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‫والتش‬ ‫المقاوالت‬ ‫لعقود‬ ‫النموذجية‬ ‫الصيغ‬‫ييد‬
‫النموذجية‬ ‫الصيغ‬ ‫من‬ ‫ثالثة‬ ‫في‬ ‫التشييد‬ ‫لعقد‬ ‫العامة‬ ‫الشروط‬ ‫بين‬ ‫مقارنة‬
FIDIC, NEC & JCT
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‫المحاضرة‬‫على‬ ‫تحتوي‬:
-4‫عقود‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫أسس‬ ‫في‬ ‫الخمسين‬ ‫األسئلة‬ ‫من‬‫التشييد‬.
-‫التشييد‬ ‫لعقود‬ ‫النموذجية‬ ‫الصيغ‬ ‫من‬ ‫ثالثة‬ ‫بين‬ ‫مقارنة‬(‫ثمانية‬ ‫في‬
‫محاور‬)‫أمريكي‬ ‫رابع‬ ‫نموذج‬ ‫عن‬ ‫فكرة‬ ‫مع‬.
-2‫البريطانية‬ ‫القضائية‬ ‫السوابق‬ ‫من‬.
-‫من‬ ‫ومعلومات‬ ‫والمخططات‬ ‫االحصائيات‬ ‫بعض‬AACE-RP.
‫عامة‬ ‫فكرة‬
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2-‫القانونية‬ ‫األنظمة‬ ‫أنواع‬ ‫هي‬ ‫ما‬Legal systems‫العالم؟‬ ‫في‬ ‫الرئيسية‬
‫مدني‬ ‫قانون‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫تنقسم‬ ‫العالم‬ ‫في‬ ‫القانونية‬ ‫األنظمة‬Civil law‫ومصر‬ ‫فرنسا‬ ‫مثل‬..‫القانون‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫حيث‬
‫مكتوبة‬ ‫قوانين‬ ‫مواد‬ ‫على‬Codified written statutes،
‫عام‬ ‫وقانون‬Common law‫وأمريكا‬ ‫بريطانيا‬ ‫مثل‬..‫أحك‬ ‫في‬ ‫القضائية‬ ‫السلطة‬ ‫فيه‬ ‫تستند‬‫إلى‬ ‫امها‬
‫السابقة‬ ‫القضايا‬Case law‫القضائية‬ ‫السوابق‬ ‫بمبدأ‬ ‫يسمى‬ ‫فيما‬Judicial precedent
(Doctrine of stare decisis)،
‫يسمى‬ ‫فيما‬ ‫البرلمان‬ ‫يقره‬ ‫ما‬ ‫أما‬Acts‫منها‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫فقط‬ ‫يكون‬
‫ملزم‬Mandatory‫مخالفته‬ ‫على‬ ‫االتفاق‬ ‫يمكن‬ ‫ال‬Violate
‫ال‬ ‫القانون‬ ‫في‬ ‫يسمونه‬ ‫ما‬ ‫يشبه‬ ‫وهذا‬ ،‫ملزم‬ ‫غير‬ ‫والبعض‬‫مدني‬
‫مكملة‬ ‫وأخرى‬ ‫آمرة‬ ‫قواعد‬..
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14-‫الدولية؟‬ ‫التجارة‬ ‫أسس‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫هي‬ ‫وما‬ ‫دوليا‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫يكون‬ ‫متى‬
‫روما‬ ‫معهد‬ ‫قواعد‬ ‫به‬ ‫أتت‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫المعيار‬UNIDROIT‫المتعاقدة‬ ‫الشركات‬ ‫عمل‬ ‫محل‬ ‫أو‬ ‫عنوان‬ ‫هو‬Place of
business or habitual residence of the parties،
‫سنة‬ ‫الهاى‬ ‫اتفاقية‬ ‫بموجب‬ ‫وضع‬ ‫الذى‬ ‫الدولى‬ ‫للبيع‬ ‫الموحد‬ ‫القانون‬ ‫نص‬ ‫وبالمثل‬1964‫يرتبط‬ ‫ال‬ ‫الدولى‬ ‫البيع‬ ‫أن‬
‫وإن‬ ‫واحدة‬ ‫جنسية‬ ‫من‬ ‫والمشترى‬ ‫البائع‬ ‫من‬ ‫كل‬ ‫كان‬ ‫ولو‬ ً‫ا‬‫دولي‬ ‫البيع‬ ‫يعد‬ ‫قد‬ ‫إذ‬ ‫المتعاقدين‬ ‫جنسية‬ ‫باختالف‬‫باختالف‬ ‫العبرة‬ ‫ما‬
‫المتعاقدة‬ ‫األطراف‬ ‫أعمال‬ ‫مراكز‬Registered office‫العادية‬ ‫إقامتهم‬ ‫محال‬ ‫أو‬Different states،
‫نموذجية‬ ‫صيغة‬ ‫شكل‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫عادة‬ ‫ويتخذ‬Standard form‫من‬ ‫كان‬ ‫وان‬ ‫للعقد‬ ‫النموذجى‬ ‫الشكل‬ ‫فإن‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫على‬ ‫وبناء‬
‫مستلزماته‬ ‫من‬ ‫ليس‬ ‫أنه‬ ‫إال‬ ‫الدولى‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫خصائص‬..
