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Unit 4- Weather and climate
1- WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
WEATHER AND CLIMATE?
2- WHAT CAUSES THE SEASONS?
3- HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE
RELATED?
4- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT TEMPERATURE?
5- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT PRECIPITATION?
6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE?
7- HOW DOES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
AFFECT THE WEATHER?
8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE?
Unit 4- Weather and climate
OBJECTIVES
Difference between weather and climate.
Understand what causes the seasons.
Learn about the relationship between temperature and climate.
Understand the concepts of precipitation and atmospheric
pressure.
Read weather maps.
1- WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
WEATHER AND CLIMATE?
Weather
Climate
State of the atmosphere in a place at a specific time.
State of the atmosphere in a place over a long period of time.
To study weather and climate we measure and analyze
Temperature
Precipitation
Air pressure (atmospheric pressure)
Winds
In weather stations.
1- WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
WEATHER AND CLIMATE?
1- WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
WEATHER AND CLIMATE?
Weather
stations
Mildura Airport, Australia Wake island
The movements of the Earth
Rotation
The Earth spins on an
imaginary axis.
One rotation every 24
hours
Consequence: Days and nights.
The Earth is divided in 24 time
zones.
2- WHAT CAUSES THE SEASONS?
Movements of the Earth
Revolution
The Earth moves around the Sun.
This movement is called revolution
It takes about 1 year.
One leap year every four years
The Earth is tilted at an angle on its
rotational axis
This inclination causes the different
seasons
2- WHAT CAUSES THE SEASONS?
Autum equinox
Winter solstice
Summer
solstice
Spring equinox
Summer in the northern
hemisphere
Summer in the southern
hemisphere
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l64YwN
l1wr0
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b25g4n
ZTHvM
3- HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE
RELATED?
Temperature
It´s the quantity of heat in the atmosphere.
It´s measured by a thermometer.
To study a climate we need to know the maximum,
the minimum and the average.
3- HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE
RELATED?
Climate zones
according to
temperatures
Hot climate zone
Temperate zone
Temperate zone
Cold climate zone
Cold climate zone
Where do you think is summer time, in the northern or in the
southern hemisphere?
3- HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE
RELATED?
Activity 1 on page 38.
Draw the Earth with the different climate zones.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C1cUE
XmDXgc
How many degrees Fahrenheit are 38ºC?
How many degrees Celsius are 212º F?
https://www.climatetypesforkids.com/
Activities
3- HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE
RELATED?
4- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT
TEMPERATURE?
Factors which
affect
temperature
Latitude
Temperatures are higher near the Equator
Temperatures decrease when we move towards the
Poles.
4- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT
TEMPERATURE?
Factors which
affect
temperature
Altitude
Temperatures usually decrease with altitude.
6,4º C for every thousand metres.
4- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT
TEMPERATURE?
Factors which
affect
temperature
Distance from
the sea
Coastal climates are more temperate.
Inland climates are hotter in summer
and colder in winter.
London and Moscow
are at almost the
same latitude but
summer in Moscow is
warmer and winter is
colder because of
distance from the sea.
4- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT
TEMPERATURE?
Activities 1 and 3 on page 39.
Activities
5- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT
PRECIPITATION?
Precipitation
Humidity It’s the amount of water vapour in the air produced by
evaporation of water.
Precipitation It,s the process of water falling from the sky as
rain, snow or hail.
5- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT
PRECIPITATION?
Factors affecting precipitation
Latitude
Altitude
Level of
humidity
It rains more near the Equator.
It rains more in high areas.
It rains more on the coast than inland.
Precipitation is measured in mm. or l/m².
5- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT
PRECIPITATION?
It rains more near the Equator.
Mountain regions
are more rainy
5- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT
PRECIPITATION?
Define humidity and precipitation.
Explain the factors that affect precipitation.
Explain the process of precipitation.
Activity 1 on page 40.
Activities
6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE ?
CONVECTIONAL
OROGRAPHIC
FRONTAL
Fuente: Essential
Geography and History,
Santillana
6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE ?
CONVECTIONAL Characteristic of hot climates.
1- The Sun heats the ground and water evaporates.
2- Vapor rises and cools.
3- Vapour condenses and form
droplets, then clouds.
4- It falls to the Earth as rain.
6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE ?
OROGRAPHIC Characteristic of montainous regions.
1- Humid air reaches a mountain.
2- The air rises and cools down.
3- Vapour condenses and form droplets, then clouds.
4- It falls to the Earth as rain.
6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE ?
FRONTAL Characteristic of places at the boundary
(front) between masses of warm air and
cold air..
1- A mass of hot, humid air
meets a mass of cold air.
2- The hot, humid air rises
and cools.
3- Vapour condenses and
form droplets, then
clouds.
4- It falls to the Earth as rain.
6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE ?
Activities
What types of rainfall are there?
What is conventional rainfall?
What is orographic rainfall?
What is frontal rainfall?
