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Grammar Book!


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Grammar Book!

  1. 1. Grammar Book! By: Alessandra Bove
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Present tense </li></ul><ul><li>Stem changers </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular ‘yo’ </li></ul><ul><li>Saber vs. conocer </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexives </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Se’ impersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs like ‘gustar’ </li></ul><ul><li>-uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/-gir </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preterite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular car/gar/zar; spock; cucaracha; snake/snakey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparatives/superlatives </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger words </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Present Tense AR Yo o Tu as El, ella, ud. a Nosotros amos Vosotros aís Ellos, ellas, uds. an ER/IR Yo o Tu es El, ella, ud. e Nosotros emos/imos Vosotros éis/ís Ellos, ellas, uds. en
  4. 4. Stem Changers Stem changers are verbs that change in every form EXCEPT the nosotros and vosotros forms. E > I Repetir Repito Repites Repite Repetimos Repetís Repiten O > UE Contar Cuento Cuentas Cuenta Contamos Contáis Cuentan E > IE Cerrar Cierro Cierras Cierra Cerramos Cerráis Cierran O > UE Dormir Duermo Duermes Duerme Dormimos Dormís Duermen
  5. 5. Irregular “yo” -“go” verbs Poner  to put Pongo Decir (e<i)  to say Digo Tener  to have Tengo Traer  to bring Traigo Hacer  to do Hago Oir  to hear Oigo Irregular “yo” verbs are verbs that change in the yo form such as go, zco, and other verbs like saber and estar. -zco verbs Conocer  Conozco Producir  Produzco Conducir  Conduzco Other verbs Ser  to be Soy Estar  to be Estoy Ir  to go Voy Saber  to know Se Dar - Doy
  6. 6. Saber vs. Conocer To know “ Saber” is used to express knowledge about a fact or different information. Antonio sabe donde está Selena. Antonio knows where Maria is. “ Conocer” is used to say if a person is acquainted with another. Yo no conozco a Selena. I don't know (am not acquainted with) Selena.
  7. 7. Reflexives Reflexive verbs indicate that the subject of the sentence has performed an action on itself. In other words, in a reflexive sentence the subject is the same as the object. If a verb is reflexive, it ends in ‘se’. Rascarse – to scratch oneself Lavarse – to wash oneself Llamarse – to call oneself When conjugating, move the ‘se’ to the front of the verb and change it to the corresponding pronoun: me, te, se, nos, or se. Then conjugate the verb. Me lavo Te lavas Se lava Nos lavamos Os laváis Se lavan Lavarse – to wash oneself
  8. 8. Se impersonal We use the se impersonal verbs when making a general assumption about people in general. Se is placed in front of the verb in impersonal and use the singular verb. How do you say &quot;icecream&quot; in Italian? ¿Cómo se dice &quot;helado&quot; en italiano? Plural impersonal does not use se in front of the verb. They say that vegetarian pizza is healthy. Dicen que la pizza vegetariana es saludosa.
  9. 9. Verbs like gustar These verbs are taken and congugated into either the ‘el/ella/usted’ form or the ‘ellos/ellas/ustedes’ form along with the correct pronoun . Pronouns Me Te Se Nos Se Me gustan los libros. --The books are pleasing to me OR --I like the books Aburrir – to bore Fascinar – to be fascinating too Bastar – to be sufficient Importar – to be important to Molestar – to be a bother to Discutar – to hate something Parecer – to appear to be Doler – to be painful Picar – to itch Encantar – to love something Quedar – to be left over Faltar – to be lacking something
  10. 10. -uir/-guir,  -cer/-cir,  -ger/gir -uir/-guir Atribuir Concluir Construir Incluir Instruir conseguir (e:i) distinguir extinguir seguir (e:i) -ger/-gir *Change the G>J in the yo form. In the other forms, use G. Coger  to catch Exigir  to demand Cojo Exijo Coges Exiges Coge Exige Cogemos Exigemos Cogéis Exigis Cogen Exigen -cer/-cir coercer convencer ejercer esparcir mecer remecer vencer zurcir
  11. 11. Imperfect AR aba abas aba ábamos abais aban Imperfect tense is used to represent things that happened in the past that occurred repeatedly or occurred over a period of time, has both an definite ending and beginning. HABLAR hablaba hablabas hablaba hablábamos hablabais hablaban ER/IR ía ías ía íamos íais ían VIVIR vivía vivías vivía vivíamos vivíais vivían TRIGGER WORDS  a menudo, a veces, cada día, cada año, con frecuencia, de vez cuando, en aquella época, frecuentemente, generalmente, nunca, por un rato, siempre, tantas veces, todas las semanas, todos los dias, and todo el tiempo, IR iba ibas iba íbamos ibais iban VER veía veíamos veías veíais veía veían SER era éramos eras erais era eran Irregulars!
