Clause – phrase

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Clause – phrase

  1. 1. Clause – phrase - sentence
  2. 2. Phrases <ul><li>A PHRASE is a group of words which contains neither a subject nor a verb. (It may, however, contain a verbal form such as an infinitive, a participle, or a gerund.) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of phrases <ul><li>Prepositional phrases can be used as adverbs or adjectives: </li></ul><ul><li>In a flash , she realized that the tofu had been underneath her chair all along. </li></ul><ul><li>After midnight , Egbert's mother was on the roof dancing with a Ukranian bullfighter. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of phrases 2 <ul><li>I nfinitive phrases consist of an infinitive (to dance, to fly, to circumnavigate, etc.) plus an object. They are usually used as nouns, but they can also be used as adjectives or as adverbs. </li></ul><ul><li>As noun (subject): To see him suffer is my dearest wish. </li></ul><ul><li>As noun (object): Cordelia longed to eat the last tamale . </li></ul><ul><li>As adjective: Franklin had brought nothing to give his mother-in-law . </li></ul><ul><li>As adverb: To satisfy this mysterious craving , she was willing to try almost anything. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of phrases 3 <ul><li>Participial phrases begin with a participle . Participles are adjectives formed from verbs. They come in two tenses: present and past. </li></ul><ul><li>present participle : an -ing word like bellowing, waltzing, singing, prancing, analyzing, fretting, sharpening, sneezing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>past participle : usually an -ed word like bellowed, waltzed, pranced, analyzed, believed, but sometimes an irregular form like written, sung, lost (from &quot;to lose&quot;), wept, frozen (from &quot;to freeze&quot;), </li></ul>
  6. 6. Participial phrases <ul><li>Participles can be used as adjectives all by themselves: </li></ul><ul><li>bellowing hyena flying trapeze tortured soul lost love </li></ul>
  7. 7. Participial phrases 2 <ul><li>Participial phrases consist of a participle plus an object. They are used as adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>The creature suffering in the dungeon was once beautiful. </li></ul><ul><li>Surprised by the intensity of her disgust , Felicity stared at the cockroach scurrying across her omlet . </li></ul><ul><li>Irving, screaming like a banshee , went careening from the room. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of phrases 4 <ul><li>Gerund phrases begin with a gerund (an -ing word which looks exactly like a present participle, but which is used as a noun.) A gerund phrase can be used in any way a noun can: </li></ul><ul><li>As subject: Playing canasta has been her downfall. </li></ul><ul><li>As direct object: He loves embarrassing his relations . </li></ul><ul><li>As subjective complement: One of his milder vices is carousing until dawn . </li></ul><ul><li>As object of preposition: She amused herself with bungie-jumping from helicopters . </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Clause <ul><li>Clauses come in four types: main [or independent ], subordinate [or dependent ], relative [or adjective ], and noun. Every clause has at least a subject and a verb. Other characteristics will help you distinguish one type of clause from another. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Main Clauses <ul><li>Every main clause will follow this pattern: </li></ul><ul><li>subject + verb = complete thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Lazy students whine. </li></ul><ul><li>Students = subject; whine = verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter. </li></ul><ul><li>Cola = subject; spilled, splashed = verbs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Main Clauses 2 <ul><li>My dog loves pizza crusts. </li></ul><ul><li>Dog = subject; loves = verb. </li></ul><ul><li>The important point to remember is that every sentence must have at least one main clause. Otherwise, you have a fragment, a major error. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Subordinate Clauses <ul><li>subordinate clause will follow this pattern: </li></ul><ul><li>subordinate conjunction + subject + verb = in complete thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever lazy students whine </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever = subordinate conjunction; students = subject; whine = verb </li></ul>
  13. 13. Subordinate Clauses 2 <ul><li>As cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter </li></ul><ul><li>As = subordinate conjunction; cola = subject; spilled, splashed = verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Because my dog loves pizza crusts </li></ul><ul><li>Because = subordinate conjunction; dog = subject; loves = verb. </li></ul><ul><li>The important point to remember about subordinate clauses is that they can never stand alone as complete sentences. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Subordinate Clauses 3 <ul><li>To complete the thought, you must attach each subordinate clause to a main clause. Generally, the punctuation looks like this: </li></ul><ul><li>main clause + Ø + subordinate clause. </li></ul><ul><li>subordinate clause + , + main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever lazy students whine, Mrs. Russell throws chalk erasers at their heads. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony ran for the paper towels as cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Relative Clauses <ul><li>A relative clause will begin with a relative pronoun [such as who, whom, whose, which, or that] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why]. The patterns look like these: </li></ul><ul><li>relative pronoun or adverb + subject + verb = in complete thought. </li></ul><ul><li>relative pronoun as subject + verb = in complete thought. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Relative Clauses 2 <ul><li>Here are some examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with a chalk eraser </li></ul><ul><li>Whom = relative pronoun; Mrs. Russell = subject; hit = verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Where he chews and drools with great enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Where = relative adverb; he = subject; chews, drools = verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>That had spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter </li></ul><ul><li>That = relative pronoun; had spilled, splashed = verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Who loves pizza crusts </li></ul><ul><li>Who = relative pronoun; loves = verb. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Relative Clauses 3 <ul><li>Like subordinate clauses, relative clauses cannot stand alone as complete sentences. You must connect them to main clauses to finish the thought. </li></ul><ul><li>The lazy students whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with a chalk eraser soon learned to keep their complaints to themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>My dog Floyd, who loves pizza crusts, eats them under the kitchen table, where he chews and drools with great enthusiasm. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Relative Clauses 4 <ul><li>Punctuating relative clauses can be tricky. You have to decide if the relative clause is essential or nonessential and then use commas accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential relative clauses do not require commas. A relative clause is essential when you need the information it provides. Look at this example: </li></ul><ul><li> A dog that eats too much pizza will soon develop pepperoni breath. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Dog is nonspecific. To know which dog we are talking about, we must have the information in the relative clause. Thus, the relative clause is essential and requires no commas. </li></ul><ul><li>If, however, we revise dog and choose more specific words instead, the relative clause becomes nonessential and does require commas to separate it from the rest of the sentence. Read this revision: </li></ul><ul><li>My dog Floyd, who eats too much pizza, has developed pepperoni breath. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Noun clauses <ul><li>Any clause that functions as a noun becomes a noun clause. Look at this example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You really do not want to know the ingredients in Aunt Nancy's stew. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingredients = noun. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If we replace the noun ingredients with a clause, we have a noun clause : </li></ul><ul><li>You really do not want to know what Aunt Nancy adds to her stew. </li></ul><ul><li>What Aunt Nancy adds to her stew = noun clause. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Adverbial clauses <ul><li>A dependent clause introduced by subordinating conjunction can act the same way as a one word adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>Put a comma after the dependent clause if it precedes the main clause; do not use a comma if the dependent clause comes after the main clause </li></ul>
  22. 22. Adverbial clauses 2 <ul><li>Time: As soon as they were married , she began to miss her bulldog. </li></ul><ul><li>Place: The salesman swore to follow Egbert wherever he might go . </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: He only ate the Doritos so I wouldn't eat them myself. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Adverbial clauses 3 <ul><li>Cause: She married him because he looked just like her bulldog . </li></ul><ul><li>Condition: If our guests hear loud screams coming from the tower , they may begin to suspect that Uncle Hubert is still alive. </li></ul><ul><li>Concession: Although Stanley believed he had taken every possible precaution , he had forgotten to clean the bloodstains from the boathouse floor. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Subordinate Conjunctions <ul><li>A CONJUNCTION is a word that connects or joins together words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. There are two kinds of conjunctions, a primary class of COORDINATING conjunctions and a secondary class called SUBORDINATING or SUBORDINATE conjunctions. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also words called CONJUNCTIVE ADVBERBS; these conjunctive adverbs sometimes act a bit like conjunctions, but at other times act like plain old adverbs. We will explore each type, one at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>The following chart lists the most common types of conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs. </li></ul>