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‫حكومية‬ ‫هيئات‬ ‫منها‬ ‫الدولية‬ ‫التجارة‬ ‫قانون‬ ‫بتوحيد‬ ‫الهيئات‬ ‫من‬ ‫العديد‬ ‫اهتمت‬ ‫وقد‬‫ا‬ ‫التجارة‬ ‫قانون‬ ‫لجنة‬ ‫مثل‬‫التابعة‬ ‫لدولية‬
‫باسم‬ ‫تعرف‬ ‫والتى‬ ‫فيينا‬ ‫ومقرها‬ ‫المتحدة‬ ‫لألمم‬UNCITRAL،
‫باسم‬ ‫والمعروف‬ ‫روما‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الخاص‬ ‫القانون‬ ‫لتوحيد‬ ‫الدولى‬ ‫والمعهد‬UNIDROIT..
‫هيئات‬ ‫وأيضا‬‫التج‬ ‫غرفة‬ ‫وأهمهم‬ ‫المتخصصين‬ ‫من‬ ‫الشخصية‬ ‫بصفاتهم‬ ‫فيها‬ ‫يشتركون‬ ‫أعضاء‬ ‫من‬ ‫تتكون‬‫الدولية‬ ‫ارة‬
‫بباريس‬ICC..
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15-‫الهندسية‬ ‫للعقود‬ ‫النموذجية‬ ‫الصيغ‬ ‫أشهر‬ ‫هي‬ ‫ما‬Standard form‫؟‬
‫الهندسية‬ ‫للعقود‬ ‫النموذجية‬ ‫الصيغ‬ ‫من‬ ‫العديد‬ ‫يوجد‬‫الفيديك‬ ‫نماذج‬ ‫هي‬ ‫األوسط‬ ‫الشرق‬ ‫في‬ ‫وأشهرها‬FIDIC forms
‫التشييد‬ ‫عقود‬ ‫في‬ ‫األحمر‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫وأشهرها‬Construction‫كميات‬ ‫عقد‬ ‫وهو‬Re-measured‫فقط‬ ‫تنفيذ‬ ‫مقاولة‬ ‫يكون‬
‫المالك‬ ‫طريق‬ ‫عن‬ ‫والتصميم‬Employer‫كانت‬ ‫إصداراته‬ ‫وآخر‬‫ديسمبر‬ ‫في‬2017
‫مقطوعية‬ ‫عقد‬ ‫وهو‬ ‫األصفر‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫من‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫أيضا‬ ‫تحديث‬ ‫مع‬LS‫لألعمال‬‫وتنفيذ‬ ‫تصميم‬ ‫الكهروميكانيكية‬Design-
Build،‫والفضي‬EPC‫إصدار‬ ‫منذ‬ ‫البنود‬ ‫ترقيم‬ ‫في‬ ‫موحدة‬ ‫الثالثية‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ‫وهذه‬1999‫مجموعة‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫ويطلق‬
‫قزح‬ ‫قوس‬Rainbow suite،
‫التشغ‬ ‫يشمل‬ ‫لما‬ ‫والذهبي‬ ‫الصغيرة‬ ‫للعقود‬ ‫المختصر‬ ‫واألخضر‬ ‫االستشاري‬ ‫لعقد‬ ‫األبيض‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫وأيضا‬‫يل‬DBO
‫وخالفه‬ ‫الباطن‬ ‫لمقاولي‬ ‫ونموذج‬ ‫الممول‬ ‫للبنك‬ ‫والوردي‬..
‫المشهورة‬ ‫الصيغ‬ ‫من‬ ‫أيضا‬ ‫أنه‬ ‫كما‬‫بريطانيا‬ ‫في‬JCT‫بعده‬ ‫ويأتي‬NEC‫الحكومية‬ ‫للمشاريع‬..
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National Construction Contracts and Law Report 2018
National Building Specification, UK
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Major Differences between (FIDIC-JCT-NEC)
Comparison Items
FIDIC-JCT-NEC Differences:
1- Structure and Drafting
2- Pricing and Scope
3- Admin. and Instructions
4- Quality and Inspection
5- Payment Process
6- Programme
7- Claim and Variation
8- Dispute Resolution
_________________
• American example (AIA 2017)
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1- Structure and Drafting
General conditions in 21 Clauses with
Sub-Clauses, then the Particular
conditions which consists of Contract
data and Special provisions.
