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Grammer book


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Grammer book

  1. 1. Gramática Libro By Jeremias Moss
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Present Tense2. Stem Changers3. Irregular “Yo” Form4. Saber Vs. Conocer5. Reflexive Verbs6. “Se” Impersonal7. Verbs Similar to Gustar8. Irregular Verbs Ending in -guir/-uir, -ger/-gir, & -cer/-cir9. Hacer Expression10. Imperfect 1. Irregular 2. Trigger Words11. Preterite Tense 1. Irregular (-car/gar/zar, spock, cucarcha, & snake/snakeys) 2. Trigger Words12. Comparatives/Superlatives13. Future 1. Irregular 2. Trigger Words
  3. 3. Table of Contents14.Conditional15.Por y Para16.Commands17.Present Perfects18.Irregular Past Participle19.Double Object20.Adverbs21.Subjunctive22.“Se” impersonal23.Progressive w/ ir, andar and seguir
  4. 4. Present Tense  Used to express a past action that continues to have importance until the present.  -ar  Nadar (to swim)- nado, nadas, nada, nadamos, nadàis, nadan  -er  Comer (to eat)- como, comes, come, comemos, coméis, comen  -ir  Vivir (to live)- vivo, vives, vive, vivimos, vivis, viven
  5. 5. Stem Changers These verbs don’t change only in the nosotros/vosotros form “e” se convierte a “ie”  Ex. Pensar- pienso, piensas, piensa, pensamos, pensàis, piensan  More words: cerrar, despertar, divertirse, empezar… “e” se convierte a “i”  Ex. Pedir- pido, pides, pide, pedimos, pedís, piden  More words: conseguir, despedir, seguir, servir… “o” se convierte a “ue”  Ex. Poder- puedo, puedes, puede, podemos, podéis, pueden  More words: acostar, colgar, devolver, dormir… “u” se convierte a “ue”  Jugar has “u” to “ue” stem change in all except nosotros/vosotros  Incluir and destruir have an “I” to “y” stem change except in nosotros/vosotros
  6. 6. Irregular “Yo” Form “Go” verbs- coer, decir, oír, poner, hacer, tener, traer, venir…  Tener- tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tenéis, tienen  Decir- digo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen  Oír- oigo, oyes, oye, oímos, oís, oyen “Zco” verbs (-cer/-cir)- conocer, producir, conducir…  Conocer- conozco, conoces, conoce, conocemos, conocéis, conocen
  7. 7. Saber Vs Conocer  They both mean “to know”  Both are verbs with a irregular “yo” form  Saber is used in the context of knowing information or ideas.  Ex. Sé, sabes, sabe, sabemos, sabéis, saben  Conocer is used in the context of knowing a person or a place.  Ex. Conozco, conoces, conoce, conocemos, conocéis, conocen
  8. 8. Reflexive Verbs  Verbs that require a reflexive pronoun when used.  Reflected upon ones self  Identified by –se suffix  Ex. Laverse (to wash)- lavo, lavas, lava, lavamos, lavàis, levan  Ex. Caerse (to fall)- caigo, caes, cae, caemos, caéis, caen  Reflexive pronouns before the verb: me (myself), te (yourself), se (him/herself, themsleves), nos (ourselves)  Ex. Me Lavo, Te Lavas, Se Lava, Nos Lavamos, Se Lavan
  9. 9. “Se” Impersonal  To form the “Se” impersonal, verbs are always 3rd person singular and are commonly followed by a direct object.  Formula: se + 3rd person singular  Ex. Se habla español aquí. (Spanish is spoken here.)  Ex. Se dice que va a llover mañana. (Its said it is going to rain tomorrow.)
