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6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Consequences of the Armed
Conflict as a Stressor of climate
phenomena in Colombia
Dr. Diana Contreras, University of Salzburg, Austria
B.Comm. Sandra contreras, Grupo Planeta, Colombia
Resilience Academy 2013 – 2014 : Exploring livelihood resilience
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
OUTLINE
 Introduction
 Methodology
 Results
 Conclusions
 References
Sapzurro – Colombia. Photo: Diana Contreras
2/12
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
ARMED GROUPS
 Guerrilla
 Paramilitary forces
(until 2003)
 Criminal gangs
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
Clan Úsuga
Drugs trafic
corridors
(until 29 August 2016)
3/12
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
ILLICIT CROPS
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
Coca crops density in Colombia in 2009
UNODC. (2011).
Source: UNODC. (2011). Monitoreo de Cultivos de Coca 2010. Pag. 23.
Small-scale mining near to Capurganá (Colombia)
Photo: Diana Contreras
22/02/2014
Regional distribution of the permanence of the coca crops between
2001 and 2010
UNODC. (2011). Source: UNODC. (2011). Monitoreo de Cultivos de Coca 2010. Pag. 18.
Not Area affected between 2008 and 2010
Area affected intermittent
between 2001 and 2010
Area affected from 2008
Area permanently affected
between 2001 and 2010
4/12
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
La Niña 2010 - 2011
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
Significatively below normal
( 0 - 30%)
Moderately below normal
( 30 - 60%)
Slightly below normal
( 60 - 90%)
Normal ( 60 - 90%)
Slightly above normal
( 110 - 140%)
Moderately above normal
( 140 - 170%)
Significatively above normal
( > 170%)
Rainfall anomalies between
January and December 2010
Euscátegui, C., & Hurtado, G. (2016). Análisis del impacto del fenómeno
"La Niña" 2010 - 2011 en la hidroclimatología del país. Retrieved from
http://www.ideam.gov.co/documents/21021/418818/An%C3%A1lisis+I
mpacto+La+Ni%C3%B1a.pdf. Maps 1 to 12. Pag. 20.
Rainfall anomalies between
January and May 2011
Euscátegui, C., & Hurtado, G. (2016). Análisis del impacto del fenómeno
"La Niña" 2010 - 2011 en la hidroclimatología del país. Retrieved from
http://www.ideam.gov.co/documents/21021/418818/An%C3%A1lisis+I
mpacto+La+Ni%C3%B1a.pdf. Maps 1 to 12. Pag. 21.
Significatively below normal
( 0 - 30%)
Moderately below normal
( 30 - 60%)
Slightly below normal
( 60 - 90%)
Normal ( 60 - 90%)
Slightly above normal
( 110 - 140%)
Moderately above normal
( 140 - 170%)
Significatively above normal
( > 170%)
Hoyos, N., Escobar, J., Restrepo, J. C., Arango, A. M., & Ortiz, J. C. (2013). Impact of the 2010–2011 La Niña phenomenon in Colombia, South America: The human toll of an extreme weather event.
Applied Geography, 39(0), 16-25. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.11.018. Fig. 5. Pag. 21.
4 millions affected
9% population
448 people died
524 injured
73 missing
447,482 houses damaged
13,110 destroyed
Economic losses US$ 7.8 billion
5/12
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
6/12
POVERTY
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
CASE STUDY AREA
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
Departments from Colombia with problems regarding
deforestation in the period between 2002 and 2007, are
considered (SINCHI, 2010)
CORRELATION
 Fires for land clearing
 Deforestation
 Cattle ranching
 Illicit crops
 Other crops
 Farmers
 Armed and/or illegal groups
Armenteras and Retana (2012)
NO CORRELATION
 Climate Variables
 Fire variables
 Precipitation anomalies
(accumulated rainfall)
 Fire hotspots
Number of violent events in Colombia between the 1st January 2012 and 15th July 2013.
Baracaldo Orjuela, D. (2013). Cuáles son las zonas "rojas" por violencia en Colombia? Política. Retrieved from http://www.kienyke.com/politica/las-zonas-de-mas-violencia-en-colombia/
7/12
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
CASE STUDY AREA
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
Comparison of the number of Km2 deforested in Colombia between 2002 and 2007, the number of affected households by La Niña
phenomenon between 2010 and 2011, and the number of events of armed violence between 2012 and 2013.
ND: No data.
