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Unit 9 Renaissance and Reformation
1- WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE?
2- HOW DID SCIENCE AND ART DEVELOP?
3- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE LIKE?
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?
5- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE SCULPTURE LIKE?
8- WHAT WAS REFORMATION?
9- WHAT WAS THE COUNTER-REFORMATION?
1- WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE?
Renaissance is a period that began at the end of the 14th century and ended at
the beginning of the 17th century.
Humanism is a cultural and intellectual movement which developed in the 15th
century and the early 16th century.
Characteristics Medieval culture focused on God, Humanism on human
beings.
Humanist were inspired by Antiquity (Greek and Roman
civilizations)
They defended the search for truth through reason and
experience.
They were curious about everything (not specialists in one
field but in many disciplines)
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Luis Vives Thomas More
1- WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE?
The greatest
humanist
1- WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE?
The printing
press
Revolutionary invention
Books no longer had
to be copied by hand.
Books became
cheaper.
Humanism reached
more people.
1- WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE?
Define the following concepts: Renaissance, Humanism
Activity 1 on page 83.
Name the three most important humanists.
Why was the printing press a revolutionary invention?
2- HOW DID SCIENCE AND ART DEVELOP?
Science Thanks to Humanism, Science developed
Copernicus developed the Heliocentric theory
The Sun is the centre of the universe, and the
Earth and other planets revolved around it.
The Church rejected the Copernicus’ theory Ptolemaic geocentric
theory
Human anatomy
Vesalius: Anatomy
Miguel Servet: blood circulation
Geographical discoveries allowed the develop of
Botany
Geography
Cartography
Zoology
2- HOW DID SCIENCE AND ART DEVELOPED
The
Renaissance
style in art
Characteristics
Inspired by the artistic models of Antiquity.
Revive the harmonious forms of Greeks and
Romans.
They tried to capture the ideal beauty of human
beings.
First appeared in Italy in 14th c.; spread in 15th
and 16th century
Quattrocento
Cinquecento
First period of the Renaissance, it flourished in Florence during the
15th century.
Second period of the Renaissance, it flourished in Rome during the
16th century.
2- HOW DID SCIENCE AND ART DEVELOP?
Explain the relation between Humanism and science.
What is the Heliocentric theory?
Why did the Church rejected the Copernicus’ theory?
Who were Vesalius and Miguel Servet?
Explain the relation between the geographical discoveries and science.
Explain the characteristics of the Renaissance
Define Quattrocento and Cinquecento
3- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE LIKE?
Renaissance architecture
Characteristics
Quattrocento (Artists and works)
Cinquecento (Artists and works)
Classical elements were revived
(semicircular arches, classical
Doric, Ionic and Corinthians
columns)
Smaller buildings adapted to
human proportions.
Ornamention simple and
austere.
GOAL: To create a sense of
order and harmony.
Brunelleschi was the most outstanding
artist: Dome of the Cathedral of Florence,
Pitti Palace, churches of San Lorenzo and
Santo Spirito.
Alberti: Rucellai Palace, Basilica of Sant
Andrea.
Bramante: First project of Saint Peter’s
Basilica.
Michelangelo: Dome of Saint Peter’s
Cathedral.
Maderno: Final project.
Dome of the cathedral of Florence
Church of Santo Spirito
Brunelleschi was the
most outstanding
architect of the
Quattrocento.
Pitti Palace
3- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE LIKE?
The geometric shapes and proportions were really
important for the Renaissance architects.
Iglesia de Santa Maria la Novella, de Alberti
Basilica of Sant Andrea of Mantua
EL QUATTROCENTO: ALBERTI
Rucellai Palace
Three great architects collaborated in the project: Bramante did the first project, Michelangelo changed the dome and Maderno did
the rest.
3- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE LIKE?
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?
Renaissance painting
Characteristics Quattrocento (artists and works)
Cinquecento (artists and works)
They discovered perspective to create
impression of space and depth.
Inspired by classical Antiquity
- Harmonious proportions
- Aimed for beauty by idealising faces,
bodies and movements.
Subjects: Religious, mithological, nudes and
portraits
Pioneers in the use of perspective.
Masaccio: The Holy Trinity; The Tribute Money
Piero della Francesca: The Baptism of Christ
Idealised figures
Boticelli: the birth of Venus
Leonardo da Vinci: Represented nature; master
of Sfumato. LA Gioconda, The last supper.