Many clauses are incorporate by
reference to the main ones of
procedures such as Variation.
FIDIC uses Shall and May.
FIDIC
“Agreement” including recitals,
articles, contract particulars, and
attestation. Then the “Conditions” in 9
Sections, and finally “Schedules”.
Most of the clauses incorporate other
related ones by reference.
JCT uses Shall and May.
JCT
“Core Clauses”, a dispute resolution
option W and secondary options X-Y.
Finally, the cost components and
contract data. Z clause for amendment.
Written using straightforward/ simple
English.
NEC uses Does and May.
NEC
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NEC
New Engineering Contracts (NEC)
came to the fore by (ICE) in the
1990’s alongside two UK
Government Reports being
Commissioned:
First by Sir Michael Latham
(Constructing the Team) in 1994,
and thereafter by Sir John Egan
(Rethinking Construction) in 1998.
FIDIC
In 1913, a number of consulting
engineers met in a fair which led to
the formal constitution of FIDIC,
Fédération Internationale des
Ingénieurs Conseils, or later, the
International Federation of
Consulting Engineers.
JCT
In 1931, the Joint Contracts
Tribunal (JCT) was formed by the
Royal Institute of British Architects
(RIBA).
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2- Pricing and Scope
The Red book is Re-measure & design
by Employer, while yellow book is LS
& design-build. There are also suites
for BOT, consultancy & dredging.
FIDIC
The price can be LS or Measurement
based on bill of quantity “BOQ” or
Cost reimbursement according to the
standard form used.
JCT
The same options of LS, BOQ, and
Cost-reimbursable are there with
adding Options C & D - Target cost
where parties share pain and gain.
NEC
The scope is defined as “Works”
described in the specification,
drawings, and schedules/ BOQ. The
sum of works to be stated in the Letter
of tender and accepted in the Letter of
acceptance as Accepted Contract
Amount. Also, the provisional sum is
allowed in Sub-Clause 13.4.
The scope is defined as “Works”,
described under “Recitals” in the
“Agreement” after defining the parties.
The contract sum is specified under
article 2 in the agreement. Also, the
provisional sum is allowed in contract
documents clause 3.16 and to be
valued as per clause 5.2(3).
Scope and site information are defined
in clauses 11.2(16)&(18) which are
described in contract data part 1
provided by the client. Where the
activity schedule in Option C is only
for pricing and it does not represent
Scope or Site Information as stated in
clause 55.2.
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FIDIC Form Selection
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NEC4 Engineering and Construction
Contract (ECC)
• Option A: Priced contract with
activity schedule
• Option B: Priced contract with bill of
quantities
• Option C: Target contract with
activity schedule
• Option D: Target contract with bill of
quantities
• Option E: Cost reimbursable contract
…………
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JCT 2016
Traditional or conventional: Measurement
• Standard Building Contract With Approximate Quantities (SBC/AQ)
• Measured Term Contract (MTC)
Traditional or conventional: Cost reimbursement or cost plus
• Prime Cost Building Contract (PCC)
Design and build
• Major Project Construction Contract (MP)
• Design and Build Contract (DB)
…………..
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3- Admin. and Instructions
The Employer appoints an Engineer
who administers the contract (3.1).
The Engineer may issue instructions
necessary for the Works or Variation.
FIDIC
The Employer assigns an Architect/
Contract Administrator to administer
the contract (3.5). CA may issue
Instructions or Variation.
JCT
The Client assigns a Project Manager
“PM” to administer the contract
(clause 14). PM may give instructions
or notify Compensation Events.
NEC
Notices and other communications
shall be in writing (1.3).
Instructions are allowed orally in case
of emergency (1.7.5) or otherwise than
in writing (3.12) but these shall be
confirmed in writing.
Verbal instructions are not mentioned
but all communications to be in a form
which can be read, copied and
recorded (13.1).
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Administration Role
Costain Ltd v Bechtel Ltd (2005)
Mr Justice Jackson emphasized that the CA is obliged to act impartially: “it was
the project management consortium's duty to act impartially as between employer
and contractor otherwise it is a breach of its duty”.
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4- Quality and Inspection
The Engineer is responsible for
supervision (Inspection (7.3)),
appoints representative and delegates
(3.3 & 3.4).
FIDIC
The Employer appoints a clerk of
works to act as an inspector under the
CA directions (3.4).
JCT
The Client assigns a Supervisor to do
tests and inspections or notify the
contractor of defects in order to
correct them.
NEC
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5- Payment Process
Payments are under Clause 14 Contract
Price and Payment. The Contractor
submits a statement then the Engineer
issues Interim Payment Certificate
“IPC” and the Employer makes the
payment with reference to the date of
the statement submission except for the
final statement, it is 56 days from the
FPC after the Performance Certificate.
