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THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
Dr. A. T. Sharma
Assist. Professor
Nanded Pharmacy College, Nanded
Introduction
• The Science of Environment is a multi-disciplinary science because
it comprises various branches of studies like chemistry, physics,
medical science, life science, agriculture, public health, sanitary
engineering etc.
• Douglas and Holland: The term ‘environment’ is used to describe,
in the aggregate, all the external forces, influences and conditions,
which affect the life, nature, behavior and the growth, development
and maturity of living organisms.
• Environmental science is essentially the application of scientific
methods and principles to the study of environmental issues.
• Environmental Issues of Global Concern are –
- Population explosion
- Land degradation
- Environmental pollution
Scope
• Total dependency on nature – ‘Mother Nature’.
• Lot of progress – machines, buildings, softwares etc. but basic and
vital needs are food, air, water, wood appliances etc.
• Our traditional and cultural societies taught to respect nature.
• During past several years, practices of economic progress but
harmful to Mother Nature.
• E.g. using pesticides, fertilizers, irrigated farm lands through dams,
mega industries, super machineries for rapid production – severe
environmental degradation
• Alerts like global warming, unusual rainfalls, unpredictive winters,
tsunamis, earthquakes etc. indicates environmental damage
• A see-saw like situation – a proper balance is necessary
• One side – consumption of natural resources, industrial
development, agricultural prosperity making life easy and playful
• Other side – Requirement of natural resources like water, wood etc.
• Proper balance between our usage and availability of resources
Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental
Studies
• Very vast and multidisciplinary subject
• Basically, interrelationship between biotic and abiotic
components
• Living organisms: Biology, Botany, Zoology, Biochemistry,
Biophysics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Statistics, Computer
Science, Anthropology etc.
• Non-living components: Geography (environment, places,
human beings), Geology (earth’s physical structure, field
study), Geophysics (earth’s physical processes, lab work),
Meteorology (study of atmosphere)
• Study of natural science and social sciences like Economics,
Sociology, Civics, Politics etc.
Natural Resources
• Resource means a source of supply or support held in reserve
• Natural resources: The components of the atmosphere,
hydrosphere, lithosphere used for supporting life
• Living resources like forests, wild-life, organisms in water, on
land
• Non-living resources like light energy, air, water, soil, mineral
deposits
• Some abundant, others limited
• Essential for civilization, prosperity, welfare – indiscriminate
use
• Overpopulation, unawareness, industrialization, technological
progress
• Judicial use, conservation, preservation for future generations
• Scientific exploration of natural resources available
Renewable and Non-renewable Resources
Renewable Resources
• Potentially replaced/renewed by natural processes
• Process varies e.g. Sun light – daily basis, reformation of soil –
several years
• More utilization – more time for renewal
• Other examples – Solar plants, wind plants, water plants
• Geothermal (Lava in the core of earth), Biofuels (Cow dung,
Ethanol, biodiesel, biogas)
Non-Renewable Resources
• Can’t be replaced by regular means in comparison of utilization
• E.g. Oil, gaseous petrol, coal
• Developments takes billions of years
• Most favourable and widely used (For electricity, vehicles)
• Organic carbon contents under high pressure for several years turn
to crude oil or gases
• Metals like gold, silver, platinum etc., minerals
• Influence economy of a country e.g. Venezuela – crude oil
extraction and trading
Forest Resources
• Vital asset – support human economy and society with its variety of
products
• Important part of agricultural and environmental structure
• International associations over world involved in assessment of
forest resources
Significance:
• For survival – air, wood
• Habitats for animals, livelihood for humans
• Rain fall, soil erosion, environmental changes
• Forests vanish – life on earth will vanish
• Sahar desert/Siberian desert – lack of vegetation – thousands of sq.
kms barren land
• Sudden floods, draughts – depletion of vegetation
Forest Coverage Status in India
• India: 10th most forested countries – 71.22 million hectares of
woodland and tree cover
• 21.23% of the aggregate geological range of the country
• Tree cover: 9.13 million hectare (2.78% of aggregate
geological range)
Forest coverage status in India
Forest Distribution in India
• Central and easter India
• Wide variety in states, Least forested – Haryana, most forested –
Arunachal Pradesh
• Among Indian Union Territories, Andaman & Nicobar Islands
• Soil moisture and climatic conditions – distribution of forests
• Topographical zones as:
Eastern zone: Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur,
Mizoram, Tripura, Andaman & Nicobar Island
Northern zone: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal
Western zone: Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Panjab, Haryana,
Rajasthan, Gujrat, Delhi.