Activity 1 on page 41.
7- HOW DOES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
AFFECT THE WEATHER ?
Atmospheric
pressure
It´s the force exerted by the weight of the air.
Factors affecting atmospheric pressure
Altitude
Air
temperature
The more altitude, the less pressure.
The more temperature, the less pressure.
7- HOW DOES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
AFFECT THE WEATHER ?
Anticyclones
Depressions
Areas of high pressure.
Areas of low pressure.
The influence of weather on pressure
Anticyclones
Depressions
Dry, stable weather.
Unstable weather, rain and storms.
7- HOW DOES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
AFFECT THE WEATHER ?
Fronts Boundaries between different air masses.
Characteristic of temperate zones.
Relation between pressure and wind
H LAir moves toward low pressures.
WIND
7- HOW DOES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
AFFECT THE WEATHER ?
Activities
Define atmospheric pressure.
What factors affect atmospheric pressure?
Define anticyclon and depression.
Explain the relation between atmospheric pressure and wind
8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE?
Relation between pressure and wind
H LAir moves toward low pressures.
WIND
Types of winds
Prevailing winds
Periodic winds
Synoptic winds
Local winds
8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE?
Prevailing
winds
Always in the same direction.
Example: Trade winds (from the Tropics towards
Equator).
8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE?
Periodic
winds
They change direction seasonally.
Example: Monsoons
In summer monsoons blow from the Indian Ocean
towards the continent.
In winter from the continent towards the Indian
Ocean.
8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE?
Synoptic
winds
They change daily.
Example: Sea breezes.
8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE?
Trade winds Monsoons
It´s a prevailing wind: it
always blows in the same
direction.
It´s a periodic wind: It changes
direction seasonally.
From the Tropic to Equator. In South and south-east Asia.
Differences
Similarities
Both are located in the hot climate zone.
8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE?
Hot climate zone
Temperate
Temperate
Low pressure area: Equator
Low pressure area:
Temperate zone
Low pressure area: temperate
High pressure: cold zone
High pressure: cold zone
High pressure: Tropic of Cancer
High pressure: Tropic of
Capricornio.
8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE?
Local winds Influenced by surrounding geography.
Example: Cierzo in Aragón.
8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE?
Define wind and explain the relation between wind and air pressure.
How many different types of wind are there?
What are the prevailing winds?
What are the periodic winds?
What are the synoptic winds?
What are the local winds?
Activities 1,2 and 3 on page 43.
What is an anemeter? What is a weather vane?

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Unit 4 Weather and climate

  • 1. Unit 4- Weather and climate 1- WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE? 2- WHAT CAUSES THE SEASONS? 3- HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE RELATED? 4- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT TEMPERATURE? 5- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT PRECIPITATION? 6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE? 7- HOW DOES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AFFECT THE WEATHER? 8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE?
  • 2. Unit 4- Weather and climate OBJECTIVES Difference between weather and climate. Understand what causes the seasons. Learn about the relationship between temperature and climate. Understand the concepts of precipitation and atmospheric pressure. Read weather maps.
  • 3. 1- WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE? Weather Climate State of the atmosphere in a place at a specific time. State of the atmosphere in a place over a long period of time. To study weather and climate we measure and analyze Temperature Precipitation Air pressure (atmospheric pressure) Winds In weather stations.
  • 4. 1- WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE?
  • 5. 1- WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE? Weather stations Mildura Airport, Australia Wake island
  • 6. The movements of the Earth Rotation The Earth spins on an imaginary axis. One rotation every 24 hours Consequence: Days and nights. The Earth is divided in 24 time zones. 2- WHAT CAUSES THE SEASONS?
  • 7. Movements of the Earth Revolution The Earth moves around the Sun. This movement is called revolution It takes about 1 year. One leap year every four years The Earth is tilted at an angle on its rotational axis This inclination causes the different seasons 2- WHAT CAUSES THE SEASONS?
  • 8. Autum equinox Winter solstice Summer solstice Spring equinox Summer in the northern hemisphere Summer in the southern hemisphere https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l64YwN l1wr0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b25g4n ZTHvM
  • 9. 3- HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE RELATED? Temperature It´s the quantity of heat in the atmosphere. It´s measured by a thermometer. To study a climate we need to know the maximum, the minimum and the average.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. 3- HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE RELATED? Climate zones according to temperatures Hot climate zone Temperate zone Temperate zone Cold climate zone Cold climate zone
  • 13. Where do you think is summer time, in the northern or in the southern hemisphere?
  • 14. 3- HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE RELATED? Activity 1 on page 38. Draw the Earth with the different climate zones. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C1cUE XmDXgc How many degrees Fahrenheit are 38ºC? How many degrees Celsius are 212º F? https://www.climatetypesforkids.com/ Activities
  • 15. 3- HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE RELATED?
  • 16. 4- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT TEMPERATURE? Factors which affect temperature Latitude Temperatures are higher near the Equator Temperatures decrease when we move towards the Poles.
