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STEALTH TECHNOLOGY AND IT’S APPLICATIONS IN
AIRCRAFTS
What Is Stealth Technology?
 Scientifically known as
low observatory
 Used in Military aviation
 Reduces detection range
of an aircraft
 Similar to camouflage
tactics used by soldiers
 Partial invisibility to
radar and other
detection
RADAR SIGNATURE ?
 A radar signature is how big the airplane on radar appears
from a specific angle and distance.
 Radar cross section (RCS): the cross
sectional area of a perfectly reflecting
sphere that would produce the same
signal reflection as would the object.
 Depends on many parameters, like:
 Relative size (size vs. wavelength).
 Target material /painting.
 Shape / orientation.
The size of a target's image on radar is
measured by RCS (σ )
Uses the principle of reflection and
absorption as well as redirection.
Minimizes heat and other emissions from
engine and other spots.
Reduces RCS by surface designs of stealth
aircrafts by RAS or RAM
How It Reduces RCS ?
The job is performed by using mainly
two techniques:
1.Designing of surface
2.Radar absorbing materials(RAM)
But now a days one more technology
known as “Plasma Stealth Technology” is
also employed
1. Surface Design
 The goal of stealth technology is to
make an airplane almost invisible
to radar.
 Most conventional aircraft have
a rounded shape which means
that no matter where the radar
signal hits the plane, some of the
signal gets reflected back
 The shape of an stealth airplane
is designed in such a way that it
reflects the signals away from the
radar. As shown in the fig. here:
Precautions In Designing:
 Sharp Edges
 Design of nose
 Acute angles
 No right angle
 The air craft must
bury the engines
within the wings
 E.g. Lockheed
F-117 Nighthawk
Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit
 Has a completely different design: It has one big
wing, like a boomerang.
 This flying wing design is much more efficient than a
conventional plane. As shown:
B-2 continued..
It eliminates the tail and fuselage & also reduces drag i.e. the
total force of air resistance acting on the plane.
Greater efficiency helps the B-2 travel long distances in a
short period of time.
It is high subsonic, means its top speed is just around the
speed of sound (around 305 m/s ) but it can go 6,900 miles
(11,000 km) without refueling and 11,500 miles (18,500 km)
with one in-flight refueling.
The stealth bomber's peculiar shape deflects radio beams in
both ways.
Differences Between Normal
Aircraft & Stealth Aircraft
1. Tail Angle Effect:
 A corner reflector is retro reflector
which consists of three mutually
perpendicular, intersecting flat
surfaces, & hence reflects em
waves back to source.
 So tail angle should be kept acute to
decrease detection. As Shown below:
•Exhaust Plume of a
normal Aircraft
• Stealth Aircraft without
Exhaust.
4. Exhaust plume
2. Difference In Aircraft Design
When we are using normal
shape
When using stealth
technology.
Normal fighter plane
showing the engine.
Engines of the stealth aircraft
are covered.
3. Engine position
2. Radar Absorbing Materials(RAM)
 Nano structural composite material,
absorbing without reflection radar
wave.
 Magnetic ferrite-based substance
 RAM reduces the radar cross
selection making the object
appear smaller.
 Radiation Absorbing honeycomb
Structural material usually incor-
porated with skin of aircraft
Frequency Selective Surfaces(FSS)
 Planar periodic structures that behave like filters to
electromagnetic energy.
 They are like metallic
screens with frequency
selective properties
 Used as ‘spatial filters’
through which a specific
range of Em energy
may be propagated
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II uses
new stealthy radar absorbent material in its
construction which includes fiber-mat.
Plasma Stealth
 The Russian Scientists proposed to create a plasma formation
around protected object.
 The aircraft injects a stream of ionized
gas in the form of plasma cloud.
 Prevents radars from seeing it by
absorbing the radar energy in this
plasma cloud
The artificially created
plasma cloud
surrounding the plane
reduces its RCS by a
factor of 100.
Infrared Stealth
 Infra-red radiation are emitted by all matter above
absolute temperature zero
 Hot zones such as engine exhaust , wing surface [
friction due to air ] get heated which rather increases
the visibility.
 These part should be kept cool as possible it can be ,
 Option would be mixing of cool air with the hot
engine exhaust .
 Use compressed gas or liquid nitrogen to cool their
internal parts.
Stealth Technology Today
 The F-117A, B-2 and B1-B can be regarded as the three
emblematic LO aircraft of the late '80s.
 The famous F-22A Raptor (1st flight in 1997,
production ended in 2011, with 195planes built, 182
planes operating today) is a Lockheed Martin’s (L.M.)
5th generation air superiority stealth fighter.
The Lockheed Martin (L.M.) F-35
Lightning II.
 A multirole 5th generation fighter with stealth
capabilities (first flight in 2006, currently in initial
production and testing).