  10. 10. Verbs Similar to Gustar  I.O. + “gusta verb” + noun  I.O- me, te, le, les, nos, os  Ex. Me encantan los deportes  Te fascina la música  Le molesta el arte  Les intersan los estudios
  11. 11. Irregular Verbs Ending in -guir/-uir, -ger/-gir, & -cer/-cir Verbs whose infinitive form ends in -gir change the g to j before an a or an o.  Ex. Proteger (to protect)- protejo (yo)  Ex. Exigir (to require)- exijo (yo)  More words: dirigir, escoger, recoger, encoger, fingir, elegir, corregir… “Zco” verbs (-cer/-cir)- conocer, producir, conducir…  Conocer- conozco, conoces, conoce, conocemos, conocéis, conocen Incluir and destruir have an “I” to “y” stem change except in nosotros/vosotros
  12. 12. Hacer Expressions  The verb "hacer" can be used in a number of ways to indicate the length of time an action has been taking place  Hace + time + que + present tense form of the verb  Ex. Hace un año que estudio español.  To make this type of expression negative, just add the word "no“  Hace + time + que + no + present tense form of the verb  Ex. Hace un año que no estudio español.  Present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time  Ex. Estudio español desde hace un año  To make this type of expression negative, just add the word "no“  No + present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time
  13. 13. Imperfect Tense RegularVerbs  Imperfect tense is used to express a past event that was outgoing for an indeterminate length of time  The imperfect generally means “used to do” or “was doing” when talking about actions that happened in the past
  14. 14. Rules of Imperfect1. To express what was in the middle of happening at the time of narration, what use to happen, or what happened repeatedly in the past2. To describe people or things in the past3. To describe a state of mind, an opinion, or a feeling the past4. To describe the time of day in the past5. When describing an action that was in the process of happening when interrupted by another action6. To set the stage, describe a situation
  15. 15. Imperfect Conjugations -ar -er/-irYo Nosotros Yo Nosotros-aba -àbamos -ía -íamosTú Vosotros Tú Vosotros-abas -abais -ias -íaisÉl/ella/Ud. Ello(a)s/Ud Él/ella/Ud. Ello(a)s/Ud-aba s. -ía s. -aban -ían
  16. 16. Imperfect Trigger Words a menudo (often) a veces (sometimes) cada día (every day) cada semana (every week) cada mes (every month) cada año (every year) con frecuencia (frequently) de vez en cuando (from time to time) en aquella época (at that time) frecuentemente (frequently) generalmente (usually) muchas veces (many times) mucho (a lot) nunca (never) por un rato (for awhile) siempre (always) tantas veces (so many times) todas las semanas (every week) todos los días (every day) todo el tiempo (all the time) varias veces (several times)
  17. 17. Imperfect Irregulars  Ir  Iba, ibas, ibamos, ibais, iban  Ser  Era, eras, éramos, erais, eran  Ver  Veía, veías, veíamos, veíais, veían
  18. 18. Verbos Irregulars En ElPresente  ir (to go)  Ex. Voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van  Estar (to be)  Ex. Estoy, estàs, està, estamos, estàis, estàn  Ser (to be)  Ex. Soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son  Dar (to give)  Ex. Doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan
  19. 19. Ser Vs Estar  Ser & Estar both mean –to be ,but they are used in different situations.  Estar (temporary)- health, emotion/mood, location, present condition, appearance and civil state (married, dead, etc.)  Use present progressive tense (-o to –ing) during state of motion  -ar to –ando  Ex. I am angry (Estoy enojada)  -er/-ir to –iendo/yendo  Ex. I read (Leyendo)
  20. 20. Ser Vs Estar Cont.  Ser (Permanent)- physical description, personality and character, nationality, race, gender, profession, origin, What things are made of, Dates, days, seasons, time, events, concerts, and parties  Origin and possession are followed by “de.”
  21. 21. Ser/Estar ConjugationYo Nosotros Yo NosotrosSoy Somos Estoy EstamosTú Vosotros Tú VosotrosEres Soís Estàs EstàisÉl/ella/Ud. Ello(a)s/Ud Él/ella/Ud. Ello(a)s/UdEs s. Està s. Son Estàn
  22. 22. Ser/Estar Rap  layer_detailpage&v=lY10_T_ROq4
  23. 23. Verbs w/ Accents in thePresent Indicative Tense  The vowels i and u are “weak vowels” in contrast to the “strong vowels” a, e, and o. When they come in contact with any other vowel they normally form a diphthong.  Diphthong is when a weak vowel (i/y, u) and a strong vowel (a,e,o) or two weak vowels come together.  Ex. Esquiar (to ski)- esquío, esquías, esquía, esquiamos, esquiàis, esquían  Ex. Continuar (to continue)- continùo, continùas, continùa, continuamos, continuàis, continùan
  24. 24. Preterite Preterit tense is used to express a totally completed past action, a past determinate action, or an action that lasted for a specific length of time. A perfected action in the past (beginning and/or ending)  Past tense “Snapshot” of time Song: é, í, aste, iste, ó, ió, amos, imos, aron, ieron, esto es el preterito
  25. 25. Preterite Conjugation -ar -er/-irYo Nosotros Yo Nosotros-é -amos -í -imosTú Vosotros Tú Vosotros-aste -asteis -iste -isteisÉl/ella/Ud. Ello(a)s/Ud Él/ella/Ud. Ello(a)s/Ud-ó s. -ió s.-ieron -aron