- The Engineer does the measurement
and valuation pursuant to Clause 12.
FIDIC
The payment process is managed
under section 4. The payment cycle is
monthly, and the due dates are referred
to the later of interim valuation date or
receipt of the interim payment
application. These dates are for
payment notice, payless notice, final
payment, and the final date for
payment following UK Acts.
- The valuation shall be done by QS,
and CA issues the payment certificate
stating the calculation basis (4.9).
JCT
The payment process (section 5) is
mainly based on defining the
assessment dates to determine the due
dates for application for payment,
assessment/ correction, final
assessment, and payment. PM decides
the first one then the recurring would
be based on the interval stipulated.
- For Option C, the contractor is
reimbursed for the PWDD which
equals to “Defined Costs” plus fee
minus any “Disallowed Costs”.
NEC
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Payment
in FIDIC
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JCT & NEC
NEC:
Assessment
Date
UK Construction ACT
96/2009: Scheme for
Construction Contracts
(England and Wales)
Regulations 1998
(Amendment – 2011)
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Grove Developments Ltd v Balfour Beatty Regional Construction Ltd 2016
The parties' contract was a JCT standard design and build contract amended by a series of amendments. The parties
amended that by agreeing a schedule of 23 valuation and payment dates covering the period from September 2013
to July 2015. The contract specified a completion date of 22 July 2015.
The works were not completed by that date. In August 2015 the contractor issued an application for a further
interim payment. The developer asserted that the contractor had no further entitlement to interim payments.
The issues were whether the contractor was able to recover interim payments after the contractual completion date
under the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 s.109, which provided that a party was entitled
to interim payments for "any work" under a construction contract, and the Scheme for Construction Contracts.
Court agreed with Grove that BB (Contractor) had no contractual right for an Interim Application for
Payment. The parties had entered into a contract, and just because that contract didn’t cover all payment
eventualities didn’t mean the Scheme should come into force.
Interim Payments
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6- Programme
The main dates under contract are:
Base date, Delivery of Performance
Security, Commencement Date, Date
of Completion, Defects Notification
Period, Performance Certificate.
FIDIC
The main dates under contract are:
Base date, date/s of possession,
completion date (Practical
completion), Rectification period up to
Certificate of making good.
JCT
The main dates under contract are:
Starting date, access dates, Completion
date, Defect correction period up to
Defects date.
NEC
The Contractor shall submit an initial
programme under Sub-Clause 8.3
within 28 days after the
Commencement Notice (8.1) or a
revised after 14 days from the
Engineer Notice.
The Contractor provides a master
programme under clause 2.9.1.2 and
the Contractor provides amendment or
revision within 14 days from CA
decision (2.28.1) without imposing
any obligation beyond the contract.
The programme (section 3: time) is in
the heart of the contract as it should be
revised on a regular basis.
- The delay in submitting the first
programme allows the PM to retain
25% of the PWDD (50.5).
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7- Claim and Variation
Advance warning added in 8.4 while
claims and variation are managed
under Clauses 20 & 13. However, the
causes that entitle to EOT are included
in Sub-Clause 8.5 EOT for
Completion.
FIDIC
The claims for time are under
Relevant Events (2.29) while the
claims for cost are under Relevant
Matters (4.22). However, the adverse
weather is included only as a relevant
event, not relevant matter.
JCT
EW (clause 15) is a tool that parties
use to notify the potential changes/
CEs.
NEC
The Valuation is under Sub-Clause
13.3 and the Engineer determination is
under Sub-Clause 3.7 Agreement or
Determination.
The valuation rules depend on whether
measurable work (5.6) or contractor’s
designed portion (5.8), otherwise
dayworks apply (5.7).
Claims for cost or/and time are under
compensation events (section 6). The
Contractor submits quotations which
comprise changes to prices and/or
alterations to the accepted programme
(62.2), then PM replies (62.3).
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Request for
Proposal
13.3.3
Contractor’s
Proposal
13.2
DAAB
21.4
FIDIC Phases of Variation/ Claim
Engineer’s
Instruction
13.3.1
Parties’ Agreement or
Engineer’s Determination
3.7 – 12.3
Arbitration
21.5-21.6
Claim
20
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Relevant EventRelevant Matter
JCT Types of Events
2.27 Notice by Contractor of delay to progress
2.28 Fixing Completion Date
1. If, .. on receiving a notice .. under clause 2.27: :
.1 any of the events which are stated to be a cause of delay is a
Relevant Event; and
.2 completion of the Works or of any Section is likely to be
delayed thereby beyond the relevant Completion Date,
then, .. Architect/Contract Administrator shall give an extension
of time by fixing such later date as the Completion Date for the
Works or Section as he then estimates to be fair and reasonable.