  25. 25. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (Coordinating conjunctions connect two equal parts of a sentence.)   PURE CONJUNCTIONS and but for nor or so yet CONJUNCTIVE AVERBS accordingly in fact again instead also likewise besides moreover consequently namely finally nevertheless for example otherwise further still furthermore that is hence then however therefore indeed thus
  26. 26. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Subordinate conjunctions connect two unequal parts, e.g., dependent and independent clauses) after since when although so that whenever as supposing where because than whereas before that wherever but that though whether if though which in order that till while lest unless who no matter until why how what even though
  27. 27. NOTE 1: Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes used as simple adverbs. If they do not connect independent clauses, they are not conjunctive adverbs. Then, they are merely adverbs modifying a verb, adjective, or another adverb. <ul><li> For instance, in the sentences below, the words accordingly , still , and instead are adverbs. When functioning this way, the adverb needs no punctuation to separate it from the surrounding material. For example, see the following sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>I knew the test would be hard, so I planned accordingly to study for several hours. </li></ul><ul><li>I was still studying at six o'clock in the evening! Joey decided to go to a party instead. </li></ul>
  28. 28. In these examples above, there is no comma needed before the words accordingly , still , and instead . That's because they are acting like adverbs, modifying verbs like planned and was studying , and decided . <ul><li>Conjunctive adverbs can be used with a comma to introduce a new independent clause, or they can help connect two independent clauses together after a semicolon. Typically, each conjunctive adverb is followed by a comma. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Joey had an upset stomach. Accordingly, he took antacid tablets. </li></ul><ul><li>Joey had an upset stomach; accordingly, he took antacid tablets. </li></ul><ul><li>The antacids must not have worked. Otherwise, he would quit complaining. </li></ul><ul><li>The antacids must not have worked; otherwise, he would quit complaining. </li></ul><ul><li>The antacids didn't work for Jill either. Instead, they made her feel even more sick. </li></ul><ul><li>The antacids didn't work for Jill either; instead, they made her feel even more sick. </li></ul>
  30. 30. NOTE 2: (In Four Parts) (A) Two independent clauses can be joined by a comma and a pure conjunction. However, a comma by itself will not work. (Using a comma without a conjunction to hook together two sentences creates a comma splice!) <ul><li>[Independent Clause] , pure conjunction [independent clause] . Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The gods thundered in the heavens, and the mortals below cowered in fear. </li></ul><ul><li>I dodged the bullet, but Joey was shot seventeen times in the tibia. </li></ul><ul><li>Susan appreciated the flowers, yet a Corvette would be a finer gift. </li></ul>
  31. 31. (B) Two independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb are separated by a semicolon. However, the writer still needs to insert a comma after the conjunctive adverb. <ul><li>[Independent clause] ; conjunctive adverb , [independent clause] . Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The gods thundered in the heavens; furthermore, the mortals below cowered in fear. </li></ul><ul><li>The bank robber dodged the bullet; however, </li></ul><ul><li>Joey was shot seventeen times in the tibia. </li></ul><ul><li>Susan appreciated the flowers; nevertheless, a Corvette would be a finer a gift. </li></ul>
  32. 32. (C) Two independent clauses not joined by a conjunction are separated by a semicolon <ul><li>[Independent clause] ; [independent clause] . Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gods thundered in the heavens; the mortals below cowered in fear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bank robber dodged the bullet; Joey was shot seventeen times in the tibia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Susan appreciated the flowers; a Corvette would be a finer gift. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the examples above, you can see that the semicolon does the same job as both a comma and a conjunction. </li></ul>
  33. 33. (D) A dependent clause at the beginning of a sentence is introductory, and like most bits of introductory material, it is usually followed by comma. A dependent clause following the main (independent) clause is usually not punctuated. <ul><li>Examples Using Introductory Clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>While the gods thundered in the heavens, the mortals below cowered in fear. </li></ul><ul><li>As the bank robber dodged the bullet, Joey was shot seventeen times in the tibia. </li></ul><ul><li>Though Susan appreciated the flowers, a Corvette would be a finer gift. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>But on the other hand, no punctuation is necessary for the dependent clause following the main clause: </li></ul><ul><li>The gods thundered in the heavens as mortals below cowered in fear. </li></ul><ul><li>The bank robber dodged the bullet while Joey was shot seventeen times in the tibia. </li></ul><ul><li>Susan appreciated the flowers even though a Corvette would be a finer gift. </li></ul>

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