Workflow and BPM in the New Enterprise Architecture
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Workflow and BPM in the New Enterprise Architecture

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Business Level Agility is the ability for office workers to take control of the processes that run their organizations, to adapt their processes to their needs, and to respond to external change ...

Business Level Agility is the ability for office workers to take control of the processes that run their organizations, to adapt their processes to their needs, and to respond to external change without involving programmers. Workflow and BPM are driving enterprise system architecture in a radical new direction that
allows for Business Level Agility. Enterprise applications can be structured to separate the “who” and the “when” from the “what” and the “how”. The former aspect is ephemeral with a strong dependence upon people, skills, customs, cultures, and other things that are flexible. The latter aspect is relatively stabile with a
strong dependence upon data structures, formal representations, and other concrete concepts. This talk will explain what this separation means, and how evolving standards will enable this transformation of the way we design our business critical IT infrastructure.

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Workflow and BPM in the New Enterprise Architecture Workflow and BPM in the New Enterprise Architecture Presentation Transcript

    • Keith D Swenson
    • VP, Fujitsu Computer Systems
    • Technical Committee Chair, WfMC
    • Workflow and BPM in the New Enterprise Architecture
    Welcome to Transformation and Innovation 2007 The Business Transformation Conference Welcome
  • Presentation Overview
    • Definitions of Terms
    • What is the Gap between Business and IT?
      • Humans vs. System Flow
    • How does Workflow bridge that?
      • Interfacing Humans to Systems
    • What Standards Exist to Support This?
      • BPMN, XPDL, BPEL
  • Considering your existing enterprise apps, how important are the following business problems? Source: Forrester Survey of 145 Business and IT decision makers
    • Inadequate support for cross functional processes
    • Mismatch between application functionality and business reqs
    • High cost compared to value
    • Limits on process change due to application inflexibility
    • Lack of visibility and analytic insight into process results
    • Slow upgrade to new functionality
    • Inability to support employees, partner, and customer collaboration
    • Lack of industry specific functionality
    • Inability to extend business processes to external partners
  • A Few Definitions
    • Business Process - A set of one or more linked procedures or activities which collectively realize a business objective or policy goal, normally within the context of an organizational structure defining functional roles and relationships.
    • Workflow - The automation of a business process, in whole or part, during which documents, information or tasks are passed from one participant to another for action, according to a set of procedural rules.
    Ref: WFMC-TC-1011 http://wfmc.org/
  • A Few Definitions
    • Process Definition - The representation of a business process in a form which supports automated manipulation, such as modeling, or enactment by a workflow management system. The process definition consists of a network of activities and their relationships, criteria to indicate the start and termination of the process, and information about the individual activities, such as participants, associated IT applications and data, etc.
  • Relationships of Key Concepts
  • One Last Definition
    • Business Process Management – The practice of developing, running, performance measuring, and simulating Business Processes to effect the continued improvement of those processes. Business Process Management is concerned with the lifecycle of the Process Definition.
  • Unfortunately, Industry not Consistent
    • WS-BPEL has received a lot of attention recently to the benefit of a few key vendors.
    • Now people are learning the truth -- it handles only a small part of the space.
    • While clearly important for Orchestration, positioned as something business related only confuses the market.
  • What is “Human” BPM?
    • Because of all the inconsistent uses of the term “BPM” to mean only invoked web services, we now talk about “Human” BPM to stress the complete picture of both manual & automated activities.
    • Workflow also include the concept of manual & automated activities is used interchangeably with “Human” BPM.
  • What is the Gap Between Business & IT?
  • Business & IT -- Two Different Audiences Business IT Concerned with only those goals that can be translated into tested, reliable, secure systems Concerned with business goals both manual & automatable Social structures, working hours, vacation schedules, learning skills, changing positions System structure, 7x24, scalability System to system. platform independence robust & fully automated. User interface, choosing among list of tasks, reassigning, manual handling of exceptional occasions. Change processes in days Change processes in months ? ? ? ? ? ? Legacy CRM ERP Supply Chain Sales Marketing Finance Procurement
  • The Bridge Between Human & System CRM Legacy ERP Supply Chain Sales Marketing Finance Procurement Business IT Enterprise Service Bus Web Service Orchestration Presents the right user interface, to the right person at the right time. Notifies & reminds people Automated activities make calls to the ESB and Composite Services in response to user actions. EAI Composite Services WS-Orchestration Web Services Resources Adapters Forms GUI Roles Assignee Expressions Timers Human BPM / Workflow
  • What is the purpose of BPM / Workflow
    • Place in the hands of business professionals the ability to modify their processes, with no involvement from the IT organization
          • Michael Melenovsky, Gartner
    • ... process changes are made by business professionals who need only limited knowledge of IT systems. In a growing number of cases, changes such as work item routing, business rule overrides, and parametric changes to approval levels, are made in real time to executing process.