2.29 Relevant Events
Loss and Expense
4.20 to 4.24
4.22 Relevant Matters
The following are the Relevant Matters:
.1 Variations (..including any .. matters or instructions which under
these Conditions are to be treated as a Variation);
.2 Architect/Contract Administrator’s instructions: …
.4 any impediment, prevention or default, whether by act or
omission, by the Employer, the Architect/Contract Administrator, the
Quantity Surveyor or any Employer’s Person,..
4.23 Amounts ascertained – addition to Contract Sum
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NEC
Flowchart of
Compensation
Events
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8- Dispute Resolution
Clause 21 Dispute and Arbitration.
Normally the dispute starts from 3.7
or referred to DAAB directly. If no
agreement under 3.7.1 the Engineer
makes notice of determination 3.7.2.
In case of dissatisfaction 3.7.5, parties
obtain DAAB’s Decision 21.4, finally
Amicable settlement 21.5 and
Arbitration (ICC) 21.6.
FIDIC
Section 9 is settlement of disputes
starting with mediation in case of not
resolved by negotiation then
adjudication and after that arbitration
in accordance with the JCT 2016
edition of the Construction Industry
Model Arbitration Rules (CIMAR)
applying UK Arbitration Act 1996.
JCT
There are three W options to comply
with the international use. Whereas,
options W1 and W2 refer to
adjudication but W2 applies The UK
Housing Grants, Construction and
Regeneration Act 1996 while option
W3 uses the dispute avoidance board
and finally tribunal/ arbitration.
NEC
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21.5 Amicable Settlement
Where a NOD has been given under Sub-Clause 21.4 [Obtaining DAAB’s Decision], both
Parties shall attempt to settle the Dispute amicably before the commencement of
arbitration. However, unless both Parties agree otherwise, arbitration may be
commenced on or after the twenty-eighth (28th) day after the day on which this NOD
was given, even if no attempt at amicable settlement has been made.
FIDIC: Optional Amicable Settlement
DAAB DecisionEngineer Determination
Arbitration
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NEC Adjudication Option W1 vs DAB W3
JCT & NEC Adjudication (W2) Dispute Avoidance Board (W3)
- JCT starts with Mediation but NEC refers disputes
first to the Senior Representatives.
- A party issues a notice of adjudication (Adjudicator
acts impartially) for any issue not agreed to refer this
dispute to adjudicator, and finally tribunal which can
be arbitration.
- A party doesn’t refer to the tribunal unless it has
been referred to the Adjudicator, via a notification to
be given within 4 weeks of the Adjudicator’s
decision, otherwise it becomes final and binding.
- The DAB assists the parties in resolving disputes
before they become disputes.
- The DAB acts impartially.
- The DAB visits the Site and inspects the work,
reviews all potential disputes without the need to be
formally referred.
- A party doesn’t refer to the tribunal unless it has
been referred to the DAB within four weeks from the
DAB’s recommendation.
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The American example (AIA 2017)
There is no standard form of construction agreement in the
United States but the A-201 General Conditions and other
forms published by the American Institute of Architects (AIA)
are probably the most widely used in local government projects
and private construction.
Federal construction projects are generally governed by the
Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), a book containing
numerous clauses mandated on various types of jobs.
There are other well-known suites of contract forms which
are published by ConsensusDocs, the Engineers Joint
Contract Documents Committee (EJCDC)/ ASCE and the
Design Build Institute of America (DBIA).
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Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Contractor where the basis
of payment is a Stipulated Sum
ARTICLE 9 ENUMERATION OF CONTRACT DOCUMENTS
§ 9.1 This Agreement is comprised of the following documents:
.1 AIA Document A101™–2017, Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Contractor
.2 AIA Document A101™–2017, Exhibit A, Insurance and Bonds
.3 AIA Document A201™–2017, General Conditions of the Contract for Construction
.4 …..
ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom
General Conditions of the Contract for Construction
- Tenderers
- Sections - Clauses
- Employer / Client - Architect/CA / PM
- Practical Completion/ Defects date
- Programme
- Relevant Matter / Compensation Event
- Senior Rep.s / Mediation – Adjudication/DAB – Tribunal
UK Forms (JCT & NEC)
- Bidders
- Articles
- Owner - Architect
- Substantial Completion/ Final Completion
- Construction Schedule
- Change Order
- Initial Decision - Mediation – Arbitration (AAA)
AIA- Document A201
ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom
Two commonly occurring categories of scope
changes on construction projects are either:
changes directed by the owner, or changes
identified by the contractor as a result of an
action or inaction of the owner, also known as
constructive changes (causes claims).
An owner-directed change may ultimately
become a constructive change (claim) if the
contractor believes it will be impacted by the
directed change.