  • 17. 4- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT TEMPERATURE? Factors which affect temperature Altitude Temperatures usually decrease with altitude. 6,4º C for every thousand metres.
  • 18. 4- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT TEMPERATURE? Factors which affect temperature Distance from the sea Coastal climates are more temperate. Inland climates are hotter in summer and colder in winter. London and Moscow are at almost the same latitude but summer in Moscow is warmer and winter is colder because of distance from the sea.
  • 19. 4- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT TEMPERATURE? Activities 1 and 3 on page 39. Activities
  • 20. 5- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT PRECIPITATION? Precipitation Humidity It’s the amount of water vapour in the air produced by evaporation of water. Precipitation It,s the process of water falling from the sky as rain, snow or hail.
  • 21. 5- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT PRECIPITATION? Factors affecting precipitation Latitude Altitude Level of humidity It rains more near the Equator. It rains more in high areas. It rains more on the coast than inland. Precipitation is measured in mm. or l/m².
  • 22. 5- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT PRECIPITATION? It rains more near the Equator. Mountain regions are more rainy
  • 23. 5- WHAT FACTORS AFFECT PRECIPITATION? Define humidity and precipitation. Explain the factors that affect precipitation. Explain the process of precipitation. Activity 1 on page 40. Activities
  • 24. 6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE ? CONVECTIONAL OROGRAPHIC FRONTAL Fuente: Essential Geography and History, Santillana
  • 25. 6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE ? CONVECTIONAL Characteristic of hot climates. 1- The Sun heats the ground and water evaporates. 2- Vapor rises and cools. 3- Vapour condenses and form droplets, then clouds. 4- It falls to the Earth as rain.
  • 26. 6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE ? OROGRAPHIC Characteristic of montainous regions. 1- Humid air reaches a mountain. 2- The air rises and cools down. 3- Vapour condenses and form droplets, then clouds. 4- It falls to the Earth as rain.
  • 27. 6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE ? FRONTAL Characteristic of places at the boundary (front) between masses of warm air and cold air.. 1- A mass of hot, humid air meets a mass of cold air. 2- The hot, humid air rises and cools. 3- Vapour condenses and form droplets, then clouds. 4- It falls to the Earth as rain.
  • 28. 6- WHAT TYPES OF RAINFALL ARE THERE ? Activities What types of rainfall are there? What is conventional rainfall? What is orographic rainfall? What is frontal rainfall? Activity 1 on page 41.
  • 29. 7- HOW DOES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AFFECT THE WEATHER ? Atmospheric pressure It´s the force exerted by the weight of the air. Factors affecting atmospheric pressure Altitude Air temperature The more altitude, the less pressure. The more temperature, the less pressure.
  • 30. 7- HOW DOES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AFFECT THE WEATHER ? Anticyclones Depressions Areas of high pressure. Areas of low pressure. The influence of weather on pressure Anticyclones Depressions Dry, stable weather. Unstable weather, rain and storms.
  • 31. 7- HOW DOES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AFFECT THE WEATHER ? Fronts Boundaries between different air masses. Characteristic of temperate zones. Relation between pressure and wind H LAir moves toward low pressures. WIND
  • 32. 7- HOW DOES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AFFECT THE WEATHER ? Activities Define atmospheric pressure. What factors affect atmospheric pressure? Define anticyclon and depression. Explain the relation between atmospheric pressure and wind
  • 33. 8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE? Relation between pressure and wind H LAir moves toward low pressures. WIND Types of winds Prevailing winds Periodic winds Synoptic winds Local winds
  • 34. 8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE? Prevailing winds Always in the same direction. Example: Trade winds (from the Tropics towards Equator).
  • 35. 8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE? Periodic winds They change direction seasonally. Example: Monsoons In summer monsoons blow from the Indian Ocean towards the continent. In winter from the continent towards the Indian Ocean.
  • 36. 8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE? Synoptic winds They change daily. Example: Sea breezes.
  • 37. 8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE? Trade winds Monsoons It´s a prevailing wind: it always blows in the same direction. It´s a periodic wind: It changes direction seasonally. From the Tropic to Equator. In South and south-east Asia. Differences Similarities Both are located in the hot climate zone.
  • 38. 8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE? Hot climate zone Temperate Temperate Low pressure area: Equator Low pressure area: Temperate zone Low pressure area: temperate High pressure: cold zone High pressure: cold zone High pressure: Tropic of Cancer High pressure: Tropic of Capricornio.
  • 39. 8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE? Local winds Influenced by surrounding geography. Example: Cierzo in Aragón.
  • 40. 8- WHAT TYPES OF WINDS ARE THERE? Define wind and explain the relation between wind and air pressure. How many different types of wind are there? What are the prevailing winds? What are the periodic winds? What are the synoptic winds? What are the local winds? Activities 1,2 and 3 on page 43. What is an anemeter? What is a weather vane?