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6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Dynamic factors influencing the
post-disaster resettlement success:
Lessons from the case of Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania
Venkata Narayanan AEKBOTE LAKSHMINARAYANAN
University of Grenoble Alpes / Technical University of Darmstadt
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Background and research issue
• Climate change phenomenon - increasing disasters
• Vulnerable population in countries of the South – most adversely
affected
• African coastal cities are situated in vulnerable region; global
assessments and regional assessments have identified East Africa as
one of the most threatened coastal regions globally.
• They are undergoing rapid and unplanned growth, urbanisation,
and coastward migration, and have high population densities and
overburdened infrastructure.
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Typical example - Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
• Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is identified as one of the largest coastal
city in Africa according to UN-HABITAT (2008)
• Seventy percent of Dar es Salaam’s population lives in unplanned
settlements, which lack adequate infrastructure and services, and
are highly prone to adverse impacts of frequent flooding
• Poor solid waste disposal and sanitation practices, combined with
rainfall, result in contamination of water and spread of disease (Dar
es Salaam City Council, 2004)
• Majority of urban dwellers are vulnerable because of the conditions
in which they live
• With increased development in the coastal zone coupled with sea-
level increase due to climate change will exacerbate these issues
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Significance of study area – Dar es Salaam
Fig: Exposed population in Dar es Salaam
in 2005, 2030, 2050, and 2070 to a 1-in-
100-Year flood
Source: Kebede and Nicholls (2011)
Source: Kebede and Nicholls (2011)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Preliminary findings
• Rapid urbanization and unplanned growth
• Infrastructural problems – inefficient drainage system and solid-
waste management; houses in low-lying areas and in flood plains
• Lack of enforcement of policies - Government actions incoherent
with its policies
• Lack of political will – issues of political economy
• Reactive approach rather than proactive approach
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Research theme
Post-disaster recovery and resettlement
(Complexities involved)
I
Particularly when invloving resettlement in urban areas
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Main research question
• In the context of Dar es Salaam, post-disaster recovery
and resettlement, what are the processes towards
‘new normal’, its characteristics and the opportunities
and challenges therein?
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Research Design and methodology
• Case-study strategy (Yin)
• The ontological position - critical realism which combines
elements of both realist and constructivist ontologies.
• Mixed methods approach
– Questionnaire interviews
– In-depth and semi-structured interviews (Open ended)
– Focus group discussions
– Document analysis
– Reconnaissance survey and direct observations
– Photos and videos
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Context
• Disastrous floods from 20 - 22 December 2011
• Two groups – Group 1: total destruction of the house
- Group 2: partial destruction
• Group 1 – moved to primary and secondary schools for two
weeks, then to three centres for a month and finally given
plots and relocated to Mabwepande
• Group 2 – moved to relatives and friends – asked by the
Government to retrieve their belongings and after about four
to six months, given plots and relocated to Mabwepande
• Government provided plots as per the then President’s
directive, which was based on humanitarian grounds
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Context
• However, this relocation was possible only because of an
urban planning project – 20000 plots – which was being
executed
• This initiative was one of its kind – and realising the cost-
incurred and the various challenges and controversies
surrounding it, the government announced that it will not be
repeated in case of future floods
• Announcement and instruction to relocate from the river
valleys and hazardous areas – not followed
• Subsequent action in 2015 December – demolition of houses
along the river valleys – opposition and court intervention
• Status-quo as of today!
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Source: Google earth (2016)
Mabwepande
Location of Mabwepande
Source: Google earth (2016)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Source: Google earth (2016)
Resettled population extent, Mabwepande
Bunju B Bus stop
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Situation during floods
Source: Fieldwork(2015) Source: Fieldwork(2015
Source: Fieldwork(2015)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Coping methods
Source: Fieldwork(2015)
Source: Fieldwork(2015)
Source: Fieldwork(2015)
Source: Fieldwork(2015)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Research context
Floods 2011
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Mabwepande
Source: Fieldwork(2016)
Source: Fieldwork(2016)
Source: Fieldwork(2016)
Source: Fieldwork(2016)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Mabwepande
Source: Fieldwork(2016)
Source: Fieldwork(2016)
Source: Fieldwork(2016)
Source: Fieldwork(2016)
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
What the local government said…
• Providing free plots cost a lot! – Expectation of gratitude
• Did their best at the time of crisis in 2011
• There are many other priorities and needs to be fulfilled
• Increasing land values and financial limitations
• Scepticism about people’s complaints and anger towards
those who sold the plots and returned back and those
continuing to stay in the flood-prone areas
• Still grappling with the challenges!
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
What the community said…
• Livelihood opportunities drastically affected – Distance and
cost incurred to Kariakoo (CBD)
• Infrastructure issues – roads, transportation, health facilities,
markets, electricity, water supply
• Social network and relationships affected
• Safety and security issues
• Glad to be in a safe and planned area with title deeds
• Various perceptions and scepticism regarding the local
government
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Local authority’s perception - Success!
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Community’s perception - Failure!
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
What is true?
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Factors to be considered – lessons to learn
• Livelihood opportunities
• Basic infrastructure provision – water supply, electricity, roads
and transportation facilities
• Education and health facilities
• Planning and phased relocation – to have minimal impact on
the social structure
• Ensuring community’s active participation and involvement in
the process and building trust
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Merci beaucoup!
Vielen Dank!
Thank you!
Asante Sana!