Change Order
ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom
45-‫العقود‬ ‫مدير‬ ‫دور‬ ‫هو‬ ‫ما‬CA‫عمله؟‬ ‫وأهمية‬
‫المطلوبة‬ ‫والحيادية‬ ‫المناسبة‬ ‫بالطريقة‬ ‫لمهامه‬ ‫أداءه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫خاصة‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫نجاح‬ ‫في‬ ‫جدا‬ ‫هام‬ ‫دور‬ ‫له‬ ‫العقود‬ ‫مدير‬Impartial: fair and
unbiased manner،
‫يرى‬ ‫كان‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫األحيان‬ ‫من‬ ‫كثير‬ ‫في‬ ‫االستشاري‬ ‫على‬ ‫الدور‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫يكون‬ ‫وقد‬‫أنه‬ ‫سابقا‬‫محكم‬ ‫شبه‬Quasi-arbitrator‫تقديراته‬ ‫ألن‬
Determination or assessment،‫وملزمة‬ ‫نهائية‬ ‫تكون‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أحيانا‬ ‫تصل‬ ‫قد‬
‫والت‬ ‫المناسبة‬ ‫والصياغة‬ ‫المشتريات‬ ‫مرحلة‬ ‫في‬ ‫نشأته‬ ‫من‬ ‫بداية‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫حياة‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫يتابع‬ ‫أن‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫مدير‬ ‫عاتق‬ ‫على‬ ‫ويقع‬‫من‬ ‫ويتأكد‬ ‫رسية‬
‫المعاصرة‬ ‫السجالت‬ ‫ووجود‬ ‫األطراف‬ ‫بين‬ ‫العالقة‬ ‫وإدارة‬ ‫بفاعلية‬ ‫إللتزماتهم‬ ‫األطراف‬ ‫تنفيذ‬‫والتأكد‬‫البيانات‬ ‫صحة‬ ‫من‬Validation
‫والتقارير‬ ‫والتحديثات‬ ‫التغييرات‬ ‫وتسجيل‬‫البرامج‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫استخدام‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫في‬ ‫يساعده‬ ‫وقد‬ ‫السليم‬ ‫واإلغالق‬ ‫الدورية‬.
Related Lectures and Courses
Course at Luqman Academy YouTube Lectures
37
‫نشرته‬ ‫ما‬ ‫آخر‬
‫حديثا‬
38
‫تشرح‬ ‫العقود‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫في‬ ‫متكاملة‬ ‫دورة‬
‫والعقود‬ ‫العطاءات‬ ‫وأنواع‬ ‫مراحل‬‫مع‬
‫االستدالل‬‫من‬ ‫وأمثلة‬ ‫المدني‬ ‫بالقانون‬
‫األنظمة‬ ‫وبعض‬ ‫البريطاني‬ ‫العام‬ ‫القانون‬
‫م‬ ‫وكذلك‬ ‫واألمريكية‬ ‫والبريطانية‬ ‫العربية‬‫ع‬
‫النموذجية‬ ‫العقود‬ ‫صيغ‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫استخدام‬.
Thank You
Don’t Hesitate to contact….
M.Maged
magedkom@gmail.com
mobile : 00966-580264968

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Standard Forms of Construction Contracts

  • 1. ‫والتش‬ ‫المقاوالت‬ ‫لعقود‬ ‫النموذجية‬ ‫الصيغ‬‫ييد‬ ‫النموذجية‬ ‫الصيغ‬ ‫من‬ ‫ثالثة‬ ‫في‬ ‫التشييد‬ ‫لعقد‬ ‫العامة‬ ‫الشروط‬ ‫بين‬ ‫مقارنة‬ FIDIC, NEC & JCT
  • 2. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom ‫المحاضرة‬‫على‬ ‫تحتوي‬: -4‫عقود‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫أسس‬ ‫في‬ ‫الخمسين‬ ‫األسئلة‬ ‫من‬‫التشييد‬. -‫التشييد‬ ‫لعقود‬ ‫النموذجية‬ ‫الصيغ‬ ‫من‬ ‫ثالثة‬ ‫بين‬ ‫مقارنة‬(‫ثمانية‬ ‫في‬ ‫محاور‬)‫أمريكي‬ ‫رابع‬ ‫نموذج‬ ‫عن‬ ‫فكرة‬ ‫مع‬. -2‫البريطانية‬ ‫القضائية‬ ‫السوابق‬ ‫من‬. -‫من‬ ‫ومعلومات‬ ‫والمخططات‬ ‫االحصائيات‬ ‫بعض‬AACE-RP. ‫عامة‬ ‫فكرة‬
  • 3. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 2-‫القانونية‬ ‫األنظمة‬ ‫أنواع‬ ‫هي‬ ‫ما‬Legal systems‫العالم؟‬ ‫في‬ ‫الرئيسية‬ ‫مدني‬ ‫قانون‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫تنقسم‬ ‫العالم‬ ‫في‬ ‫القانونية‬ ‫األنظمة‬Civil law‫ومصر‬ ‫فرنسا‬ ‫مثل‬..‫القانون‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫مكتوبة‬ ‫قوانين‬ ‫مواد‬ ‫على‬Codified written statutes، ‫عام‬ ‫وقانون‬Common law‫وأمريكا‬ ‫بريطانيا‬ ‫مثل‬..‫أحك‬ ‫في‬ ‫القضائية‬ ‫السلطة‬ ‫فيه‬ ‫تستند‬‫إلى‬ ‫امها‬ ‫السابقة‬ ‫القضايا‬Case law‫القضائية‬ ‫السوابق‬ ‫بمبدأ‬ ‫يسمى‬ ‫فيما‬Judicial precedent (Doctrine of stare decisis)، ‫يسمى‬ ‫فيما‬ ‫البرلمان‬ ‫يقره‬ ‫ما‬ ‫أما‬Acts‫منها‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫فقط‬ ‫يكون‬ ‫ملزم‬Mandatory‫مخالفته‬ ‫على‬ ‫االتفاق‬ ‫يمكن‬ ‫ال‬Violate ‫ال‬ ‫القانون‬ ‫في‬ ‫يسمونه‬ ‫ما‬ ‫يشبه‬ ‫وهذا‬ ،‫ملزم‬ ‫غير‬ ‫والبعض‬‫مدني‬ ‫مكملة‬ ‫وأخرى‬ ‫آمرة‬ ‫قواعد‬..