          • Janelle Hill, Gartner
  • Where is it Going?
    • By 2009, 20 percent of business processes in the Global 2000 will be supported on BPMS[*]. These processes will be predominantly those that involve a lot of human work, that differentiate the company from its competitors and that are poorly supported by existing IT systems (0.7 probability).
          • Janelle Hill, Gartner
    • * BPMS is defined as a suite that handles both human and system processes.
  • How Does Workflow Bridge the Gap?
  • 1990  Workflow in the Brain Enterprise Application A “ Account Management” Background Check Conformance Guidelines Application Logic in Monolithic Program UI “Screens” list Accts new Acct update Acct delete Acct
  • 1993  Workflow Assist in Sequence Enterprise Application A “ Account Management” Background Check Conformance Rules Application Logic in Monolithic Program UI “ Screens” list Accts new Acct update Acct delete Acct Launches UI User accesses original UI directly background check create account check guidelines Human BPM/Workflow:
  • 1996  Distribute Work Enterprise Application A “ Account Management” Background Check Conformance Rules Application Logic in Monolithic Program UI “ Screens” list Accts new Acct update Acct delete Acct background check create account check guidelines Launches
  • 2002  Integration thru Web Services Enterprise Application A “ Account Management” Background Check Conformance Rules Application Logic Service Oriented Architecture Exposed Web Services list Accts new Acct update Acct delete Acct enter info create account bg check rules Review UI connects user to process engine, not the back-end applications
  • 2005  Composite Services = Agility Old Rules Enterprise Application A “ Account Management” Background New Rules list Accts new Acct update Acct delete Acct enter info create account call 1 Review ESB / BPEL Application Logic Exposed Web Services Composite Service
  • 2005  Composite Services = Agility Old Rules Background New Rules list Accts new Acct update Acct delete Acct enter info create account call 1 Review ESB / BPEL Application Logic Exposed Web Services Composite Services
  • Human Activities Have Three Phases Review Automated phase before to prepare for the task Wait phase for Human to do the work, includes timers and escalation logic Automated phase after to take care of results of the task User Interface (while waiting)
  • 2008  Simplify as “Human Steps” Enterprise Application A “ Account Management” Background Conformance Rules Application Logic Exposed Web Services list Accts new Acct update Acct delete Acct call 1 Review ESB / BPEL enter info Composite Service To People: Looks like two steps! Much simpler.
  • Separation of Responsibility
    • Business Retains Control of
    • Assignment of Responsibility
    • Groups, Roles, Skills
    • Deadlines
    • Alerts, Reminders, Escalations
    • Order of Tasks
    • Addition of Manual Tasks
    • User Interface
    • IT Retains Control of
    • Computational Logic
    • Data Representations
    • Scalability / Performance
    • Interoperability
    • Master Data Management
    Enterprise Application A “ Account Management” Background Rules list Accts new Acct update Acct delete Acct ESB / BPEL call 1 Review enter info
  • Separation of Development
    • Business Retains Control of
    • Assignment of Responsibility
    • Groups, Roles, Skills
    • Deadlines
    • Alerts, Reminders, Escalations
    • Order of Tasks
    • Addition of Manual Tasks
    • User Interface
    • IT Retains Control of
    • Computational Logic
    • Data Representations
    • Scalability / Performance
    • Interoperability
    • Master Data Management
    Depends strongly on who is in each organization. Changes on daily basis Organizational Culture Optimize for each team Respond to market or legislation Related to Training, Experience Requires expensive technical capabilities Very low or no dependence upon the organizational culture Knowledge of infrastructure Who? When? What? How?
  • Step 1  Draw Human Process Review enter info First: a business analyst draws the “human” process Business Analyst John
  • Step 2  Add Integration Enterprise Application A “ Account Management” Background Conformance Rules list Accts new Acct update Acct delete Acct call 1 Review ESB / BPEL enter info Second: Service Invocation Added by IT Expert IT Integration Expert Robert
  • Agility  Business Driven Change Enterprise Application A “ Account Management” Background Rules list Accts new Acct update Acct delete Acct call 1 Review ESB / BPEL enter info News Flash! Some other bank sued! Need to respond quickly to avoid risk! legal check
    • When done right, successful BPM initiatives (herein referring to projects involving both business process analysis and the implementation of business process management software) change the entire notion of applications, by allowing core systems to respond to process context, rather than driving processes around the limits of technology.
      • Nathanial Palmer, Laura Mooney, 2006
  • Benefit  Business Level Agility
    • Applications are no longer monolithic
    • UI is separated from the back end logic
    • The solution is built from “applications slices” sequenced by Human BPM
    • BPM determines the right person for the right task at the right time.
      • Business analyst is in control of this!