DEPARTMENTS
DEFORESTATION
2002 - 2007
AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS
2010 - 2011
ARMED VIOLENCE
2012 - 2013
Km2 Number Number of events
Caquetá 2093,36 6248 339
Meta 1711,84 5545 213
Guaviare 1315,26 95 60
Putumayo 1090,48 4171 221
Amazonas 413,89 695 0
Vichada ND ND 6
Vaupés 257,08 3 3
Cauca 91,58 71220 657
Nariño 41,06 47438 331
8/12
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
CORRELATION ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
DEFORESTATION
2002 - 2007
AFFECTED
HOUSEHOLDS
2010 - 2011
ARMED
VIOLENCE
2012 - 2013
DEFORESTATION
2002 - 2007
Pearson Correlation 1 -,423 -,031
Sig. (1-tailed) ,129 ,471
N 9 9 8
AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS
2010 - 2011
Pearson Correlation -,423 1 ,865**
Sig. (1-tailed) ,129 ,003
N 9 9 8
VIOLENCE
2012 - 2013
Pearson Correlation -,031 ,865** 1
Sig. (1-tailed) ,471 ,003
N 8 8 8
**.Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).
Pearson's one-tailed bivariate correlation
9/12
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
REGRESSION ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
Variables Entered/Removeda
Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method
1
AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDSb . Enter
a. Dependent Variable: ARMED VIOLENCE
b. All requested variables entered.
Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .865a .748 .706 118.7693
a. Predictors: (Constant), AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS
ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 25,0736.584 1 25,0736.584 17.775 .006b
Residual 84,636.916 6 14,106.153
Total 335,373.500 7
a. Dependent Variable: ARMED VIOLENCE
b. Predictors: (Constant), AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS
Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig.B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant)
111.155 50.411 2.205 .070
AFFECTED
HOUSEHOLDS .007 .002 .865 4.216 .006
a. Dependent Variable: ARMED VIOLENCE
10/12
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
CONCLUSIONS
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
 The problem is not the hazard or the intensity of the natural
phenomenon, the real problem is the low resilience of the communities
involved in the internal conflict of Colombia, when they have to face
regular climate phenomenon such as La Niña.
 To construct social capital and develop resilience to face phenomena such
as La Niña and El Niño, it is necessary to increase the presence of the
government in the areas where there are natural resources, which are
usually geographically far from the institutional control.
 One of the most urgent policies in Colombia is a land reform beside the
process of land restitution, and more support for the farmers in the
process of substitution of illegal crops.
11/12
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
 Armenteras, D. & Retana, J. (2012). Dynamics, Patterns and Causes of Fires in Northwestern Amazonia. PLoS ONE,
7, 1-7.
 Baracaldo, D. 2013. Cuáles son las zonas "rojas" por violencia en Colombia? [Online]. KIENZKE. Available:
http://www.kienyke.com/politica/las-zonas-de-mas-violencia-en-colombia/ [Accessed December 10th, 2014
2013].
 Billar, O. & Fontalvo, E. (2014). En cinco departamentos se concentra la deforestación en Colombia. In: Billar, O.,
Fontalbo, E., Franco, O., Perea, J. M., Plazas, M. & Rengifo, W. (eds.) Actualidad. Caracol radio.
 CEPAL (2012). Valoración de daños y pérdidas. Ola invernal en Colombia, 2010-2011. Bogotá: Misión BID - CEPAL.
 Contreras, S. (2008). Los Victimarios en Colombia. Radiografía de la Violencia en los últimos 50 años. Comunicación
Social con énfasis en Periodismo y Producción Editorial, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.
 González, D. (1999). La coca, la deforestación y la seguridad alimentaria en la Amazonia colombiana. In:
Departamento de Montes. FAO.
 Herrera, J. S. (2013). Caquetá, Meta y Guaviare, donde hay más deforestación en Colombia. El Tiempo, August 5th,
2013.
 Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.; Restrepo, J. C.;Arango, A. M. & Ortiz, J. C. (2013). Impact of the 2010–2011 La Niña
phenomenon in Colombia, South America: The human toll of an extreme weather event. Applied Geography, 39,
16-25.
 Nordås, R. & Gleditsch, N. P. (2007). Climate change and conflict. Political Geography, 26, 627-638.
 Reuveny, R. (2007). Climate change-induced migration and violent conflict. Political Geography, 26, 656-673.
 SINCHI (2010). Tasas de deforestación para cada unidad geográfica en la Amazonía Colombiana. Ministerio de
Ambiente Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial.
 Tellman, B., Rivera, A., Alaniz, R. & Contreras, D. (2014). Violence as an obstacle to livelihood resilience in the
context of climate change. UNU-EHS Working Paper. United Nations University Institute of Environment and
Human Security (UNU-EHS).