Michelangelo: Frescoes in the Sistine Chapel.
Raphael: Perfect in the use of colour, drawing and
composition; Madonnas and Virgins
Titian: Venetian; Venus of Urbino; equestrian
portrait of Charles V
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?
Masaccio self-portrait
Masaccio
The Holy Trinity
Pioneer in the use of
perspective
Source: Wikipedia
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?Masaccio
The Tribute Money
Source: Wikipedia
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?
Source: Wikipedia
Piero della
Francesca
Della Francesca self-portrait
in The Resurrection
The Baptism of Christ
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?Leonardo
da Vinci
Source: Wikipedia The last supper
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING
LIKE?
Leonardo
da Vinci
Source: Wikipedia
Represented nature
Master of Sfumato
To draw blurring outlines in
order to create a sense of depth
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?Michelangelo
Source: Wikipedia Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?
Raphael
Madonna in the
Meadow
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?Titian
Equstrian portrait of Charles I in
Mühlberg
4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?
5- What was Renaissance sculpture like?
Renaissance sculpture
Characteristics
Quattrocento
Cinquecento
It followed the models of
classical Antiquity.
Importance of proportions and
anatomical studies.
Subjects: Nudes, portraits,
busts, equestrian figures.
Figures were idealised but the
artist tried to capture the
personality.
Sculptures made of bronze and
marble.
Ghiberti: The Gates of
Paradise; applied the laws of
perspective to these panels.
Donatello: The greatest artist
from Quattrocento; David
Michelangelo: The greatest
artists of the Cinquecento;
David, Moses, Pietá
GHIBERTI The Gates of Paradise. Bronze doors by
Lorenzo Ghiberti. Ghiberti is a master using
the perspective.
Bronze equestrian
statue: Condottiere
Gattamelata in Padua
David, first nude
statue of the
Renaissance
(Donatello)
Saint George killing the Dragoon.
DONATELLO
“PIETÁ” “DAVID” “MOSES”
MICHELANGELO
The greatest artist in Renaissance: sculptor, painter, architect and
poet
8- WHAT WAS THE REFORMATION?
The Church in the Late
Middle Ages
Some people were very critical of the Catholic Church:
High-ranking churchmen lived a life of luxury.
Most of the clergy had little education and did not work
correctly.
Ecclesiastic positions were bought to get benefits associated with
the position.
The Indulgences: documents issued by the Pope to pardon sins
for money.
8- WHAT WAS THE REFORMATION?
The Lutheran
Reformation
1515 Pope Leo X granted indulgencesto finance the
construction of San Peter’s Basilica
Martin Luther, a german monk criticised the Pope in
his 95 Theses.
The Pope excommunicate Luther.
Luther’s ideas spread: Lutheranism appeared and left the Catholic Church.
They were called Protestants.
8- WHAT WAS THE REFORMATION?
Expansion of the
Reformation
German nobles saw Lutheranism as a chance to take away lands from
the Catholic Church and oppose Charles V.
Lutheranism
Calvinism
Anglican Church
Founded by John Calvin
After Luther new religious movements appeared all over
Europe.
It is based on predestination: people are condemned or
saved before they were born.
Geneva, Low Countries, regions of France, Scotland.
Founded by Henry VIII
Very similar to Catholic Church, but the head of the Church is
the king of England.
Calvin (1509-1564)
Henry VIII (1491-
1547)
9- WHAT WAS THE COUNTER-REFORMATION?
The Counter-
Reformation
It was a reform movement in the Catholic Church.
GOAL Stop Protestant movementand
improve conditions in the Church.
Council of Trent: Meeting where the Catholic Church adopted some resolutions.
Cathecism
New schools
New religious orders
Former orders reformed
Society of Jesus was founded
9- WHAT WAS THE COUNTER-REFORMATION?
Consequences of
religious change Europe was divided into two religious blocks: Protestants
and Catholics.
Religious division became the source of armed confrontations.
Religious wars lasted more the one
century.
Intolerance widespread all over Europe. Persecutions,
banned books and
scientific activity
In Spain, the Inquisition persecuted heretics;
list of prohibited books were published,
people without Christian ancestors were not
allowed to hold important positions.
9- WHAT WAS THE COUNTER-REFORMATION?