    • Business side can rearrange slices, and add in manual steps quickly
  • Standards Support
  • The Workflow Reference Model Process Definition Tools Interface 1 Interface 4 - Interoperability Interface 5 Workflow Enactment Service Other Workflow Enactment Service(s) Worklist Handler Interface 3 Interface 2 Invoked Applications Tool Agent Process Definition Import/Export Client Apps Typically Web Services Workflow Engine(s) see: www.wfmc.org/standards/docs/tc003v11.pdf BPMN XPDL Wf-XML SOAP BPEL Administration & Monitoring Tools Workflow Engine(s)
  • WfMC Reference Model
    • Interface 1 – Process Definition Tools
      • Definition of a standard interface between process definition and modeling tools and the work flow engine(s).
    • Interface 2 – Workflow Enactment
      • Definition of APIs for client applications to request services from the workflow engine to control the progression of processes, activities and work-items.
    • Interface 3 – Invoked Applications
      • A standard interface definition of APIs to allow the workflow engine to invoke a variety of applications, through common agent software.
    • Interface 4 – Other Workflow Enactment Services
      • Definition of workflow interoperability models and the corresponding standards to support interworking.
    • Interface 5 – Administration and Monitoring Tools
      • The definition of monitoring and control functions.
  • Industry Standards Stack Process Definition Process Execution Process Orchestration Choreography Definition WS-C (concrete) WS-BPEL (abstract) Monitoring & Audit WfMC IF5 Process State Notation WfMC Process and Activity State Models BPRI Wf-XML ASAP Notation UML AD BPMN Repository & Discovery UDDI Assurance WS-Security SAML Formats BPDM XPDL BPSS CPA/CPP BPR Transport Reliability ebXML-RM WS-RM ... Transport Layer HTTP JMS ... Data Format XML Encoding SOAP / Attachments WS-Addressing Data Definition XML-Schema End Point Definition WSDL Runtime Interaction Wf-XML ASAP WfMC WAPI Presentation X-Forms (concrete) WS-BPEL (abstract) XPDL BPMN
  • Timeline November 1998 October 2002 1997 XPDL 1.0 October 2005 May 2004 BPMN 1.0 1995 XPDL 2.0 WFMC BPMI 1993 OASIS OMG Reference Model Glossary XML WPDL 1996 1994 2000 BPEL Wf-XML Wf-XML 2.0 ASAP
  • BPMN - Modeling Notation
  • XPDL: Process Definition Interchange
    • Allow tools to exchange process models between
      • components in a Workflow/BPM Products
      • different BPM/Workflow Products
      • Process Modeling / Simulation tools and BPM/Workflow Products
    • Implemented by commercial products
    • Full support for BPMN
    • Interoperability demonstrated by WfMC member organizations at public events
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • BPEL For BPM?
    • “ From day one, BPM has sought to make process design directly accessible to business analysts, but today’s BPEL process models are for the most part undecipherable to non-programmers.”
    • - Bruce Silver, “The 2006 BPMS Report: Understanding and Evaluating BPM Suites”
  • Design Interchange vs. Executable XPDL Design Tool A Execution Engine A BPEL, XPDL, or some engine specific format Design Tool B Execution Engine B BPEL, XPDL, or some engine specific format X This path generally not possible to support
  • How BPEL and XPDL Relate
    • BPEL is an “executable” language
      • Includes only executable operations
      • Does not contain the graphical diagram
    • Many Engines have proprietary formats
      • They have a design tool
      • Even BPEL engines have proprietary extensions
    • XPDL is a design interchange format that represents the graphical diagram
      • Includes metadata about executable aspects
    • It is generally not possible to design a process with a tool from one vendor and execute it in another vendor’s engine
      • But exchange between design tools is possible
  • Process Design Ecosystem Design Tool Design Tool Modeling Tools Optimization Tools Simulation Tools Execution Engine Execution Engine BPEL or some engine specific format BPEL or some engine specific format Repository (XPDL) Vendor A Vendor D ASAP Wf-XML Vendor B Vendor C
  • Process Design Ecosystem
    • An ecosystem of process tools at design level:
      • Business oriented and developer oriented modelers
      • Simulation tools & optimization tools
      • Analysis tools
      • Professional business modeling tools
      • Conversions to/from other formats like Visio
    • XPDL is a common standard interchange format between these tools
    • Each tool extends XPDL for its use
      • Tools understand a common subset of each other
      • All tools understand basics; the graphical diagram
  • XPDL Support in Market
  • Over 60 XPDL Implementations…