The Sukhoi PAK FA
 A 5th gen., multirole, twin-engine jet fighter, developed
by Sukhoi for the Russian Air Force
 Its prototype, T-50, flew
for the first time in 2010
 Based on PAK FA,
Sukhoi will develop
with HAL (Hindustan
Aeronautics Limited),
the “5th Generation
Fighter Aircraft”
(FGFA) for India.
Stealth Technology In Future
 Although U.S. is the dominating country having
most advanced stealth aircrafts but
Advantages
 Reduces the causality rates during war
 Saving military budget.
 Utmost importance in anti
terrorist operations
 Develop the military secretes
 Bluff the anti-detective device
 Stealth aircraft are invisible to
Radar
 Actually a fight between radar
technology and stealth technology
Disadvantages
 Still not a guaranteed technology
 Not much reliable
 Most of the Stealth Aircrafts can’t fly fast. However
technical advancements re making them capable of it,
 They are not maneuverable.
 Can carry only limited amount of payload.
 High cost of maintenance.
 Very economic.
 Reliability hugely depends upon the tracking radar
system.
Conclusions
 A technology of future
 Lots of opportunities lies for scientists, researchers as well
as for students also.
 Success yet to be proved extensively.
 Huge investment is required.
 Opportunity for developing countries to learn the
technology.
 Consider as a war between radar technology and stealth
technology.
 U.S is the leading country with other countries also
investing a huge amount of their investments in the
technology.

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Stealth technology in aircrafts

  • 1. STEALTH TECHNOLOGY AND IT’S APPLICATIONS IN AIRCRAFTS
  • 2. What Is Stealth Technology?  Scientifically known as low observatory  Used in Military aviation  Reduces detection range of an aircraft  Similar to camouflage tactics used by soldiers  Partial invisibility to radar and other detection
  • 3. RADAR SIGNATURE ?  A radar signature is how big the airplane on radar appears from a specific angle and distance.  Radar cross section (RCS): the cross sectional area of a perfectly reflecting sphere that would produce the same signal reflection as would the object.  Depends on many parameters, like:  Relative size (size vs. wavelength).  Target material /painting.  Shape / orientation.
  • 4. The size of a target's image on radar is measured by RCS (σ ) Uses the principle of reflection and absorption as well as redirection. Minimizes heat and other emissions from engine and other spots. Reduces RCS by surface designs of stealth aircrafts by RAS or RAM
  • 5. How It Reduces RCS ? The job is performed by using mainly two techniques: 1.Designing of surface 2.Radar absorbing materials(RAM) But now a days one more technology known as “Plasma Stealth Technology” is also employed
  • 6. 1. Surface Design  The goal of stealth technology is to make an airplane almost invisible to radar.  Most conventional aircraft have a rounded shape which means that no matter where the radar signal hits the plane, some of the signal gets reflected back  The shape of an stealth airplane is designed in such a way that it reflects the signals away from the radar. As shown in the fig. here:
  • 7. Precautions In Designing:  Sharp Edges  Design of nose  Acute angles  No right angle  The air craft must bury the engines within the wings  E.g. Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk
  • 8. Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit  Has a completely different design: It has one big wing, like a boomerang.  This flying wing design is much more efficient than a conventional plane. As shown:
  • 9. B-2 continued.. It eliminates the tail and fuselage & also reduces drag i.e. the total force of air resistance acting on the plane. Greater efficiency helps the B-2 travel long distances in a short period of time. It is high subsonic, means its top speed is just around the speed of sound (around 305 m/s ) but it can go 6,900 miles (11,000 km) without refueling and 11,500 miles (18,500 km) with one in-flight refueling. The stealth bomber's peculiar shape deflects radio beams in both ways.
  • 10. Differences Between Normal Aircraft & Stealth Aircraft 1. Tail Angle Effect:  A corner reflector is retro reflector which consists of three mutually perpendicular, intersecting flat surfaces, & hence reflects em waves back to source.  So tail angle should be kept acute to decrease detection. As Shown below:
  • 11. •Exhaust Plume of a normal Aircraft • Stealth Aircraft without Exhaust. 4. Exhaust plume
  • 12. 2. Difference In Aircraft Design When we are using normal shape When using stealth technology.
  • 13. Normal fighter plane showing the engine. Engines of the stealth aircraft are covered. 3. Engine position
  • 14. 2. Radar Absorbing Materials(RAM)  Nano structural composite material, absorbing without reflection radar wave.  Magnetic ferrite-based substance  RAM reduces the radar cross selection making the object appear smaller.  Radiation Absorbing honeycomb Structural material usually incor- porated with skin of aircraft
  • 15. Frequency Selective Surfaces(FSS)  Planar periodic structures that behave like filters to electromagnetic energy.  They are like metallic screens with frequency selective properties  Used as ‘spatial filters’ through which a specific range of Em energy may be propagated
  • 16. The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II uses new stealthy radar absorbent material in its construction which includes fiber-mat.