DANKE
MERCI
GRACIAS
THANK YOU
dziękuję
MULTUMESC
KÖSZÖNÖM
OBRIGADA
DANKJEWEL
धन्यवाद
ขอบคุณ
HVALA
ХВАЛА
謝謝
고맙습니다
ありがとうございました
12/12

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Consequences of the Armed Conflict as a Stressor of Climate Change in Colombia, Diana CONTRERAS

  • 1. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Consequences of the Armed Conflict as a Stressor of climate phenomena in Colombia Dr. Diana Contreras, University of Salzburg, Austria B.Comm. Sandra contreras, Grupo Planeta, Colombia Resilience Academy 2013 – 2014 : Exploring livelihood resilience
  • 2. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org OUTLINE  Introduction  Methodology  Results  Conclusions  References Sapzurro – Colombia. Photo: Diana Contreras 2/12
  • 3. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org ARMED GROUPS  Guerrilla  Paramilitary forces (until 2003)  Criminal gangs INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Clan Úsuga Drugs trafic corridors (until 29 August 2016) 3/12
  • 4. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org ILLICIT CROPS INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Coca crops density in Colombia in 2009 UNODC. (2011). Source: UNODC. (2011). Monitoreo de Cultivos de Coca 2010. Pag. 23. Small-scale mining near to Capurganá (Colombia) Photo: Diana Contreras 22/02/2014 Regional distribution of the permanence of the coca crops between 2001 and 2010 UNODC. (2011). Source: UNODC. (2011). Monitoreo de Cultivos de Coca 2010. Pag. 18. Not Area affected between 2008 and 2010 Area affected intermittent between 2001 and 2010 Area affected from 2008 Area permanently affected between 2001 and 2010 4/12
  • 5. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org La Niña 2010 - 2011 INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Significatively below normal ( 0 - 30%) Moderately below normal ( 30 - 60%) Slightly below normal ( 60 - 90%) Normal ( 60 - 90%) Slightly above normal ( 110 - 140%) Moderately above normal ( 140 - 170%) Significatively above normal ( > 170%) Rainfall anomalies between January and December 2010 Euscátegui, C., & Hurtado, G. (2016). Análisis del impacto del fenómeno "La Niña" 2010 - 2011 en la hidroclimatología del país. Retrieved from http://www.ideam.gov.co/documents/21021/418818/An%C3%A1lisis+I mpacto+La+Ni%C3%B1a.pdf. Maps 1 to 12. Pag. 20. Rainfall anomalies between January and May 2011 Euscátegui, C., & Hurtado, G. (2016). Análisis del impacto del fenómeno "La Niña" 2010 - 2011 en la hidroclimatología del país. Retrieved from http://www.ideam.gov.co/documents/21021/418818/An%C3%A1lisis+I mpacto+La+Ni%C3%B1a.pdf. Maps 1 to 12. Pag. 21. Significatively below normal ( 0 - 30%) Moderately below normal ( 30 - 60%) Slightly below normal ( 60 - 90%) Normal ( 60 - 90%) Slightly above normal ( 110 - 140%) Moderately above normal ( 140 - 170%) Significatively above normal ( > 170%) Hoyos, N., Escobar, J., Restrepo, J. C., Arango, A. M., & Ortiz, J. C. (2013). Impact of the 2010–2011 La Niña phenomenon in Colombia, South America: The human toll of an extreme weather event. Applied Geography, 39(0), 16-25. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.11.018. Fig. 5. Pag. 21. 4 millions affected 9% population 448 people died 524 injured 73 missing 447,482 houses damaged 13,110 destroyed Economic losses US$ 7.8 billion 5/12
  • 6. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 6/12 POVERTY
  • 7. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CASE STUDY AREA INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Departments from Colombia with problems regarding deforestation in the period between 2002 and 2007, are considered (SINCHI, 2010) CORRELATION  Fires for land clearing  Deforestation  Cattle ranching  Illicit crops  Other crops  Farmers  Armed and/or illegal groups Armenteras and Retana (2012) NO CORRELATION  Climate Variables  Fire variables  Precipitation anomalies (accumulated rainfall)  Fire hotspots Number of violent events in Colombia between the 1st January 2012 and 15th July 2013. Baracaldo Orjuela, D. (2013). Cuáles son las zonas "rojas" por violencia en Colombia? Política. Retrieved from http://www.kienyke.com/politica/las-zonas-de-mas-violencia-en-colombia/ 7/12
  • 8. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CASE STUDY AREA INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Comparison of the number of Km2 deforested in Colombia between 2002 and 2007, the number of affected households by La Niña phenomenon between 2010 and 2011, and the number of events of armed violence between 2012 and 2013. ND: No data. DEPARTMENTS DEFORESTATION 2002 - 2007 AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS 2010 - 2011 ARMED VIOLENCE 2012 - 2013 Km2 Number Number of events Caquetá 2093,36 6248 339 Meta 1711,84 5545 213 Guaviare 1315,26 95 60 Putumayo 1090,48 4171 221 Amazonas 413,89 695 0 Vichada ND ND 6 Vaupés 257,08 3 3 Cauca 91,58 71220 657 Nariño 41,06 47438 331 8/12