    • Adobe – Adobe LiveCycle Workflow
    • ADVANTYS - WorkflowGen
    • Amazonas Workflow
    • Appian - Enterprise
    • Arachnea - EverSuite
    • Ascentn - AgilePoint Server
    • Aspose Pty Ltd - Aspose.Workflow
    • BOC - ADONIS 3.7
    • BEA - Fuego
    • Brein BV - InProces
    • Bonita v2.0
    • Box UK - Amaxus
    • Canto - CanFlow
    • CapeVisions
    • CARNOT - Process Engine
    • CHALEX - BPM Framework
    • ComActivity
    • Cubetto Toolset
    • Dessault Systems - ENOVIA
    • Eclaire Group – Lynx Flow Designer
    • EMC Documentum - ApplicationXtender Workflow
    • Empresa Solutions - Kinnosa Workflow
    • Enhydra Shark
    OpenPages Oracle - 9i Warehouse Builder Pentaho Projekty Bankowe Polsoft – BPB Workflow Proforma Corporation - ProVision Rodan Systems - OfficeObjects® Workflow Simprocess Software AG- crossvision BPM SpeechCycle - LevelOne TIBCO® - Staffware Process Suite Together Workflow Editor Transware - Ambassador Vignette – Process Workflow Modeler W4 - BPM Suite WfMOpen Workflow::Wfmc Workflow4r ZAPLET 3 - PROCESS BUILDER Zynium - Byzio Enhydra JaWE Finantix Studio (FXS) Fujitsu - Interstage BPM FileNet - Process Manager GA Communications Global 360 – Business Optimzation Server HOGA.PL IBM - FileNet IDS Scheer – Business Architect Integic – e.POWER WorkManager Interwoven - WorkRoute MP Infor - SSA Baan, SSA BPCS, SSA MANMAN, SSA Masterpiece ITP-Commerce – Process Modeler Professional IT Pearls jawFlow Jenz & Partner GmbH Kaisha-Tec - Avantage Metoda S.p.A - OpenMet BPMF Mindfire Solutions Nautica Open Business Engine
  • Future
    • BPMN
      • BPMI has become part of OMG
        • BPMN will be further developed within OMG.
    • XPDL
      • WfMC will continue to maintain XPDL
      • Will update based on
        • BPMN evolution
        • Implementers comments
    • BPEL
      • Soon ratified standard from OASIS
  • Reuse Existing Process Infrastructure
    • Sales Process on Server A
    • Legal Review Process on Server B
    Draft Aprove Legal Review Close Contract Specialist Tort Specialist Exec Analyst Wf-XML & ASAP based on SOAP Standard Protocol between process engines allows one process to reuse another across technologies.
  • Finding BPMN, XPDL and BPEL Info
    • WfMC Website
      • http:// www.wfmc.org
      • http:// www.wfmc.org/standards/XPDL.htm
    • OMG Website
      • http:// www,omg.org
      • http:// www.bpmn.org
    • OASIS Website
      • http://www.oasis-open.org /
  • Finding XPDL-Related Information
    • Workflow Handbook 2003:
      • XPDL and BPMN
      • XPDL in Action
    • Workflow Handbook 2004:
      • Workflow Service Provider with XPDL 
    • Workflow Handbook 2005:
      • A Comparison of XML Interchange Formats for Business Process Modelling
    • Workflow Handbook 2006:
      • XPDL 2.0: Integrating Process Interchange and BPMN
    • Workflow Handbook 2007:
      • BPM and Service-Oriented Architecture Teamed Together
    • CDROM Companions
      • XPDL 2.0 specification with xpdl samples
  • Summary
    • New structure for enterprise applications
      • Separate “who” & “when”
      • From “what” & “how”
    • Key Benefits:
      • Business Level Control & Agility
      • Visibility: Monitoring & Tracking
      • Reuse & Adapt
    • Standards are key to interoperability
      • BPMN – the graphical notation
      • XPDL – the file format for design interchange
  • Thank Y
    • Kith D Swenson
    • VP Fujtisu Computer Systems
    • Technical Committee Chair, WfMC
    • Contact Information:
    • +1 408 859 1005
    • [email_address]
    ou Process Thought Leadership Thank Y ou
  • BPEL 4 People
    • A “White Paper” from IBM and SAP suggests
      • A new activity called a “people activity” with deadlines, user interface forms
      • A “people link” which associates people with this activity
      • A couple roles, like process initiator and stakeholder
      • An “accept” like capability
    • What is missing?
      • Ability to change processes while running and to do running process migration
      • Precise definition of expression language for people
      • No separation of business processes from IT processes
      • Multiple Instance (Voting) Activities
      • Still no graphical information
      • Not yet even a proposed specification, still just concepts
  • XPDL and BPDM
    • BPDM (Business Process Definition Metamodel)
      • OMG’s effort to provide an interchange format between all possible process languages
      • Still in early stages; first spec due in Dec 2006,
      • months or years before a spec will be ratified.
    • XPDL 2.0
      • Full support for all BPMN constructs
      • Focus on the process diagram
      • Ratified Oct 2005
      • Implementations available today