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Unit 9 renaissance and reformation

  • 1. Unit 9 Renaissance and Reformation 1- WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE? 2- HOW DID SCIENCE AND ART DEVELOP? 3- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE LIKE? 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE? 5- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE SCULPTURE LIKE? 8- WHAT WAS REFORMATION? 9- WHAT WAS THE COUNTER-REFORMATION?
  • 2. 1- WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE? Renaissance is a period that began at the end of the 14th century and ended at the beginning of the 17th century. Humanism is a cultural and intellectual movement which developed in the 15th century and the early 16th century. Characteristics Medieval culture focused on God, Humanism on human beings. Humanist were inspired by Antiquity (Greek and Roman civilizations) They defended the search for truth through reason and experience. They were curious about everything (not specialists in one field but in many disciplines)
  • 3. Erasmus of Rotterdam Luis Vives Thomas More 1- WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE? The greatest humanist
  • 4. 1- WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE? The printing press Revolutionary invention Books no longer had to be copied by hand. Books became cheaper. Humanism reached more people.
  • 5. 1- WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE? Define the following concepts: Renaissance, Humanism Activity 1 on page 83. Name the three most important humanists. Why was the printing press a revolutionary invention?
  • 6. 2- HOW DID SCIENCE AND ART DEVELOP? Science Thanks to Humanism, Science developed Copernicus developed the Heliocentric theory The Sun is the centre of the universe, and the Earth and other planets revolved around it. The Church rejected the Copernicus’ theory Ptolemaic geocentric theory Human anatomy Vesalius: Anatomy Miguel Servet: blood circulation Geographical discoveries allowed the develop of Botany Geography Cartography Zoology
  • 7. 2- HOW DID SCIENCE AND ART DEVELOPED The Renaissance style in art Characteristics Inspired by the artistic models of Antiquity. Revive the harmonious forms of Greeks and Romans. They tried to capture the ideal beauty of human beings. First appeared in Italy in 14th c.; spread in 15th and 16th century Quattrocento Cinquecento First period of the Renaissance, it flourished in Florence during the 15th century. Second period of the Renaissance, it flourished in Rome during the 16th century.
  • 8. 2- HOW DID SCIENCE AND ART DEVELOP? Explain the relation between Humanism and science. What is the Heliocentric theory? Why did the Church rejected the Copernicus’ theory? Who were Vesalius and Miguel Servet? Explain the relation between the geographical discoveries and science. Explain the characteristics of the Renaissance Define Quattrocento and Cinquecento
  • 9. 3- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE LIKE? Renaissance architecture Characteristics Quattrocento (Artists and works) Cinquecento (Artists and works) Classical elements were revived (semicircular arches, classical Doric, Ionic and Corinthians columns) Smaller buildings adapted to human proportions. Ornamention simple and austere. GOAL: To create a sense of order and harmony. Brunelleschi was the most outstanding artist: Dome of the Cathedral of Florence, Pitti Palace, churches of San Lorenzo and Santo Spirito. Alberti: Rucellai Palace, Basilica of Sant Andrea. Bramante: First project of Saint Peter’s Basilica. Michelangelo: Dome of Saint Peter’s Cathedral. Maderno: Final project.
  • 10. Dome of the cathedral of Florence Church of Santo Spirito Brunelleschi was the most outstanding architect of the Quattrocento. Pitti Palace 3- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE LIKE?
  • 11.
  • 12. The geometric shapes and proportions were really important for the Renaissance architects. Iglesia de Santa Maria la Novella, de Alberti Basilica of Sant Andrea of Mantua EL QUATTROCENTO: ALBERTI Rucellai Palace
  • 13. Three great architects collaborated in the project: Bramante did the first project, Michelangelo changed the dome and Maderno did the rest. 3- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE LIKE?
