Disaster Risk Reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalaya Region HariKrishna Nibanupudi Team Leader-Disaster Risk Reduction and Community Resilience email@example.com International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Kathmandu, Nepal4th International Disaster & Risk Conference (IDRC), Davos
Session Plan• HKH Region, hazards, policy scenario and ICIMOD Framework• HKH-Earth Quake Hazards and risk reduction with a particular focus on Kathmandy Valley, Nepal• The challenges of disasters in North western Pakistan and current management patterns• Creating a synergy in DRR efforts-Bangladesh• Disaster management decision support system in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region• Importance of regional cooperation in disaster risk reduction• Discussion
The International Centre for IntegratedMountain Development (ICIMOD) A regional mountain The Hindu Kush Himalayan Region Extends over 3500 km from Afghanistan to Myanmar And knowledge, learning Home to 200 million People and enabling centre devoted to sustainable mountain development Information and Knowledge are chief Commodities of the Centre www.icimod.org An intergovernmental and independent organisation http://geoportal.icimod.org with eight member states www.icimod.org/drr
ICIMOD’s strategic vision and programsVision:The mountain population of the greaterHimalayas enjoys improved wellbeing in asustainable global environment.Strategy:ICIMODs strategy is aimed at benefiting thePeople of the region and at sustaining vitalEnvironmental services for the billions of peopleliving downstream. Integrated Water and Hazard Management Environmental Change and Ecosystem Services Sustainable Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction Integrated Knowledge Management
HKH Rivers: Vital for survival and also asource of risk: Ten large rivers of the world flow in the HKH region • Amu Darya, • Brahmaputra, • Ganges, • Indus, • Irrawaddy, • Mekong, • Salween, • Tarim, • Yangtze, and • Yellow River Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India,Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistanvel
Glaciers several thousands of years oldare rapidly disappearing
Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs)−Several studies show that most of glaciers inHimalaya are shrinking at accelerated rates inrecent decades−Glacial lakes formed by rapid retreat of glaciers−Water volume increase in these lakes from theglacier melt−Lakes retained by unconsolidated moraine damsand ice core−Moraine failure due to piping and overtopping−Triggered by many factors−Damaging impact downstream−Common in Nepal, Tibet/China, Bhutan and otherparts of HKHAbout 56 past GLOF events in the HKHRegion (Bhutan - 4, China - 29, Nepal -14, Pakistan - 9) recorded with about 10of them of trans-boundary nature
Increased frequency and magnitude of natural disasters Floods Flash Floods/GLOFS Landslides Earthquake
Disaster events and impacts in HKH regioncountries- 1980-2009OFDA/CRED Country No. of Disaster No. Of deaths No. of people Damages Events Affected (000) (US$ Millions) China 574 148, 419 2,549,840 321,545 India 416 141,888 1,501,211 51,645 Bangladesh 229 191,650 316,348 16,273 Pakistan 131 84,841 29,966 8,871 Afghanistan 125 19,304 6,774 497 Nepal 74 10,881 4,507 1,621 Myanmar 25 139,095 3,315 2,726 Bhutan 9 303 66 5 Data for mountain region specific disasters need to be compiled
Hazard Events are increasing• The region having average 76 hazard events each year and highest found for china (25) and India (18). Afghanistan (10),.• In average more than thirty six thousand people are killed & 178 million people are affected each year due to natural hazards in the countries in HKH•
Struggling Flood Affected Community in Sindh,Pakistan, 2010
Deaths and affected population in somerecent flood events in the HKH countriesCountry Period deaths DisplacedAfghanistan March 2005 100 11,000Bangladesh July 2007 1,230 13,851,380Bhutan August 2000 200 1,000China June 2005 138 16,700,000India July 2007 2,051 38,143,000Myanmar August 1997 68 137,418Nepal July 2007 214 640,658Pakistan August 2010 2000 20,000,000
National Scenario: Steady progress but Lacking mountain perspectiveChina: China National Committee for Disaster Reduction(NCDR) composed of 30 ministries and departments, includingrelevant military agencies and social groups.India: Government of India has formulated the NationalDisaster Management Act & Institutional infrastructure suchas NDMA, NIDM, NDRF, etc.Afghanistan: Institutional capacity to deal with disasterimpacts is building up slowly after years of conflict. ANDMA isthe focal point for disaster Management and has acoordinative role during emergency operations.Pakistan: National Disaster Management Commission(NDMC) established as the apex policy making body,NDMA as its executive arm,
National Scenario:Bangladesh: Formation of National Disaster Management Act. AndNational Disaster Management Plan (2010-2015).Nepal: The Government of Nepal has this year adopted a NationalStrategy for Disaster Risk Management (NSDRM). Formation of NepalRisk Reduction Consortium (ADB, IFRC, UNDP, UNISDR, OCHA, WorldBank) to prioritize and implement Five Flagship elements of theNSDRM.Myanmar: National Disaster Preparedness Central Committee(NDPCC) has been formed under the chair of Prime Minister, which isthe apex body for Disaster Management.Bhutan: The National Disaster Risk Management Framework formulatedin the year 2006 was the first comprehensive multi-stakeholders strategy.
ICIMOD’s DRR purpose and strategy for theHKH region (In line with HFA) 1. Bridge data and information gap to inform policies: • Establish HKH specific regional disaster database and monitoring system. • Develop comprehensive Hazard, risk and vulnerability data with a focus on HKH areas. • Conduct policy research and advocacy programs to assist implementation HFA by ICIMOD member countries with a focus on the HKH region. 2. Enhance Regional Cooperation in DRR: • Demonstrate the benefits of regional cooperation for DRR through evidence based research, pilot projects and impact studies. • Elicit commitment for regional cooperation through policy dialogues, advocacy meetings and by playing active role in national regional and international forums of DRR.
ICIMOD DRR Strategies3. Develop and implement regional information, knowledge and capacity strategy on DRR:• Effective use of web based platform for providing disaster information services• Conduct DRR institutional mapping, capacity assessment in member countries• Capacity building strategies & tools for policy makers, administrators, youth and the media.4. Strengthen community resilience:• Implement community level interventions through ICIMODs three program areas.5. Disaster Preparedness and Rapid Humanitarian Response:• Satellite based information and decision support system services to• Capacity building of institutions, young volunteers and professional