  • 9. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CORRELATION ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES DEFORESTATION 2002 - 2007 AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS 2010 - 2011 ARMED VIOLENCE 2012 - 2013 DEFORESTATION 2002 - 2007 Pearson Correlation 1 -,423 -,031 Sig. (1-tailed) ,129 ,471 N 9 9 8 AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS 2010 - 2011 Pearson Correlation -,423 1 ,865** Sig. (1-tailed) ,129 ,003 N 9 9 8 VIOLENCE 2012 - 2013 Pearson Correlation -,031 ,865** 1 Sig. (1-tailed) ,471 ,003 N 8 8 8 **.Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed). Pearson's one-tailed bivariate correlation 9/12
  • 10. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org REGRESSION ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Variables Entered/Removeda Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDSb . Enter a. Dependent Variable: ARMED VIOLENCE b. All requested variables entered. Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .865a .748 .706 118.7693 a. Predictors: (Constant), AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS ANOVAa Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 25,0736.584 1 25,0736.584 17.775 .006b Residual 84,636.916 6 14,106.153 Total 335,373.500 7 a. Dependent Variable: ARMED VIOLENCE b. Predictors: (Constant), AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 111.155 50.411 2.205 .070 AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS .007 .002 .865 4.216 .006 a. Dependent Variable: ARMED VIOLENCE 10/12
  • 11. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES  The problem is not the hazard or the intensity of the natural phenomenon, the real problem is the low resilience of the communities involved in the internal conflict of Colombia, when they have to face regular climate phenomenon such as La Niña.  To construct social capital and develop resilience to face phenomena such as La Niña and El Niño, it is necessary to increase the presence of the government in the areas where there are natural resources, which are usually geographically far from the institutional control.  One of the most urgent policies in Colombia is a land reform beside the process of land restitution, and more support for the farmers in the process of substitution of illegal crops. 11/12
  • 12. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org REFERENCES INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES  Armenteras, D. & Retana, J. (2012). Dynamics, Patterns and Causes of Fires in Northwestern Amazonia. PLoS ONE, 7, 1-7.  Baracaldo, D. 2013. Cuáles son las zonas "rojas" por violencia en Colombia? [Online]. KIENZKE. Available: http://www.kienyke.com/politica/las-zonas-de-mas-violencia-en-colombia/ [Accessed December 10th, 2014 2013].  Billar, O. & Fontalvo, E. (2014). En cinco departamentos se concentra la deforestación en Colombia. In: Billar, O., Fontalbo, E., Franco, O., Perea, J. M., Plazas, M. & Rengifo, W. (eds.) Actualidad. Caracol radio.  CEPAL (2012). Valoración de daños y pérdidas. Ola invernal en Colombia, 2010-2011. Bogotá: Misión BID - CEPAL.  Contreras, S. (2008). Los Victimarios en Colombia. Radiografía de la Violencia en los últimos 50 años. Comunicación Social con énfasis en Periodismo y Producción Editorial, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.  González, D. (1999). La coca, la deforestación y la seguridad alimentaria en la Amazonia colombiana. In: Departamento de Montes. FAO.  Herrera, J. S. (2013). Caquetá, Meta y Guaviare, donde hay más deforestación en Colombia. El Tiempo, August 5th, 2013.  Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.; Restrepo, J. C.;Arango, A. M. & Ortiz, J. C. (2013). Impact of the 2010–2011 La Niña phenomenon in Colombia, South America: The human toll of an extreme weather event. Applied Geography, 39, 16-25.  Nordås, R. & Gleditsch, N. P. (2007). Climate change and conflict. Political Geography, 26, 627-638.  Reuveny, R. (2007). Climate change-induced migration and violent conflict. Political Geography, 26, 656-673.  SINCHI (2010). Tasas de deforestación para cada unidad geográfica en la Amazonía Colombiana. Ministerio de Ambiente Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial.  Tellman, B., Rivera, A., Alaniz, R. & Contreras, D. (2014). Violence as an obstacle to livelihood resilience in the context of climate change. UNU-EHS Working Paper. United Nations University Institute of Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS). DANKE MERCI GRACIAS THANK YOU dziękuję MULTUMESC KÖSZÖNÖM OBRIGADA DANKJEWEL धन्यवाद ขอบคุณ HVALA ХВАЛА 謝謝 고맙습니다 ありがとうございました 12/12

Editor's Notes

  1. Good afternoon, my name is Diana Contreras. I am Doctor from the University of Salzburg and today I am going to present the consequences of the Armed Conflict as Stressor of Climate Change in Colombia.