  26. 26. Los Irregulars Prefix (1st person only yo)  -gar to –gué (verbs with –gué in the “yo” form)  Pagar to Pagué  More words: apagar, jugar, llegar…  -car to –qué (verbs with –qué in the “yo” form)  Sacar to saqué  More words: buscar, practicar, tocar…-zar to –cé (verbs with –cé in the “yo” form)  -zar to –cé (verbs with –cé in the “yo” form)  Cruzar to Crucé  More words: empezar, lanzar… Includes Spock Words, Cucaracha Verbs, and Snake/ys
  27. 27. Spock Words  Preterite Tense Irregular Verbs  Hacer (hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicieron)  Ir/ser (fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fueron)  Dar/ver (-i, -iste, -io, -imos, -ieron)
  28. 28. Cucaracha Verbs Preterite Tense Irregular Verbs  Andar/anduve, anduviste, anduvo, anduvimos, anduvisteis, anduvieron - (to walk)  Estar/estuve…- (to be)  Poder/pude…- (to be able to)  Poner/puse…- (to put into lace)  Querer/quise…- (to want/wish)  Saber/supe…- (to know facts or info)  Tener/tuve…- (to have)  Venir/vine…- (to come)  conducir/conduje…- (to conduct/drive)  Producir/produje…- (to produce)  Tradacir/traduje…- (to translate)  Traer/traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron -(to bring)  Decir/dije…- (to say)  If it has a –j than you omit the –i in -ieron
  29. 29. Snake/Snake-y  Snakes are Preterite Tense Irregular Verbs  Snakeys are Preterite Tense With Spelling Changes  Stem changers & -y changers
  30. 30. Snake/Snake-y Cont.  Example of -o to –u  Dormir- (dormí, dormiste, dúrmió, dormimos, dúrmieron)  Example of -e to –i  Pedir- (pedí, pediste, pidió, pedimos, pedisteis, pidieron)  More words: conseguir, despedirse, divertirse, hervir, mentir, prefirir, seguir, sentir, servir, sugerir, vestirse, morir…  Example of verbs with -y  Leer- (lei, leiste, leýo, leimos, leýeron)  More words: caer, contribuir, creer, destruir, influir…
  31. 31. Preterite Trigger Words Ayer- yesterday Anoche- last night Anteayer- day before yesterday La Samana Pasada- last week El Dia Anterior- the day before El Lunes/Martes/Jueves/etc. Pasada- last (day) El Fin De Semana Pasado- last weekend El Mes Pasado- last month Ayer Por La Manana- yesterday morning Ayer Por La Tarde- yesterday afternoon El Otro Dia- the other day Una Vez- one time Esta Tarde- this afternoon Esta Manana- this morning Esta Noche- tonight
  32. 32. Comparatives/superlatives Comparatives are the comparison of one person or thing to another (more, less, or as... As)  Más/menos- adj/adv/noun + que  Ex. Menos intersantes- less interesting  “de” used instead of “que” w/ numbers  Verb + Más/menos que superlatives indicate that one person/thing is the most, best, least, or worst of all. Two types of superlative: relative and absolute  The relative superlative describes a noun within the context of some larger group.  definite article + noun + más (menos) + adjective + de  Ex. Juan es el chico más inteligente de la clase.  The absolute superlative does not describe the noun in the context of a larger group.  muy + adjective  sumamente + adjective  adjective + ísimo (-a, -os, -as)  Ex. muy guapo/ sumamente guapo/ guapísimo
  33. 33. El Futuro  Used to express an action that will take place after the present moment  Infinitive + e, as a, emos, an  Infinitive- “will” I will eat  Ex. Vive, viviras, te amare*  -ir + -a + infinitive (immediate future)
  34. 34. Future Conjugations Yo Nosotros -é -emos Tú Vosotros -às -éis Él/ella/Ud. Ello(a)s/Uds. -à - àn
  35. 35. Future Irregular Their endings are regular, but their -yo stem changes. Infinitive + ending (-é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án)  Ex. Caber/ yo cabré  Ex. decir/ yo diré  Ex. Resaber/ yo resabré
  36. 36. Future Irregular Tense  Tener (to have): tendré, tendràs, tendrà, tendremos, tendréis, tendràn  Decir (to say): dir-  Hacer (to do): har-  Haber (to have): habr-  Saber (to know): sabr-  Poder (to be able to): podr-  Querer (to want): querr-  Salir (to exit): saldr-  Poner (to place): pondr-  Venir (to come): vendr-
  37. 37. Conditional  Should, would, could do  What happens under certain conditions  Make polite requests  Ex. Yo no ne quejarle tanto (I wouldn’t complain a lot)  -ar/-er/-ir (same ending in conditional)  Ía, ías, íamos, ían  Use same irregular stem as the future  Conditional of “hay” is always “habría”
  38. 38. Por Y Para  Por/Para- “for”  Por≠Para  Por  Used to indicate motion/general location  Around, through, along, by  Describe duration of an action  During, in, for  Express reason/motive for an action  Because of, on account of, on behalf of
  39. 39. Por Y Para Cont.  Por  Object of a search  For, in search of  Means by which something is done  By, by way of, by means of  Exchange or substitution  For, in exchange of  Unit of measure  Per, by
  40. 40. Por Y Para Cont.  Para  Destination  Forward, in direction of  Deadline or specific time  By, for  Purpose + noun  For, used for  Purpose or goal + infinitive  In order to
  41. 41. Por Y Para Cont.  Para  Recipient of something  For  To make a comparison/opinion  For, considering]  In employment  Works for
  42. 42. Commands Formal  Commands are used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. This is often referred to as the "imperative" form of the verb.  1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative.  2. Then drop the -o ending.  3. Finally, add the following endings:  Ex. Compre Ud. el anillo.  (You) Buy the ring.  Ex. Haga Ud. la tarea.  (You) Do the homework.
