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A Holistic Approach Towards International Disaster Resilient Architecture by Learning from Vernacular Architecture, Soichiro YASUKAWA

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6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 Integrative Risk Management - Towards Resilient Cities. 28 August - 01 September 2016 in Davos, Switzerland

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A Holistic Approach Towards International Disaster Resilient Architecture by Learning from Vernacular Architecture, Soichiro YASUKAWA

  1. 1. INternational D i s a s t e r R e s i l i e n t Architecture A holistic approach towards International Disaster Resilient Architecture by learning from vernacular construction Soichiro Yasukawa Programme Specialist of DRR UNESCO
  2. 2. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INternational D i s a s t e r R e s i l i e n t Architecture
  3. 3. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  4. 4. Natural hazards World map By Munich EARTHQUAKES TROPICAL CYCLONES VOLCANOES TSUNAMIS AND STORMS
  5. 5. Natural hazards Numbers Impact of natural hazards from 2000 to 2016
  6. 6. Economic losses from disasters Natural hazards Numbers
  7. 7. Number of disasters per type and per year Natural hazards Trends
  8. 8. Urbanization Natural hazards Trends
  9. 9. Most affected people Natural hazards Trends
  10. 10. More disasters by natural hazards Human + economic losses More vulnerable people due to urbanization Most affected = developing countries Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  11. 11. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  12. 12. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015‐2030 (priority 1) Understanding disaster risk (priority 2) Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk (Priority 3) Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience (Priority 4) Build back better in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
  13. 13. 11.1 Ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums 11.3 enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries 11.4 strengthening efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage 11.5 significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations 11.b substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels 11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials 17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism 17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
  14. 14. UN Plan of Action on DRR provides for UN system-wide and joined-up strategic approaches for integrating DRR and climate change adaptation in UN development efforts. Aim of the commitments: 1) strengthen system-wide coherence in support of the Sendai Framework and other agreements, through a risk-informed and integrated approach 2) build UN system capacity to deliver coordinated, high-quality support to countries on DRR 3) to ensure DRR remains a strategic priority for UN organizations. UN Plan of Action on DRR
  15. 15. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  16. 16. 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Totaldeaths Occurence Impact of natural hazards from 2000 - 2015 Earthquake Non-engineered construction Tsunami Volcano Landslide Drought Flood FAILURE OF BUILDINGS
  17. 17. Non-engineered construction +- 80% of people at risk today live in reinforced concrete frame infill-masonry buildings dixit Fouad Bendimerad, Director of the Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative at the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering in August 2004 Reinforced concrete frame building with brick infill walls under construction, Kathmandu, Nepal (© J. Bothara)
  18. 18. Non-engineered construction Turkey - İzmit earthquake 1999 In Golcuk: 290 deaths 287 in reinforced concrete structures 3 in traditional-style buildings 789 traditional buildings 701 undamaged 814 reinforced concrete buildings 550 undamaged 4 traditional buildings collapsed 60 reinforced concrete buildings collapsed Philippines - 1990 earthquake Damage at 90% non-engineered construction with 'modern' building materials Indonesia - Yogya earthquake 2006 Mostly non-engineered construction collapsed
  19. 19. Non-engineered construction A slum in Haiti damaged by the 2010 earthquake. © UN Photo/Logan Abassi United Nations Development Programme Major losses in non-engineered construction Floods in the outskirts of Islamabad, Pakistan, 2014 © Photo by AP
  20. 20. Non-engineered construction CHARACTERISTICS - Often copied from other countries - (partly) imported materials - ‘foreign’ techniques, lack of technical know-how - Highly vulnerable to natural hazards = Informally constructed, without any or little intervention by qualified architects and engineers
  21. 21. Non-engineered earthen construction +-1.7 billion people of the worlds population live in earthen houses About 50 % of the population in developing countries, and at least 20% of urban and suburban populations.