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland
www.grforum.org
Questions / Comments / Suggestions

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Dynamic factors influencing the post-disaster resettlement success Lessons from the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Venkata Narayanan AEKBOTE

  • 1. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Dynamic factors influencing the post-disaster resettlement success: Lessons from the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Venkata Narayanan AEKBOTE LAKSHMINARAYANAN University of Grenoble Alpes / Technical University of Darmstadt
  • 2. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Background and research issue • Climate change phenomenon - increasing disasters • Vulnerable population in countries of the South – most adversely affected • African coastal cities are situated in vulnerable region; global assessments and regional assessments have identified East Africa as one of the most threatened coastal regions globally. • They are undergoing rapid and unplanned growth, urbanisation, and coastward migration, and have high population densities and overburdened infrastructure.
  • 3. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Typical example - Dar es Salaam, Tanzania • Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is identified as one of the largest coastal city in Africa according to UN-HABITAT (2008) • Seventy percent of Dar es Salaam’s population lives in unplanned settlements, which lack adequate infrastructure and services, and are highly prone to adverse impacts of frequent flooding • Poor solid waste disposal and sanitation practices, combined with rainfall, result in contamination of water and spread of disease (Dar es Salaam City Council, 2004) • Majority of urban dwellers are vulnerable because of the conditions in which they live • With increased development in the coastal zone coupled with sea- level increase due to climate change will exacerbate these issues
  • 4. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Significance of study area – Dar es Salaam Fig: Exposed population in Dar es Salaam in 2005, 2030, 2050, and 2070 to a 1-in- 100-Year flood Source: Kebede and Nicholls (2011) Source: Kebede and Nicholls (2011)
  • 5. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Preliminary findings • Rapid urbanization and unplanned growth • Infrastructural problems – inefficient drainage system and solid- waste management; houses in low-lying areas and in flood plains • Lack of enforcement of policies - Government actions incoherent with its policies • Lack of political will – issues of political economy • Reactive approach rather than proactive approach
  • 6. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Research theme Post-disaster recovery and resettlement (Complexities involved) I Particularly when invloving resettlement in urban areas
  • 7. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Main research question • In the context of Dar es Salaam, post-disaster recovery and resettlement, what are the processes towards ‘new normal’, its characteristics and the opportunities and challenges therein?
  • 8. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Research Design and methodology • Case-study strategy (Yin) • The ontological position - critical realism which combines elements of both realist and constructivist ontologies. • Mixed methods approach – Questionnaire interviews – In-depth and semi-structured interviews (Open ended) – Focus group discussions – Document analysis – Reconnaissance survey and direct observations – Photos and videos
  • 9. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Context • Disastrous floods from 20 - 22 December 2011 • Two groups – Group 1: total destruction of the house - Group 2: partial destruction • Group 1 – moved to primary and secondary schools for two weeks, then to three centres for a month and finally given plots and relocated to Mabwepande • Group 2 – moved to relatives and friends – asked by the Government to retrieve their belongings and after about four to six months, given plots and relocated to Mabwepande • Government provided plots as per the then President’s directive, which was based on humanitarian grounds
  • 10. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Context • However, this relocation was possible only because of an urban planning project – 20000 plots – which was being executed • This initiative was one of its kind – and realising the cost- incurred and the various challenges and controversies surrounding it, the government announced that it will not be repeated in case of future floods • Announcement and instruction to relocate from the river valleys and hazardous areas – not followed • Subsequent action in 2015 December – demolition of houses along the river valleys – opposition and court intervention • Status-quo as of today!
  • 11. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Source: Google earth (2016) Mabwepande Location of Mabwepande Source: Google earth (2016)
  • 12. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Source: Google earth (2016) Resettled population extent, Mabwepande Bunju B Bus stop
  • 13. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Situation during floods Source: Fieldwork(2015) Source: Fieldwork(2015 Source: Fieldwork(2015)
  • 14. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Coping methods Source: Fieldwork(2015) Source: Fieldwork(2015) Source: Fieldwork(2015) Source: Fieldwork(2015)
  • 15. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Research context Floods 2011
  • 16. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Mabwepande Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016)
  • 17. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Mabwepande Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016)
  • 18. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org What the local government said… • Providing free plots cost a lot! – Expectation of gratitude • Did their best at the time of crisis in 2011 • There are many other priorities and needs to be fulfilled • Increasing land values and financial limitations • Scepticism about people’s complaints and anger towards those who sold the plots and returned back and those continuing to stay in the flood-prone areas • Still grappling with the challenges!
  • 19. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org What the community said… • Livelihood opportunities drastically affected – Distance and cost incurred to Kariakoo (CBD) • Infrastructure issues – roads, transportation, health facilities, markets, electricity, water supply • Social network and relationships affected • Safety and security issues • Glad to be in a safe and planned area with title deeds • Various perceptions and scepticism regarding the local government
  • 20. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Local authority’s perception - Success!
  • 21. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Community’s perception - Failure!
  • 22. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org What is true?
  • 23. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Factors to be considered – lessons to learn • Livelihood opportunities • Basic infrastructure provision – water supply, electricity, roads and transportation facilities • Education and health facilities • Planning and phased relocation – to have minimal impact on the social structure • Ensuring community’s active participation and involvement in the process and building trust
  • 24. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Merci beaucoup! Vielen Dank! Thank you! Asante Sana!
  • 25. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Questions / Comments / Suggestions