  12. 12. Preterite Examples: Ella trabajó por dos horas. She worked for two hours. Ellos vendieron el coche. They sold the car. Conjugations: The preterite tense allows you to refer to specific past actions performed (1) at a fixed point in time, (2) a specific number of times, (3) during an enclosed amount of time. Trigger Word Translation Ayer Yesterday Anteayer The day before yesterday Anoche Last night La Semana Pasada Last week El Mes Pasado Last month El Año Pasado Last year El Fin De Semana Pasado Last weekend Form Ending for –ar verbs Form Ending for –er and –ir verbs Yo -é Yo - í Tú -aste Tú -iste Ella/Él/Ud. -ó Ella/El/Ud. -ió Nosotros -amos Nosotros -imos Vosotros -asteis Vosotros -isteis Ellos/Ellas/ Uds. -aron Ellos/Ellas/ Uds. -ieron
  13. 13. -car, -gar, -zar There are three spelling changes in Spanish which affect verbs in the preterite as well as in other tenses. In the preterite , these changes occur only in the first person singular yo form. Verbs ending in –car: the c changes to qu before the letter e Ex: Yo practiqué. (I practiced.) Verbs ending in –gar: Insert a u before the e Ex: Yo llegué. (I arrived.) Verbs ending in –zar: the z changes to c before the letter e Ex: Yo empecé. (I began.) Verb Translation Preterite Yo Form Pagar To pay (for) Yo pagué Regar To water (a plant) Yo regué Jugar To play (a game) Yo jugué Buscar To look for; search Yo busqué Aparcar To park Yo aparqué Tocar To touch; play (an instrument) Yo toqué Organizar To organize Yo organicé Simbolizar To symbolize Yo simbolicé Autorizar To authorize Yo autoricé
  14. 14. Spock Ir  To go Ser  To be Dar  To give Ver  To see Hacer  To do; make Ex: Fui al cine. I went to the movies. Ella dio un regalo a su abuela. She gave a gift to her grandmother. Ir Ser Dar Ver Hacer Ir Ser Dar Ver Hacer Yo Fui Fui Di Vi Hice T ú Fuiste Fuiste Diste Viste Hiciste Ella/ É l/Ud. Fue Fue Dio Vio Hizo Nosotros Fuimos Fuimos Dimos Vimos Hicimos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Fueron Fueron Dieron Vieron Hicieron
  15. 15. Cucaracha Conjugation of 'j' verbs Verbs Stem Change Andar Anduv- Estar Estuv- Poder Pud- Poner Pus- Querer Quis- Saber Sup- Tener Tuv- Venir Vin- Form Ending Yo -e T ú -iste Ella/ É l/Ud. -o Nosotros -imos Vosotros -isteis Ellos/Ellas/Uds. -ieron Verbs Stem Change Decir Dij- Traer Traj- Conducir Conduj- Producir Produj- Traducir Traduj-
  16. 16. Snake/snakey Snakey verbs are verbs that are irregular in the preterite tense that change –yendo and –yeron. Form Ending Yo Oí Tú Oíste Ella/Él/Ud. Oyó Nosotros Oímos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Oyeron Form Ending Yo Leí Tú Leíste Ella/Él/Ud. Leyó Nosotros Leímos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Leyeron Form Ending Yo Cayí Tú Caíste Ella/Él/Ud. Cayó Nosotros Caímos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Cayeron
  17. 17. Comparatives/Superlatives Comparatives are used to compare two things. You can use sentences with “ than ”, or you can use a conjunction like “ but ”. Superlatives are used to compare more than two things. Superlative sentences usually use “ the ”, because there is only one superlative. Ex: Julio is the tallest in the class.  Julio es el más alto en la clase. Today is the hottest day of summer.  Hoy es el día más caluroso del verano. Ex: Julio is taller than Juan.  Julio es más alto que Juan. I am happier than you.  Soy más feliz que tú. longest longer long oldest older old tallest taller tall Superlative Form Comparative Form One-Syllable Adjective
  18. 18. El futuro The future tense is used to tell what &quot;will&quot; happen, or what &quot;shall&quot; happen. However, the future tense is NOT used to express a willingness to do something. Irregular Ex: Using the verb hablar, to speak . Yo  Hablé Tu  Hablás Ella  Hablá Nosotros  Hablemos Ellos  Hablán Triggers: esta noche, el año que viene, mañana, próximo fin de semana, mes próximo, en pocas horas, en dos días, and la próxima Navidad Verb Stem Change Verb Stem Change Decir Dir- Venir Vendr- Hacer Har- Poder Podr- Poner Pondr- Querer Querr- Salir Saldr- Saber Sabr- Tener Tendr- Valer Valdr- Form Ending Yo - é Tú - á s Ella/ É l/Ud. - á Nosotros -emos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. - á n