  2. This is the outline of the presentation.
  3. Currently, in Colombia there are two kinds of illegal armed groups: guerrilla and criminal gangs. The guerrilla groups began operating in Colombia more than 50 years ago, while the paramilitary forces appeared in the 80’s, as response of the farmers, cattle ranchers, and drug-traffickers to systematic extortion by the guerrilla to fund their illicit activities. After the process of disarmament and demobilization of paramilitary groups, in 2003, some of the members decided not to reintegrate into civilian life and begin lives in organized crime. The paramilitary groups were mainly present in the north, the west and in the central region of Colombia, while guerrilla is mainly located in the east and the south of Colombia. The areas where these groups operate have in common, resources such as land, minerals, and transport corridors used for traffic of drugs. The land is needed to grow illicit crops such as marijuana, coca, and to a lesser degree poppy. The boom of the illicit crops in Colombia started since the middle of the 1960’s. The west and the north-east of Colombia constitute drugs traffic corridors, and the culture of violence and armed conflict in these areas is rooted in the drug trade.
  4. Illicit crops and illegal mining activities usually take place in remote areas, making it difficult for police to locate them and for the government to eradicate them. This is only an example. To develop illicit crops, large tracts of land are deforested every year, contributing to floods, land degradation and reduction of fresh water availability. Already in the 90’s, it was highlighted that Colombia had one of the highest deforestation rates in the world, caused mainly by the illicit crops, besides the expansion of the agricultural frontier, the new settlements, extensive livestock, and illegal mining. It is estimated that three hectares are deforested to implement one hectare of coca.
  5. Between 2010 – 2011 La Niña phenomenon dominated in Colombia, Four million Colombians, or 9% of the total population were somehow affected. By May 2011, 448 people had died, 524 were injured, and 73 people were reported missing. There were 447,482 houses damaged, and 13,110 houses were totally destroyed. The economic loss estimated at US$7.8 billion, representing damage of infrastructure, flooded crops, and financial assistance to affected people. The high number of people affected in municipalities is the result of the high social vulnerability intensified by internal armed conflict.
  6. Illegal armed groups with their activities related with illicit crops and illegal mining, contribute not only to the degradation of the environment, but also to stress the consequences of regular climate phenomena such as La Niña.
  7. To administrative purposes, Colombia is divided into 32 departments. Taking into account the contribution of deforestation to the floods, for the analysis, only the set of departments with problems regarding deforestation in the period between 2002 and 2007, before la Niña between 2010 and 2011 are considered. The same set of departments were considered in a previous research done by Dolors Armenteras and Javier Retana (2012). These authors demonstrated the correlation between fires for land clearing, deforestation, cattle ranching, illicit crops, other crops and the presence of people, including armed and illegal groups. However, the same authors admitted that the spatial relationships of the climate and fire variables in the different years did not show similar patterns, and the relationships between precipitation anomalies (accumulated rainfall) and fire hotspots were also not consistent during the same period. In our analysis, we also considered the number of violent events in Colombia between the 1st January 2012 and 15th July 2013, some months after La Niña finished.
  8. Besides the yearly average rate of deforestation per Km2 in each department of the case study area, we took the corresponding number of affected households due to La Niña phenomenon between 2010 and 2011 (CEPAL, 2012), and the number of events of violence, which took place in the same departments between January 1st, 2012 and July 15th 2013.
  9. Statistically, we demonstrated the correlation between the number of affected households due to la Niña, and the number of violence events afterwards (+0.865). There was not correlation between the rate of deforestation, neither with the number of affected households, nor with the events of violence.
  10. In the regression analysis of number of affected households affected and violence, R has a value of 0.865. The value of R2 is 0.748 which demonstrates that the number of affected households due to la Niña phenomenon account for almost 75% in the number of armed violence events in the case study area afterwards