  43. 43. Commands Cont.  Informal  commands are used when ordering, or telling someone to do something  (hablar - ar + a = habla) (comer - er + e = come) (escribir - ir + e = escribe)  Ex. Compra (tú) el anillo. (You) Buy the ring.  Ex. Escribe (tú) la tarea. (You) Do the homework.
  44. 44. Present Perfects  Is frequently used for past actions that continue into present or continue to affect the person in the present  Add “no” before conjugated verb of haber to make negative  Auxiliary verb + past participle  Haber + ar(-ado) and er/ir (-ido)  Ex. He hablado (I have spoken)
  45. 45. Irregular Past Participle Ir- ido Abrir- abierto Cubrir- cubierto Decir- dicho Escribir- escrito Hacer- hecho Morir- muerto Poner- puesto Resolver- resuelto Romper- roto Ver- visto Volver- vuelta
  46. 46. Double Object Place them either directly before a conjugated verb or attach them to an infinitive, a present participle or a command  Ex. Ellos me los dan. (They give them to me.) Direct Object Indirect Oblect English Me Me Me Le Te You (familiar) Lo, la Le Him, her, it, you Nos Nos Us Os Os You all Los, las Les Them, you all
  47. 47. Direct Object Cont. Whenever both pronouns begin with the letter "l" change the first pronoun to "se.“  Ex. No se lo tengo. (I dont have it for you.) “I” “Se” Le lo Se lo Le la Se la Le los Se los Le las Se las Les lo Se lo Les la Se la Les los Se los Les las Se las
  48. 48. Adverbs  Adverbs are words that describe, or modify, verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.  -mente = -ly  Feliz = felizmente  -o = -a  tranquilo = tranquilamente
  49. 49. Adverbs Cont.  Basente- quite  Demasiado- too  Mal- badly  Mucho- a lot  Muy- very  Nunca- never  Peor- worse  Poco- little  Siempre- always
  50. 50. Present Subjunctive Indicative mood  Facts, actions and states (real/definite) Subjunctive  Attitudes (uncertain/hypothetical)  To express: will & influence, emotion, doubt/disbelief/denial, nonexistence and marriage  Main clause +(connected by “que”)+ subordinate clause -ar = -e  Hablar- hable/hables/hablemos/hableís, hablen -er/-ir = -a  Comer- coma, comas, comamos, comaís, coman  Escribir- esciba, escribas, escribamos, escribaís, escriban
  51. 51. Impressions  Es bueno que- It’s good that…  Es malo que- it’s bad that…  Es mejor que- it’s better that…  Es importante que- it’s important that…  Ojala que- I hope  Es urgente que- it’s urgent that…  Es necessario que- it’s necessary that…
  52. 52. “Se” Impersonal  Use “se” to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb  Use “se” in 3rd person  Use in all tenses  Ex. Se hizo mucho  Ex. Se horá mucho  Ex. Se hablá hecho
  53. 53. Progressive w/ ir, andar,and seguir  Ir + present participle= is slowly but surely ___-ing  Yo voy cantando una canción  Andar + presnt participle= is going around ___-ing  Jaime anda buscando trabajo  Seguir + present participle= is still ___-ing  Ustedes sequen estudiando historia
  54. 54. The End  Production by: Jeremias Moss  Credits by: Jeremias Moss  Writer: Jeremias Moss  Editor: Jeremias “Boss” Moss  Creator: Jeremias Moss  Animation by: Jeremias Moss  “You are welcome.”