  22. 22. Non-engineered slums 0-10% 10-20% 20-30% 30-40% 40-50% 50-60% 60-70% 70-80% 80-90% 90-100% No data Fabienkhan & Korrigan Data from UN-HABITAT, Global Urban Observatory, 2001 estimates Proportion of each country's urban population living in slums (2001, according to UN-Habitat definition) 828 million peoplelive in slums today and the number keeps rising
  23. 23. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA Failure of buildings Mostly non-engineered construction These hazards are within our power to respond to! Retrofitting Build back better New construction
  24. 24. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  25. 25. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA - Often copied from other countries - (Partly) imported materials - ‘Foreign’ techniques, lack of technical know-how - Highly vulnerable to natural hazards = Informally constructed, without any or little intervention by qualified architects and engineers - Adapted to local context - Local materials - Accumulated knowledge - Mostly resilient to natural hazards Vernacular architecture Non-engineered construction
  26. 26. - Adapted to its environment, provides a vital connection between humans and the environment - Culturally connected to its surroundings - Harmonious architecture - Local materials, colors, genre, spatial language, form - Connected with the community - Green architectural principles, climate responsive architecture - Energy efficiency - Materials and resources from proximity of site Vernacular architecture
  27. 27. Vernacular architecture HOLISTIC APPROACH technical cultural economic social environmental Technical Creating a safe environment by reduction of effects of natural hazards Cultural Protection of cultural landscape Encouraging innovative solutions and creativity Expressing traditional skills and knowledge + transferring Aknowledging the accumulated experience Evolving regional identity Economic Support autonomy and self-sufficiency Promotion of local trade, employment, production, processing Optimization of energy needed to build Sustainable through time and long-term use Saving and prevention of local resources Social Encouraging social cohesion Facilitate exchanges among neighbors Express social acceptance Community involvement throughout the entire process Ownership Environmental Respect nature, ecosystem Climate-responsive approach Integration in the environment Reduce pollution and waste materials, optimize resources Contribute to health quality, healty environment Reduction of natural hazards effects Energy efficient
  28. 28. Northern Pakistan – Kashmir Dhajji dewari and taq construction Resilient to earthquakes 2005 earthquake: many concrete buildings collapsed, 80 000 people died in concrete and rubble construction but traditional construction resisted (timber laced masonry) > govt approved reconstruction following traditional methods and assisted new construction of 250 000 houses technical cultural economic social environmental UNESCO 2007 poster Vernacular architecture CASES
  29. 29. technical cultural economic social environmental A stilt-house constructed of sal wood and stuccoed bamboo weaving Shani-Arjun, Jhapa Rajbanshi construction in eastern Nepal: resilient to earthquakes + floods Gurung houses in western mid-hill: resilient to earthquakes Gurung houses Nepal Rajbanshi and Gurung construction Resilient to earthquakes and/or floods Vernacular architecture CASES
  30. 30. technical cultural economic social environmental 1912 Peabody House in Pacot survived the 2010 earthquake almost undamaged Haiti Gingerbread houses Resilient to earthquakes Vernacular architecture CASES
  31. 31. technical cultural economic social environmental Indonesia Traditional construction in Nias Resilient to earthquakes and floods Vernacular architecture CASES
  32. 32. technical cultural economic social environmental © Teo Tuvale © Charles S. Greene Samoa Fale tele construction Resilient to floods, storms, cyclones Vernacular architecture CASES
  33. 33. technical cultural economic social environmental Himis construction didn’t collapse after earthquake in 1999, modern structure collapsed. © Randolph Langenbach Turkey Himis construction Resilient to earthquakes Vernacular architecture CASES
  34. 34. Vernacular architecture CASES technical cultural economic social environmental Iban longhouses Borneo Longhouse construction Resilient to floods
  35. 35. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  36. 36. Disaster resilient VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE science, technology & innovation Disaster resilient CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE Disaster resilient BUILT ENVIRONMENT PAST PRESENT FUTURE Contemporary vernacular
  37. 37. = An earthquake hazard mitigation proposal for vulnerable reinforced concrete buildings based on the performance of traditional timber and masonry infill-wall construction ‘Pombalino ‘gaiola’ construction: Anti-seismic structure of timber enclosed in masonry walls, aiming to provide resistance to horizontal forces. Developed after Lisbons devastating earthquake (1755). © Julio Amorim Armature crosswalls Resilient to earthquakes (by R. Langenbach) Contemporary vernacular EXAMPLES
  38. 38. Emergency shelter to be built from rubble, 2015 © VAN, courtesy of Shigeru Ban Architects Japan Nepal Emergency shelter by arch. Shigeru Ban (Japan) Resilient to earthquakes technical cultural economic social environmental Contemporary vernacular EXAMPLES
  39. 39. technical cultural economic social environmental Shelter by Yasmeen Lari, 2005 Pakistan Shelter by arch. Yasmeen Lari Resilient to floods Contemporary vernacular EXAMPLES
  40. 40. technical cultural economic social environmental Vietnam Re-ainbow project by H & P Architects Resilient to extreme weather events: heavy winds, storms Shelter by H & P Architects, 2015 Contemporary vernacular EXAMPLES
  41. 41. Contemporary vernacular EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Thailand Baan Nhongbua school by Junsekino Architects Resilient to earthquakes, floods Thailand: reconstruction of the Baan Nhongbua school by Junsekino architects. Merges Western and Thai traditions, 2015
  42. 42. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental
  43. 43. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Turkey Himis construction next to concrete construction Himis construction didn’t collapse after earthquake in 1999, modern structure collapsed. © Randolph Langenbach
  44. 44. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Yemen Reconstruction after Dhamar earthquake in 1982 Image source: Snipview Dhamar earthquake in Yemen in 1982 Cultural dimension of reconstruction overlooked Rejection of the new settlements by locals Reinforced concrete prototype house Houses altered, extended or changed by locals Most additions not earthquake-safe because of inability to follow the introduced technology.
