4.4 compound sentence by_subordination


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4.4 compound sentence by_subordination

  2. 3. <ul><li>Compound sentence by subordination </li></ul><ul><li>  Subordinators are words and phrases that signal dependent (subordinate) clauses,introduce dependent /subordinate clauses and signal the relationship between the dependent clause and a word, phrase, or other clause. </li></ul><ul><li>A subordinator is a word that introduces a subordinate clause and it is part of that clause THAT you love me BECAUSE he is here WHOSE friend is Ted   Subordinators introduce subordinate clauses and these sentences are compound sentences by subordination </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Subordinate clauses </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A subordinate clause is a group of words that looks like a </li></ul><ul><li>sentence (it has a subject and a predicate) but cannot stand </li></ul><ul><li>alone as it is dependent on another structure: an independent </li></ul><ul><li>clause. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A subordinate clause is a group of words that becomes </li></ul><ul><li>subordinate by preceding it with a subordinator </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The man that I love does not live there anymore(an adjective clause) </li></ul><ul><li>I am happy because I love him (adverb clause indicating reason) </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t know whom I love (nominal clause, function as a direct object) </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Classification of subordinate clauses </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A subordinate clause can be classified into three </li></ul><ul><li>different ones: nominal, adjectival and adverbial . </li></ul><ul><li>A nominal / noun clause is a clause that functions </li></ul><ul><li>as a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>An adjectival/adjective clause is a clause that </li></ul><ul><li>functions as an adjective. </li></ul><ul><li>An adverbial / adverb clause is a clause that </li></ul><ul><li>functions as an adverb . </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Classification of subordinate clauses </li></ul><ul><li>He studies what I would like to study (subordinate clause, function as a direct object) </li></ul><ul><li>Give me the book that is on the table ( Adjective clause because is modifying book) </li></ul><ul><li>He studies here at Uqroo . </li></ul><ul><li>(Adverb of place modifying the sentence) </li></ul><ul><li>He studies where I live ( Adverb clause modifying the sentence) </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Nominal clauses/ Noun clauses </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A noun is a word that names something. </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns perform different functions in a </li></ul><ul><li>sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>They can be: </li></ul><ul><li>The subject, the direct object , the indirect </li></ul><ul><li>object , the object of the preposition or the </li></ul><ul><li>subjective complement (predicate nominative ). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Nominal or Noun clauses: functions </li></ul><ul><li>Noun clauses perform the same functions in sentences </li></ul><ul><li>that nouns do: </li></ul><ul><li>A noun has different functions in a sentence. It may be: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul><ul><li>What I heard surprised me. </li></ul><ul><li>What Billy did shocked his friends </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Object </li></ul><ul><li>I love what you are having . </li></ul><ul><li>Billy’s friends didn’t know that he couldn’t swim. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Noun clauses: functions </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective complement / Predicate Nominative </li></ul><ul><li>He is what I want to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Billy’s mistake was that he refused to take </li></ul><ul><li>lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Object of the preposition </li></ul><ul><li>I am tired of how you treat me. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary is not responsible for what Billy did. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Noun clauses: functions </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect object </li></ul><ul><li>Give whoever wins the race a present. </li></ul><ul><li>Give whoever needs i t the results of the test. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Subordinators used in noun clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>that </li></ul><ul><li>If </li></ul><ul><li>Wh-words : whether , how, what, when, where, </li></ul><ul><li>which, who, whom,whose, why </li></ul><ul><li>Wh-ever words : however, whatever, </li></ul><ul><li>whenever, wherever, whichever, whoever, </li></ul><ul><li>whomever </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Subordinators used in noun clauses (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>In noun clauses except for that , subordinators </li></ul><ul><li>cannot be omitted. Only that can be omitted, but </li></ul><ul><li>it can be omitted only if it is not the first word in a </li></ul><ul><li>sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>Billy’s friends didn’t know ( that) he couldn’t swim . </li></ul><ul><li>Billy’s mistake was ( that) he refused to take lessons . </li></ul><ul><li>That Billy jumped off the pier surprised everyone. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Noun clauses: word order </li></ul><ul><li>Statement word order is always used in a noun </li></ul><ul><li>clause , even if the main clause is a question: </li></ul><ul><li>We didn’t know (that) Billy would jump. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you tell me if Fred is here? (Statement word order: Fred is </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know what time it is ? (Statement word order: it is) </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody wondered where Billy went. (Statement word order: Billy went) </li></ul><ul><li>He thinks that the exam next week will be hard . . </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Noun clauses: word order </li></ul><ul><li>That George learned how to swim is a miracle. </li></ul><ul><li>What Mary said confused her parents. </li></ul><ul><li>The winner will be whoever runs fastest . </li></ul><ul><li>Billy didn’t listen to what Mary said . He wants </li></ul><ul><li>to learn about whatever is interesting . </li></ul>
  14. 15. Adjective Clauses An adjective clause is a group of words that modifies/ describes/singles out a noun. Imagine that I have invited you to my home for Thanksgiving. You look around the room, and you ask me about the different people. Since there are several men and women in the room, I use adjective clauses to identify the different people. The woman who is pushing the baby stroller is my sister Kim. The turkey which my father cooked was delicious. The man who is wearing glasses is my Uncle Kenneth. The woman whose blouse is red is my cousin Gina. The man whom Uncle Kenneth is talking to is my brother Robert.
  15. 16. Restrictive / Nonrestrictive Defining / Non defining Adjective clauses are used to provide information about a noun. This information can either define something (defining /restrictive clause), or provide unnecessary, but interesting, added information (non-defining / non restrictive clause). Adjective clauses are used to identify (modify, specify, single out, describe, explain) a word or a phrase in a sentence. Restrictive / Nonrestrictive Defining / Non defining (cont.) I have a friend who lives in Cancún. Of course, this means that you have other friends who do not live in Cancún. The information provided in a defining / restrictive relative clause is crucial in understanding the meaning of the sentence. The woman who lives in the apartment next to mine has been arrested. The document that I need has been misplaced. NOTE: In defining relative clauses there are no commas as the information cannot be omitted as the antecedent (noun that is modified by the clause) is identified by the clause.
  16. 17. <ul><li>Non defining adjective clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes we want to give additional </li></ul><ul><li>information about a person, a place or a thing </li></ul><ul><li>and then an adjective clause is also used. In </li></ul><ul><li>this case the adjective clause does not specify </li></ul><ul><li>but gives additional information. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-defining / non restrictive relative clauses </li></ul><ul><li>provide interesting additional information which </li></ul><ul><li>is not essential to understanding the meaning </li></ul><ul><li>of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Jackson, who is very intelligent, lives on the corner. </li></ul><ul><li>Non defining adjective clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Correct punctuation is essential in non-defining </li></ul><ul><li>relative clauses. If the non-defining relative </li></ul><ul><li>clause occurs in the middle of a sentence, a </li></ul><ul><li>comma is put before the relative pronoun and at </li></ul><ul><li>the end of the clause. If the non-defining relative </li></ul><ul><li>clause occurs at the end of a sentence, a comma </li></ul><ul><li>is put before the relative pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>I love to go to Mexico City, where there are many places to visit. </li></ul><ul><li>The perfume that my boyfriend gave me is very sweet. </li></ul><ul><li>The perfume W by Perry Ellis, which my friend gave me, is very sweet. </li></ul>