Central zone: Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Maharashtra,
Dadra & Nagar Haveli.
Southern zone: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Goa,
Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep, Puducherry.
Over Usage of Forests:
• Helpful to mankind in multiple aspects
• Incredibly increasing population – over usage – ecological
imbalance
• India – one of the biggest timber consumer (more than 250
businesses)
• Popular, expensive timbers like Teak, Rosewood, Padouk, Red
Sanders, Sandal wood etc.
• Wood consumption in India crossed 150 million cubic meters
by 2018.
• Number of industries depend up on forest products.
• Life depends up on wood, ultimately on forests.
• Refurnishing by tree plantation and forestation is essential.
Consumption Status of Wood in India
Wood Industry
Increment in
Consumption
over past 30
years (%)
Fuelwood/Firewood Fuel 22.7
Timber Lumber 38
Pulpwood Paper 13.6
Softwood Packaging material 12.5
Bamboos Craft 16
Food Animals/Tribes 10.5
Bamboo Rayon
manufacturing
18
Deforestation Causes:
• Logging: Crafts, mining, railway tracks etc.
• Agriculture
• Construction
• Natural calamities: Forest fires, droughts, floods, climate
change etc.
Solutions:
• Management of woodland resources by local and forest
dwelling populations
• Efforts by forest conservation organizations for preservation
and restoration
• Global warming, Protective environmental policies
• Establishment of national parks, bioreserves
• Tree plantation, forestation
(Disclaimer: The images and diagrams in this presentation
have been downloaded from the google source. I am grateful to
all the publishers & the google.)
Thank You…!!!

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MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx

  • 1. THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES Dr. A. T. Sharma Assist. Professor Nanded Pharmacy College, Nanded
  • 2. Introduction • The Science of Environment is a multi-disciplinary science because it comprises various branches of studies like chemistry, physics, medical science, life science, agriculture, public health, sanitary engineering etc. • Douglas and Holland: The term ‘environment’ is used to describe, in the aggregate, all the external forces, influences and conditions, which affect the life, nature, behavior and the growth, development and maturity of living organisms. • Environmental science is essentially the application of scientific methods and principles to the study of environmental issues. • Environmental Issues of Global Concern are – - Population explosion - Land degradation - Environmental pollution
  • 3. Scope • Total dependency on nature – ‘Mother Nature’. • Lot of progress – machines, buildings, softwares etc. but basic and vital needs are food, air, water, wood appliances etc. • Our traditional and cultural societies taught to respect nature. • During past several years, practices of economic progress but harmful to Mother Nature. • E.g. using pesticides, fertilizers, irrigated farm lands through dams, mega industries, super machineries for rapid production – severe environmental degradation • Alerts like global warming, unusual rainfalls, unpredictive winters, tsunamis, earthquakes etc. indicates environmental damage • A see-saw like situation – a proper balance is necessary • One side – consumption of natural resources, industrial development, agricultural prosperity making life easy and playful • Other side – Requirement of natural resources like water, wood etc. • Proper balance between our usage and availability of resources
  • 4. Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies • Very vast and multidisciplinary subject • Basically, interrelationship between biotic and abiotic components • Living organisms: Biology, Botany, Zoology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Statistics, Computer Science, Anthropology etc. • Non-living components: Geography (environment, places, human beings), Geology (earth’s physical structure, field study), Geophysics (earth’s physical processes, lab work), Meteorology (study of atmosphere) • Study of natural science and social sciences like Economics, Sociology, Civics, Politics etc.