  45. 45. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Indonesia Effects of the 2006 Yogya earthquake (M 6,3 SR) Masonry introduced by the Dutch, copied from Europe. Introduction of new building materials make buildings collapse. Trimulyo Village, Jetis, Bantul © T. Boen SD Kaligondang, Bambanglipuro, Bantul © T. Boen
  46. 46. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Nepal Bad effects of concrete on DRR and culture money from developed world destructive for both environment and culture of the place View of Kathmandu circa 2014, © Sandesh Byanjankar View of Kathmandu circa 1920 © Karrattul +-1920 +-2014
  47. 47. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Nepal Bad effects of concrete on DRR and culture Destroyed homes in the village of Satungal on the outskirts of Kathmandu after the 2015 earthquake © Philippe Lopez/AFP 2015, after the earthquake
  48. 48. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  49. 49. Policy opportunities Support Improve holistic approach by building codes, enforcement mechanisms for BC, tax/subsidy systems technical cultural economic social environmental
  50. 50. Policy opportunities EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Technical Regulations for technical quality/standards of materials Minima or restrictions in quantity of materials Retrofitting policy Regulations on supervision Environmental Landuse Regulations for poluting materials Regulations for debris, waste materials Support resistant materials Support renewable energy Management of local resources Economic Subsidies for use of local materials Subsidies for use of energy efficient interventions Taxes on imported materials Cultural Subsidies for renovation of traditional buildings Protection of cultural heritage Encouraging innovative solutions and creative expressions Social Support for local communities Promotion of local activities (skilled labour, recognised quality products) Social acceptance Regulations about public spaces Provision of basic needs (eg access to water)
  51. 51. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  52. 52. Limited research about vernacular architecture Limited improvement of local techniques Low recognition of vernacular architecture Gap between local construction practices on site and engineering studies from developed countries Lack of framework for non-engineered construction Non-engineered construction not always included in building codes Challenges Needs
  53. 53. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  54. 54. INternational Disaster Resilient Architecture Raise awareness Stimulate research Facilitate policy setting Foster collaboration Exchange knowledge Disaster resilient VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE science, technology & innovation Disaster resilient CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE Disaster resilient BUILT ENVIRONMENT PAST PRESENT FUTURE * * Objective INDRA
  55. 55. Foster involvement and empowerment of local practitioners to develop local sustainable architectural solutions. Objective INDRA
  56. 56. PHASE 1: ANALYSIS A Current practice ANALYSIS B Vernacular practice Sustainable solutions for disaster resilient architecture Implementation (awareness raising, exchange knowledge and capacity building, facilitate policy setting) Data collection PHASE 2: PHASE 3: PHASE 4: Identification of partners Evaluation * Strategy INDRA
  57. 57. PHASE 1: ANALYSIS A Current practice ANALYSIS B Vernacular practice Sustainable solutions for disaster resilient architecture Implementation (awareness raising, exchange knowledge and capacity building, facilitate policy setting) Data collection PHASE 2: PHASE 3: PHASE 4: Identification of partners Evaluation * technical cultural economic social environmental Strategy INDRA
  58. 58. Awareness raising - Workshop on country specific vernacular architecture - Publication - Event at both community and political level Exchange knowledge and capacity building - Training for students architecture/engineering, national building personnel and local builders - Development of didactic material for educational purpose - Construction of prototype - Country/region specific guidelines Facilitate policy setting - Development of didactic module - Facilitating the development of local building regulation * Activities INDRA
  59. 59. Building professionals Architects, engineers Communities in disaster prone areas Masons, technicials Local departments of architecture/engineering Universities Governments International organizations Other UN agencies Insurance companies Research centers Stakeholders INDRA
  60. 60. UNESCO HQ (facilitator) UNESCO FO INTERNATIONAL NATIONAL Experts (NGO, consultant,…) Government (reference/deputy) Local experts (university, architects, builders…) Local community Steering committee Advisory committee Working group = OVERALL BENEFICIARIES Structure Focal point Focal point > local implementation > project management & overall coordination > Technical assistance > local coordination INDRA
  61. 61. INDRA ONE MAN CANNOT BUILD A HOUSE, BUT 10 MEN CAN EASILY BUILD 20 HOUSES. NUBIAN PROVERB
  62. 62. INDRA Please contact Soichiro Yasukawa s.yasukawa@unesco.org Leontien Bielen l.bielen@unesco.org

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