irregular verbs are formed in various ways. present past past participle begin began have begun blow blew have blown do did have done fly flew have flown get got have gotten give gave have given
More Examples of Irregular Verbs present past past participle grow grew have grown lay laid have laid lie lay have lain know knew have known ride ride have ridden see saw have seen take took have taken
To Be The Most Often Used Irregular Verb is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been Now I am . Yesterday I was . I have been . Now we are . Yesterday we were . We have been . Just being here is great!
is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been I am You are He/she is We are They are I was You were He/she was We were They were I have been You have been He/she has been We have been They have been I will be You will be He/she will be We will be They will be I will have been You will have been He/she will have been We will have been They will have been I had been You had been He/she had been We had been They had been