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THE
5
GENERATIONS
OF
COM
PUTERS
AND
EVOLUTION
OF COM
PUTERS…………
GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS
The history of computer development is
often referred to in reference to the
different generations of computing
devices.
Each generation of computer is
characterized by a major technological
development that fundamentally changed
the way computers operate, resulting in
increasingly smaller, cheaper, more
powerful and more efficient and reliable
devices.
FIRST GENERATION (1940-1956)
VACUUM TUBES
The first computers used vacuum
tubes for circuitry and magnetic
drums for memory, and were often
enormous, taking up entire rooms.
They were very expensive to operate
and in addition to using a great deal
of electricity, generated a lot of
heat, which was often the cause of
malfunctions.
FIRST GENERATION-1940-1956)
First generation computers relied on
machine language, the lowest-level
programming language understood by
computers, to perform operations, and
they could only solve one problem at a
time.
Input was based on punched cards and
paper tape, and output was displayed on
printouts.
EXAMPLES --
The UNIVAC and ENIAC
computers are examples of
first-generation computing
devices. The UNIVAC was the
first commercial computer
delivered to a business client,
the U.S. Census Bureau in
1951.
SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963)
TRANSISTORS
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the
second generation of computers. The transistor was
invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in
computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far
superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to
become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient
and more reliable than their first-generation
predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a
great deal of heat that subjected the computer to
damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube.
Second-generation computers still relied on punched
cards for input and printouts for output.
Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary
machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages,
which allowed programmers to specify instructions in
words. High-level programming languages were also
being developed at this time, such as early versions of
COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first
computers that stored their instructions in their
memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to
magnetic core technology.
The first computers of this generation were developed for
the atomic energy industry.
THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971)
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
The development of the integrated circuit
was the hallmark of the third generation
of computers. Transistors were
miniaturized and placed on silicon chips,
called semiconductors, which drastically
increased the speed and efficiency of
computers.
• Instead of punched cards and printouts, users
interacted with third generation computers
through keyboards and monitors and interfaced
with an operating system , which allowed the
device to run many different applications at
one time with a central program that monitored
the memory. Computers for the first time
became accessible to a mass audience
because they are smaller and cheaper than
their predecessors.
FOURTH GENERATION (1971-
PRESENT)
MICROPROCESSORS• The microprocessor brought the fourth
generation of computers, as thousands of
integrated circuits were built onto a single
silicon chip. What in the first generation
filled an entire room could now fit in the
palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip,
developed in 1971, located all the
components of the computer-from the
central processing unit and memory to
input/output controls—on a single chip.
In 1981 IBM introduced its first
computer for the home user, and in
1984 Apple introduced the
Macintosh. Microprocessors also
moved out of the realm of desktop
computers and into many areas of
life as more and more everyday
products began to use
microprocessors.
As these small computers became more
powerful, they could be linked together to
form networks, which eventually led to
the development of the Internet. Fourth
generation computers also saw the
development of GUIs, the mouse and
handheld devices.
FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT
AND BEYOND) ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE
Fifth generation computing devices, based
on artificial intelligence, are still in
development, though there are some
applications, such as voice recognition,
that are being used today. The use of
parallel processing and superconductors
is helping to make artificial intelligence a
reality.
Quantum computation and molecular
and nanotechnology will radically
change the face of computers in
years to come. The goal of fifth-
generation computing is to develop
devices that respond to natural
language input and are capable of
learning and self-organization.
the generation of computers

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the generation of computers

  • 2. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.
  • 3. FIRST GENERATION (1940-1956) VACUUM TUBES The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.
  • 4. FIRST GENERATION-1940-1956) First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.
  • 5. EXAMPLES -- The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.
  • 6. SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963) TRANSISTORS Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
  • 7. Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.
  • 8. THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971) INTEGRATED CIRCUITS The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
  • 9. • Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system , which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they are smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
  • 10. FOURTH GENERATION (1971- PRESENT) MICROPROCESSORS• The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer-from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single chip.
  • 11. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.
  • 12. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.
  • 13. FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT AND BEYOND) ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.
  • 14. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth- generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.