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  • 6. Natural Resources • Resource means a source of supply or support held in reserve • Natural resources: The components of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere used for supporting life • Living resources like forests, wild-life, organisms in water, on land • Non-living resources like light energy, air, water, soil, mineral deposits • Some abundant, others limited • Essential for civilization, prosperity, welfare – indiscriminate use • Overpopulation, unawareness, industrialization, technological progress • Judicial use, conservation, preservation for future generations • Scientific exploration of natural resources available
  • 7. Renewable and Non-renewable Resources Renewable Resources • Potentially replaced/renewed by natural processes • Process varies e.g. Sun light – daily basis, reformation of soil – several years • More utilization – more time for renewal • Other examples – Solar plants, wind plants, water plants • Geothermal (Lava in the core of earth), Biofuels (Cow dung, Ethanol, biodiesel, biogas)
  • 8. Non-Renewable Resources • Can’t be replaced by regular means in comparison of utilization • E.g. Oil, gaseous petrol, coal • Developments takes billions of years • Most favourable and widely used (For electricity, vehicles) • Organic carbon contents under high pressure for several years turn to crude oil or gases • Metals like gold, silver, platinum etc., minerals • Influence economy of a country e.g. Venezuela – crude oil extraction and trading
  • 9. Forest Resources • Vital asset – support human economy and society with its variety of products • Important part of agricultural and environmental structure • International associations over world involved in assessment of forest resources Significance: • For survival – air, wood • Habitats for animals, livelihood for humans • Rain fall, soil erosion, environmental changes • Forests vanish – life on earth will vanish • Sahar desert/Siberian desert – lack of vegetation – thousands of sq. kms barren land • Sudden floods, draughts – depletion of vegetation
  • 10. Forest Coverage Status in India • India: 10th most forested countries – 71.22 million hectares of woodland and tree cover • 21.23% of the aggregate geological range of the country • Tree cover: 9.13 million hectare (2.78% of aggregate geological range) Forest coverage status in India
  • 11. Forest Distribution in India • Central and easter India • Wide variety in states, Least forested – Haryana, most forested – Arunachal Pradesh • Among Indian Union Territories, Andaman & Nicobar Islands • Soil moisture and climatic conditions – distribution of forests • Topographical zones as: Eastern zone: Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Andaman & Nicobar Island Northern zone: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal Western zone: Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Panjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujrat, Delhi. Central zone: Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Dadra & Nagar Haveli. Southern zone: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Goa, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep, Puducherry.
  • 12. Over Usage of Forests: • Helpful to mankind in multiple aspects • Incredibly increasing population – over usage – ecological imbalance • India – one of the biggest timber consumer (more than 250 businesses) • Popular, expensive timbers like Teak, Rosewood, Padouk, Red Sanders, Sandal wood etc. • Wood consumption in India crossed 150 million cubic meters by 2018. • Number of industries depend up on forest products. • Life depends up on wood, ultimately on forests. • Refurnishing by tree plantation and forestation is essential.
  • 13. Consumption Status of Wood in India Wood Industry Increment in Consumption over past 30 years (%) Fuelwood/Firewood Fuel 22.7 Timber Lumber 38 Pulpwood Paper 13.6 Softwood Packaging material 12.5 Bamboos Craft 16 Food Animals/Tribes 10.5 Bamboo Rayon manufacturing 18
  • 14. Deforestation Causes: • Logging: Crafts, mining, railway tracks etc. • Agriculture • Construction • Natural calamities: Forest fires, droughts, floods, climate change etc. Solutions: • Management of woodland resources by local and forest dwelling populations • Efforts by forest conservation organizations for preservation and restoration • Global warming, Protective environmental policies • Establishment of national parks, bioreserves • Tree plantation, forestation
  • 15. (Disclaimer: The images and diagrams in this presentation have been downloaded from the google source. I am grateful to all the publishers & the google.) Thank You…!!!