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Grammar book-Javier, Period 1


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Grammar book-Javier, Period 1

  1. 1. GRAMMAR BOOK<br />Javier Polhemus<br />
  2. 2. Presente ( -ar, -er, -ir)<br />Stem Changers<br />Irregulars( -go, -zco , -oy)<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br />Reflexives<br />‘Se’ Impersonal<br />Dipthongs with accents<br />Verbs like uir/guir, cer/cir, ger/gir<br />TABLE OF CONTENTS<br />
  3. 3. 9. Hacer + Time + que + present<br />10 and 11. Ser vs. estar<br />12. Imperfect<br />13. Prederite<br />14. Spock<br />15. La cucaracha<br />16. Snake<br />17. Snakey<br />TABLE OF CONTENTS<br />
  4. 4. Presente ( -ar, -er, -ir)<br />-ar<br />-ir<br />-er<br />-o<br />-o<br />-imos<br />-o<br />-amos<br />-emos<br />-as<br />-aís<br />-es<br />-es<br />-eís<br />-ís<br />-a<br />-e<br />-e<br />-en<br />-an<br />-en<br />Vivir-to live<br />Hablar-to speak<br />Comer- to eat<br />Hablo<br />vivo<br />vivimos<br />como<br />comemos<br />Hablamos<br />comes<br />comeís<br />Hablas<br />Habaís<br />vives<br />vivís<br />vive<br />Hablan<br />Hablan<br />viven<br />come<br />comen<br />
  5. 5. Stem Changers<br />Stem changers are verbs the are different in the stem than the average word although are usually easily predictable. Stems may change in the ways below. <br />EXAMPLE<br />Notice the e to ie change<br />Contiendo<br />Condendemos<br />e ie<br />e i<br />Contiendes<br />Contendéis<br />oue<br />Contiende<br />Contienden<br />uue<br />Also known as boot verbs for the boot shape the changed stems make in the chart. This is because the nosotros and vosotros never undergo a stem change.<br />
  6. 6. Irregulars( -go, -zco , -oy)<br />Irregulars with the –go, -zco, and -oy are different in the way they are congugated, in the fact that the yo ending is much different then other verbs<br />EXAMPLE- Conducir<br />-car= -co -qué<br />conduzco<br />conducimos<br />-gar= -go -gué<br />conduces<br />conducís<br />-zar= -zo -cé<br />conduce<br />conducen<br />
  7. 7. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Both saber and conocer mean “to know” but both a different way of when and where to be used<br />Saber<br />Conocer<br />Usually referring to when you know a fact or how to complete or do a certain action.<br />When you are familiar with a certain thing or know a person.<br />
  8. 8. Reflexives<br />These words are generally placed after infinitive verbs to be more specific about who or what the verb is referring to.<br />Me<br />Nos<br />Se<br />Te<br />Se<br />Se<br />
  9. 9. ‘Se’ Impersonal<br />The se impersonal is used when there is really no defined subject. Such examples in English would be like “they say” , “one” , or “you”<br />Example:<br />English- “How does one play the game?”<br />Spanish-”Como sejuega el juego?”<br />
  10. 10. Dipthongs with accents<br />When there are strong or weak vowels next to eachother in a word.<br />The strong vowels are a,e, and o<br />Weak vowels are i, u, y<br />EXAMPLE: Ciudad<br />
  11. 11. Verbs like uir/guir, cer/cir, ger/gir<br />Uir/guir – always in the present tense and contain a ‘y’<br />EXAMPLE- Construir<br />construyo<br />construimos<br />construyes<br />construís<br />construye<br />construyen<br />Ger/gir- ‘Yo’ switches from ‘g’ to a ‘j’<br />escojo<br />escogemos<br />EXAMPLE- Escoger<br />escoges<br />escogéis<br />escoge<br />escogen<br />
  12. 12. Hacer + Time + que + present<br />Hacer + the time it took for the action to be completed + que + the action verb being done<br />EXAMPLE: Hace dos mesas querecibe el regalo<br />
  13. 13. Ser vs. estar<br />
  14. 14. Ser vs. estar<br />
  15. 15. Preterite<br />This tense is used when talking about an ongoing event that occurred in the past.<br />AR congugations<br />ER congugations<br />é<br />amos<br />í<br />imos<br />aste<br />asteis<br />iste<br />isteis<br />ó<br />aron<br />ió<br />ieron<br />
  16. 16. Imperfect<br />Used for past actions that have no specific beginning or end. <br />ER congugations<br />AR congugations<br />aba<br />ábamos<br />ía<br />íamos<br />abas<br />abais<br />ías<br />íais<br />aba<br />aban<br />ían<br />ía<br />
  17. 17. Spock verbs<br />A grouping of irregular verbs in the preterite.<br />Not complete<br />