  • 17. Plasma Stealth  The Russian Scientists proposed to create a plasma formation around protected object.  The aircraft injects a stream of ionized gas in the form of plasma cloud.  Prevents radars from seeing it by absorbing the radar energy in this plasma cloud The artificially created plasma cloud surrounding the plane reduces its RCS by a factor of 100.
  • 18. Infrared Stealth  Infra-red radiation are emitted by all matter above absolute temperature zero  Hot zones such as engine exhaust , wing surface [ friction due to air ] get heated which rather increases the visibility.  These part should be kept cool as possible it can be ,  Option would be mixing of cool air with the hot engine exhaust .  Use compressed gas or liquid nitrogen to cool their internal parts.
  • 19. Stealth Technology Today  The F-117A, B-2 and B1-B can be regarded as the three emblematic LO aircraft of the late '80s.  The famous F-22A Raptor (1st flight in 1997, production ended in 2011, with 195planes built, 182 planes operating today) is a Lockheed Martin’s (L.M.) 5th generation air superiority stealth fighter.
  • 20. The Lockheed Martin (L.M.) F-35 Lightning II.  A multirole 5th generation fighter with stealth capabilities (first flight in 2006, currently in initial production and testing).
  • 21. The Sukhoi PAK FA  A 5th gen., multirole, twin-engine jet fighter, developed by Sukhoi for the Russian Air Force  Its prototype, T-50, flew for the first time in 2010  Based on PAK FA, Sukhoi will develop with HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Limited), the “5th Generation Fighter Aircraft” (FGFA) for India.
  • 22. Stealth Technology In Future  Although U.S. is the dominating country having most advanced stealth aircrafts but
  • 23. Advantages  Reduces the causality rates during war  Saving military budget.  Utmost importance in anti terrorist operations  Develop the military secretes  Bluff the anti-detective device  Stealth aircraft are invisible to Radar  Actually a fight between radar technology and stealth technology
  • 24. Disadvantages  Still not a guaranteed technology  Not much reliable  Most of the Stealth Aircrafts can’t fly fast. However technical advancements re making them capable of it,  They are not maneuverable.  Can carry only limited amount of payload.  High cost of maintenance.  Very economic.  Reliability hugely depends upon the tracking radar system.
  • 25. Conclusions  A technology of future  Lots of opportunities lies for scientists, researchers as well as for students also.  Success yet to be proved extensively.  Huge investment is required.  Opportunity for developing countries to learn the technology.  Consider as a war between radar technology and stealth technology.  U.S is the leading country with other countries also investing a huge amount of their investments in the technology.

Editor's Notes

  1. The scientific name for stealth technology is low observatory, which incorporates several concepts into one technology. Stealth is nothing new, it has been used since caveman years with covering up in leaves, but it is now used in military aviation. Stealth does not always refer to just radar there are other forms of detections such as heat signatures. The scientific name for stealth technology is low observatory, which incorporates several concepts into one technology. Stealth is nothing new, it has been used since caveman years with covering up in leaves, but it is now used in military aviation. Stealth does not always refer to just radar there are other forms of detections such as heat signatures. The scientific name for stealth technology is low observatory, which incorporates several concepts into one technology. Stealth is nothing new, it has been used since caveman years with covering up in leaves, but it is now used in military aviation. Stealth does not always refer to just radar there are other forms of detections such as heat signatures.
  2. The main goal of stealth technology is to reduce the RCS by employing various techniques.
  3. Stealth is not the complete invisibility to radar, it only becomes partially invisible. It reduces the range of detection as well. Stealth uses the principles of reflection, absorption, and redirection.
  4. Different techniques are employed depending upon the applications. Sometimes surfaces are designed specifically & sometimes radar absorbing materials are used. Whereas the plasma stealth technology is mainly employed in the Russian aircrafts.
  5. Basically in RAS the main focus is on the designing of shapes for various parts of the aircrafts.
  6. Basically the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk is a single-seat, twin- engine stealth ground attack aircraft  was developed by Lockheed’s secretive skunk works division and operated by the United States Air Force (USAF).
  7. The large flat areas on the top and bottom of the plane are like tilted mirrors. These flat areas deflect most radio beams away from the station, presuming the station isn't directly beneath the plane. The B-2's body is mainly composed of composite material -- combinations of various lightweight substances. The composite material used in the B-2 bomber is specifically designed to absorb radio energy with optimum efficiency. The B-2's body is mainly composed of composite material -- combinations of various lightweight substances.
  8. Today’s highly developed technologies include dielectric composites and metal fibers containing ferrite isotopes.
  9. An FSS is composed of periodic array of metallic patches separated by small gaps and metallic lines.