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Grammar book (new)


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Grammar book (new)

  1. 1. Grammar Book Mario
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Present -ar, er-, -ir endings (Pgs: 3-4) </li><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stem Changers (Page: 5) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><li>Irregular “yo” (Page: 6) </li><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saber v. Conocer (Page: 7) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><li>Reflexives (Page: 8) </li><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Se” impersonal (Page: 9) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><li>Verbs like Gustar (Page:10) </li><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dipthongs with accents (Page: 11) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><li>Verbs like -ger/-gir, -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir (Page: 12) </li><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hace +____+ que +___ (Page: 13) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><li>Imperfecto (Page:14-16) </li><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preterite (Page: 17) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><li>Car/Gsr/Zar (Page: 18) </li><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cucaracha Verbs (Page: 19) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Present (ar, er, ir ) Person talks about Replaces -er at the end Yo o T ú es É l/Ella/Usted e Nosotros emos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes en <ul><li>In the present tense for verbs ending in -ar
  4. 4. In the present tense for verbs ending in -er </li></ul>Person talked about Replaces -ar at the end Yo o T ú as É l/Ella/Usted a Nosotros amos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes an
  5. 5. Present (ar, er, ir) CONT . <ul><li>In the present tense for verbs ending in -ir. </li></ul>Pereson talked about Replaces -ir at the end Yo o T ú es É l/Ella/Usted e Nosotros imos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes en
  6. 6. Stem Changers <ul><li>Also called “Boot Verbs”, it changes in all but the nosotros .
  7. 7. More than just the ending changes. The vowel in the stem changes.
  8. 8. 3 catergories: e ei, o ue, and e i
  9. 9. Common e ie verbs: Tener, Preeferir
  10. 10. Common o ue verbs: Dormir, Poder, Jugar
  11. 11. *Common e i verbs: Decir, Repetir, Servir. </li><ul><li>*This stem change only happens in -ir verbs </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Irregular “yo” <ul><li>Caber (to fit): yo quepo
  13. 13. Caer (to fall) yo caigo
  14. 14. Conducir (to drive): yo conduzco
  15. 15. Conocer (to know): yo conozco
  16. 16. Escoger (to choose): yo escojo
  17. 17. Dirigir (to direct): yo dirijo
  18. 18. Hacer (to do, to make): yo hago </li></ul><ul><li>Poner (to put, to place): yo pongo
  19. 19. Saber (to know something-a fact): yo s é
  20. 20. Salir (to leave): yo salgo
  21. 21. Traer (to bring): yo traigo
  22. 22. Valer (to be worth): yo valgo
  23. 23. Ver (to see): yo veo </li></ul>
  24. 24. Saber v. Concer <ul><li>When using saber , it mean that you know a fact or how to do something.
  25. 25. When using conocer , it means you know a person or are familiar with something . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reflexive <ul><li>When referring to a person doing an action. </li></ul>Person talked about Reflexive Pronoun Yo me T ú te É l/Ella/Usted se nosotros nos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes se
  27. 27. “ Se” impersonal <ul><li>The impersonal “se” is used with a third person singular verb. (one, you, people, or they).
  28. 28. Used to indicate people in general, not one person. </li><ul><li>For Example: </li><ul><li>¿C ómo se dico rjo en español?
  29. 29. How does one say red in Spanish </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Verbs like Gustar <ul><li>“ Gustar” is unique because it's only conjugated two ways: “Gusta” and “Gustan”. Which form of gustar used depends on whether the direct object is singular or plural </li></ul>Gustar To like Molestar To be bother Fascinar To be fascinating to Aburrir To bore Importar To be important to Interesar To be interesting to Disgustar To hate something Doler (e-ue) To be painful Encantar To “love” something Quedar To remain
  31. 31. Diphthong with Accents <ul><li>The stronger weak vowels in the word next to each other. </li><ul><li>“ a,e,o” are the strong vowel sounds
  32. 32. “ i,u,y” are the weak vowel sounds </li></ul><li>Examples: </li><ul><li>P ue rto
  33. 33. T ie rra
  34. 34. S ie te
  35. 35. H ay
  36. 36. Cui da
  37. 37. L ab io
  38. 38. H ac ia
  39. 39. p ai sano </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Verbs, like –ger/-gir/-uir/-guir, -cer/-cir <ul><li>For verbs that end in ger/gir , in the first person changes the “g” to a “j”.
  41. 41. In guir verbs, in the “yo” form, the gu changes to “g”.
  42. 42. In uir verbs add a “y” before “a”,”e”, and “o”.
  43. 43. For cer/cir verns, in the “yo” form, change the “c” to a “z” </li></ul>
  44. 44. Hace+___+que+___ <ul><li>The first blank is filled with an expression of time.
  45. 45. While, the second blank is to be filled with a verb in eith the present or preterite form.
  46. 46. Shows length of time in which the action has taken place. </li><ul><li>Hace+ (time) + que +(Present tense form of verb) </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Imperfecto <ul><li>A past tense form for events without a specific time. </li><ul><li>For -er/-ir ending </li></ul></ul>Person talked about Replaces -er/-ir at the end Yo í a T ú í as É l/Ella/Usted í a Nosotros í amos Ellos/Ellas/ustedes í an
  48. 48. Imperfecto CONT. <ul><li>For -ar endings. </li></ul>Person talked about Replaces -ar at the end Yo aba Tú abas É l/Ella/Usted aba Nosotros á bamos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes aban
  49. 49. Imperfecto CONT. <ul><li>Trigger Words
  50. 50. Irregulars </li></ul>Trigger Words Translations A meundo Often A veces Sometimes Cada d Í a Everyday Cada a ñ o Every year Siempre Always Ser Ir Ver Era iba Ve Ía Eras ibas Ve Ías Era iba Ve Ía É ramos Íbamos Ve Íamos Eran iban Ve Ían
  51. 51. Preterite é amos aste ó aron í imos iste í o ieron <ul><li>Preterite is used for actions that were completed in the past. The ending for preterite are conjugated by being affixed to the end of the infinitives. </li></ul>- ar -er/ir <ul>Trigger Words: Ayer <li>Anoche
  52. 52. Anteayer
  53. 53. La semanaa pasado </li></ul>
  54. 54. Car/Gar/ Zar Verbs <ul><li>Verbs ending -Car, -Gar, and -Zar have their endings replaced in the “yo” form in order to keep the diphthong.
  55. 55. Examples: </li></ul>Saqu é Sacamos Sacaste Sac ó Sacaron -car becomes -qu é Pagu é Pagamos Pagaste Pag ó Pagaron Sacar (To get) Pagar (To pay) -gar becomes -gu é Cruc é Cruzamos Cruzaste Cruz ó Cruzaron Cruzar (To cross) -zar becomes -c é
  56. 56. Cucarachas Verb Infinitive Andar Anduv- Estar Estuv- Poder Pud- Poner Pus- Querrer Quis- Saber Sup- Tener Tuv- Venir Vin- Conducir Conduj- Producir Produj- Traducir Traduj- Traer Traj- Decir Dij- <ul><li>Cucaracha verbs are irrregular preterite verbs that have the infinitive changed/ </li></ul>- é -imos -iste - í o -ieron