  • 4. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 14-‫الدولية؟‬ ‫التجارة‬ ‫أسس‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫هي‬ ‫وما‬ ‫دوليا‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫يكون‬ ‫متى‬ ‫روما‬ ‫معهد‬ ‫قواعد‬ ‫به‬ ‫أتت‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫المعيار‬UNIDROIT‫المتعاقدة‬ ‫الشركات‬ ‫عمل‬ ‫محل‬ ‫أو‬ ‫عنوان‬ ‫هو‬Place of business or habitual residence of the parties، ‫سنة‬ ‫الهاى‬ ‫اتفاقية‬ ‫بموجب‬ ‫وضع‬ ‫الذى‬ ‫الدولى‬ ‫للبيع‬ ‫الموحد‬ ‫القانون‬ ‫نص‬ ‫وبالمثل‬1964‫يرتبط‬ ‫ال‬ ‫الدولى‬ ‫البيع‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وإن‬ ‫واحدة‬ ‫جنسية‬ ‫من‬ ‫والمشترى‬ ‫البائع‬ ‫من‬ ‫كل‬ ‫كان‬ ‫ولو‬ ً‫ا‬‫دولي‬ ‫البيع‬ ‫يعد‬ ‫قد‬ ‫إذ‬ ‫المتعاقدين‬ ‫جنسية‬ ‫باختالف‬‫باختالف‬ ‫العبرة‬ ‫ما‬ ‫المتعاقدة‬ ‫األطراف‬ ‫أعمال‬ ‫مراكز‬Registered office‫العادية‬ ‫إقامتهم‬ ‫محال‬ ‫أو‬Different states، ‫نموذجية‬ ‫صيغة‬ ‫شكل‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫عادة‬ ‫ويتخذ‬Standard form‫من‬ ‫كان‬ ‫وان‬ ‫للعقد‬ ‫النموذجى‬ ‫الشكل‬ ‫فإن‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫على‬ ‫وبناء‬ ‫مستلزماته‬ ‫من‬ ‫ليس‬ ‫أنه‬ ‫إال‬ ‫الدولى‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫خصائص‬..
  • 5. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom ‫حكومية‬ ‫هيئات‬ ‫منها‬ ‫الدولية‬ ‫التجارة‬ ‫قانون‬ ‫بتوحيد‬ ‫الهيئات‬ ‫من‬ ‫العديد‬ ‫اهتمت‬ ‫وقد‬‫ا‬ ‫التجارة‬ ‫قانون‬ ‫لجنة‬ ‫مثل‬‫التابعة‬ ‫لدولية‬ ‫باسم‬ ‫تعرف‬ ‫والتى‬ ‫فيينا‬ ‫ومقرها‬ ‫المتحدة‬ ‫لألمم‬UNCITRAL، ‫باسم‬ ‫والمعروف‬ ‫روما‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الخاص‬ ‫القانون‬ ‫لتوحيد‬ ‫الدولى‬ ‫والمعهد‬UNIDROIT.. ‫هيئات‬ ‫وأيضا‬‫التج‬ ‫غرفة‬ ‫وأهمهم‬ ‫المتخصصين‬ ‫من‬ ‫الشخصية‬ ‫بصفاتهم‬ ‫فيها‬ ‫يشتركون‬ ‫أعضاء‬ ‫من‬ ‫تتكون‬‫الدولية‬ ‫ارة‬ ‫بباريس‬ICC..
