Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book<br />By: Tabitha Cruickshank<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Present tense<br />Stem changers<br />Irregular ‘yo’<br />Saber vs. conocer<br />Reflexives<br />‘Se’ impersonal<br />Present tense w/ dipthongs<br />-uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/-gir<br />Verbs like…<br />Hace + _____ + que + present<br />Ser vs. estar<br />
  3. 3. Present<br />AR<br />Yo o<br />Tu as<br />El, ella, ud. a<br />Nosotros amos<br />Vosotros aís<br />Ellos, ellas, uds. an<br />ER/IR<br />Yo o<br />Tu es<br />El, ella, ud. e<br />Nosotros emos/imos<br />Vosotros éis/ís<br />Ellos, ellas, uds. en<br />
  4. 4. Stem Changers<br />Stem changers are verbs that change in every form EXCEPT the nosotros and vosotros forms.<br />E > I<br />Repetir<br />Repito<br />Repites<br />Repite<br />Repetimos<br />Repetís<br />Repiten<br />O > UE<br />Contar<br />Cuento<br />Cuentas<br />Cuenta<br />Contamos<br />Contáis<br />Cuentan<br />E > IE<br />Cerrar<br />Cierro<br />Cierras<br />Cierra<br />Cerramos<br />Cerráis<br />Cierran<br />O > UE<br />Dormir<br />Duermo<br />Duermes<br />Duerme<br />Dormimos<br />Dormís<br />Duermen<br />
  5. 5. Irregular “yo”<br />Irregular “yo” verbs are verbs that change in the yo form such as go, zco, and other verbs like ser and ir.<br />-go verbs<br />Poner – to put<br />Pongo<br />Decir (e<i) – to say<br />Digo<br />Tener – to have<br />Tengo<br />Traer – to bring<br />Traigo<br />Hacer – to do<br />Hago<br />Oir – to hear<br />Oigo<br />-zco verbs<br />Conocer - <br />Conozco<br />Producir<br />Produzco<br />Conducir<br />Conduzco<br />Other verbs<br />Ser – to be<br />Soy<br />Estar – to be<br />Estoy<br />Ir – to go<br />Voy<br />Ver – to see<br />Saber – to know<br />Se<br />Dar - <br />Doy<br />
  6. 6. Saber vs. Conocer<br />
  7. 7. Reflexives<br />In Spanish, when you talk about an action being performed on yourself, you show the reflexive nature of the action with a reflexive verb. Reflexive verbs indicate that the subject of the sentence has performed an action on itself. In other words, in a reflexive sentence the subject is the same as the object. <br />
  8. 8. Se impersonal<br />
  9. 9. Presente tense w/ dipthongs<br />A dipthong is a weak vowel like i, y, or u and a strong vowel like a, e, or o and the accent is placed on the weak vowel.<br />
  10. 10. -uir/-guir,  -cer/-cir,  -ger/gir<br />-uir/-guir<br />Atribuir <br />Concluir<br />Construir<br />Contribuir<br />Destruir<br />Distribuir <br />Excluir <br />Incluir <br />Instruir<br />-ger/-gir<br /> *Change the G>J in the yo form. In the other forms, use G.<br />Coger – to catch Exigir – to demand<br />Cojo Exijo<br />Coges Exiges<br />Coge Exige<br />Cogemos Exigemos<br />Cogéis Exigis<br />Cogen Exigen<br />-cer/-cir<br />Atribuir <br />Concluir<br />Construir<br />Contribuir<br />Destruir<br />Distribuir <br />Excluir <br />Incluir <br />Instruir<br />
  11. 11. verbs like...<br />
  12. 12. hace + ____ + que + present tense<br />
  13. 13. Ser vs. Estar<br />