  • 14. 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE? Renaissance painting Characteristics Quattrocento (artists and works) Cinquecento (artists and works) They discovered perspective to create impression of space and depth. Inspired by classical Antiquity - Harmonious proportions - Aimed for beauty by idealising faces, bodies and movements. Subjects: Religious, mithological, nudes and portraits Pioneers in the use of perspective. Masaccio: The Holy Trinity; The Tribute Money Piero della Francesca: The Baptism of Christ Idealised figures Boticelli: the birth of Venus Leonardo da Vinci: Represented nature; master of Sfumato. LA Gioconda, The last supper. Michelangelo: Frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. Raphael: Perfect in the use of colour, drawing and composition; Madonnas and Virgins Titian: Venetian; Venus of Urbino; equestrian portrait of Charles V
  • 15. 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE? Masaccio self-portrait Masaccio The Holy Trinity Pioneer in the use of perspective Source: Wikipedia
  • 16. 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?Masaccio The Tribute Money Source: Wikipedia
  • 17. 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE? Source: Wikipedia Piero della Francesca Della Francesca self-portrait in The Resurrection The Baptism of Christ
  • 18. 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?Leonardo da Vinci Source: Wikipedia The last supper
  • 19. 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE? Leonardo da Vinci Source: Wikipedia Represented nature Master of Sfumato To draw blurring outlines in order to create a sense of depth
  • 20. 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?Michelangelo Source: Wikipedia Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
  • 21. 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE? Raphael Madonna in the Meadow
  • 22. 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?Titian Equstrian portrait of Charles I in Mühlberg
  • 23. 4- WHAT WAS RENAISSANCE PAINTING LIKE?
  • 24. 5- What was Renaissance sculpture like? Renaissance sculpture Characteristics Quattrocento Cinquecento It followed the models of classical Antiquity. Importance of proportions and anatomical studies. Subjects: Nudes, portraits, busts, equestrian figures. Figures were idealised but the artist tried to capture the personality. Sculptures made of bronze and marble. Ghiberti: The Gates of Paradise; applied the laws of perspective to these panels. Donatello: The greatest artist from Quattrocento; David Michelangelo: The greatest artists of the Cinquecento; David, Moses, Pietá
  • 25. GHIBERTI The Gates of Paradise. Bronze doors by Lorenzo Ghiberti. Ghiberti is a master using the perspective.
  • 26. Bronze equestrian statue: Condottiere Gattamelata in Padua David, first nude statue of the Renaissance (Donatello) Saint George killing the Dragoon. DONATELLO
  • 27. “PIETÁ” “DAVID” “MOSES” MICHELANGELO The greatest artist in Renaissance: sculptor, painter, architect and poet
  • 28. 8- WHAT WAS THE REFORMATION? The Church in the Late Middle Ages Some people were very critical of the Catholic Church: High-ranking churchmen lived a life of luxury. Most of the clergy had little education and did not work correctly. Ecclesiastic positions were bought to get benefits associated with the position. The Indulgences: documents issued by the Pope to pardon sins for money.
  • 29. 8- WHAT WAS THE REFORMATION? The Lutheran Reformation 1515 Pope Leo X granted indulgencesto finance the construction of San Peter’s Basilica Martin Luther, a german monk criticised the Pope in his 95 Theses. The Pope excommunicate Luther. Luther’s ideas spread: Lutheranism appeared and left the Catholic Church. They were called Protestants.
  • 30. 8- WHAT WAS THE REFORMATION? Expansion of the Reformation German nobles saw Lutheranism as a chance to take away lands from the Catholic Church and oppose Charles V. Lutheranism Calvinism Anglican Church Founded by John Calvin After Luther new religious movements appeared all over Europe. It is based on predestination: people are condemned or saved before they were born. Geneva, Low Countries, regions of France, Scotland. Founded by Henry VIII Very similar to Catholic Church, but the head of the Church is the king of England. Calvin (1509-1564) Henry VIII (1491- 1547)
  • 31. 9- WHAT WAS THE COUNTER-REFORMATION? The Counter- Reformation It was a reform movement in the Catholic Church. GOAL Stop Protestant movementand improve conditions in the Church. Council of Trent: Meeting where the Catholic Church adopted some resolutions. Cathecism New schools New religious orders Former orders reformed Society of Jesus was founded
  • 32. 9- WHAT WAS THE COUNTER-REFORMATION? Consequences of religious change Europe was divided into two religious blocks: Protestants and Catholics. Religious division became the source of armed confrontations. Religious wars lasted more the one century. Intolerance widespread all over Europe. Persecutions, banned books and scientific activity In Spain, the Inquisition persecuted heretics; list of prohibited books were published, people without Christian ancestors were not allowed to hold important positions.
  • 33. 9- WHAT WAS THE COUNTER-REFORMATION?