  • 6. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 15-‫الهندسية‬ ‫للعقود‬ ‫النموذجية‬ ‫الصيغ‬ ‫أشهر‬ ‫هي‬ ‫ما‬Standard form‫؟‬ ‫الهندسية‬ ‫للعقود‬ ‫النموذجية‬ ‫الصيغ‬ ‫من‬ ‫العديد‬ ‫يوجد‬‫الفيديك‬ ‫نماذج‬ ‫هي‬ ‫األوسط‬ ‫الشرق‬ ‫في‬ ‫وأشهرها‬FIDIC forms ‫التشييد‬ ‫عقود‬ ‫في‬ ‫األحمر‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫وأشهرها‬Construction‫كميات‬ ‫عقد‬ ‫وهو‬Re-measured‫فقط‬ ‫تنفيذ‬ ‫مقاولة‬ ‫يكون‬ ‫المالك‬ ‫طريق‬ ‫عن‬ ‫والتصميم‬Employer‫كانت‬ ‫إصداراته‬ ‫وآخر‬‫ديسمبر‬ ‫في‬2017 ‫مقطوعية‬ ‫عقد‬ ‫وهو‬ ‫األصفر‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫من‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫أيضا‬ ‫تحديث‬ ‫مع‬LS‫لألعمال‬‫وتنفيذ‬ ‫تصميم‬ ‫الكهروميكانيكية‬Design- Build،‫والفضي‬EPC‫إصدار‬ ‫منذ‬ ‫البنود‬ ‫ترقيم‬ ‫في‬ ‫موحدة‬ ‫الثالثية‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ‫وهذه‬1999‫مجموعة‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫ويطلق‬ ‫قزح‬ ‫قوس‬Rainbow suite، ‫التشغ‬ ‫يشمل‬ ‫لما‬ ‫والذهبي‬ ‫الصغيرة‬ ‫للعقود‬ ‫المختصر‬ ‫واألخضر‬ ‫االستشاري‬ ‫لعقد‬ ‫األبيض‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫وأيضا‬‫يل‬DBO ‫وخالفه‬ ‫الباطن‬ ‫لمقاولي‬ ‫ونموذج‬ ‫الممول‬ ‫للبنك‬ ‫والوردي‬.. ‫المشهورة‬ ‫الصيغ‬ ‫من‬ ‫أيضا‬ ‫أنه‬ ‫كما‬‫بريطانيا‬ ‫في‬JCT‫بعده‬ ‫ويأتي‬NEC‫الحكومية‬ ‫للمشاريع‬..
  • 7. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom National Construction Contracts and Law Report 2018 National Building Specification, UK
  • 9. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom Major Differences between (FIDIC-JCT-NEC)
  • 10. Comparison Items FIDIC-JCT-NEC Differences: 1- Structure and Drafting 2- Pricing and Scope 3- Admin. and Instructions 4- Quality and Inspection 5- Payment Process 6- Programme 7- Claim and Variation 8- Dispute Resolution _________________ • American example (AIA 2017) ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom
  • 11. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 1- Structure and Drafting General conditions in 21 Clauses with Sub-Clauses, then the Particular conditions which consists of Contract data and Special provisions. Many clauses are incorporate by reference to the main ones of procedures such as Variation. FIDIC uses Shall and May. FIDIC “Agreement” including recitals, articles, contract particulars, and attestation. Then the “Conditions” in 9 Sections, and finally “Schedules”. Most of the clauses incorporate other related ones by reference. JCT uses Shall and May. JCT “Core Clauses”, a dispute resolution option W and secondary options X-Y. Finally, the cost components and contract data. Z clause for amendment. Written using straightforward/ simple English. NEC uses Does and May. NEC
  • 12. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom NEC New Engineering Contracts (NEC) came to the fore by (ICE) in the 1990’s alongside two UK Government Reports being Commissioned: First by Sir Michael Latham (Constructing the Team) in 1994, and thereafter by Sir John Egan (Rethinking Construction) in 1998. FIDIC In 1913, a number of consulting engineers met in a fair which led to the formal constitution of FIDIC, Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs Conseils, or later, the International Federation of Consulting Engineers. JCT In 1931, the Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT) was formed by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA).
  • 13. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 2- Pricing and Scope The Red book is Re-measure & design by Employer, while yellow book is LS & design-build. There are also suites for BOT, consultancy & dredging. FIDIC The price can be LS or Measurement based on bill of quantity “BOQ” or Cost reimbursement according to the standard form used. JCT The same options of LS, BOQ, and Cost-reimbursable are there with adding Options C & D - Target cost where parties share pain and gain. NEC The scope is defined as “Works” described in the specification, drawings, and schedules/ BOQ. The sum of works to be stated in the Letter of tender and accepted in the Letter of acceptance as Accepted Contract Amount. Also, the provisional sum is allowed in Sub-Clause 13.4. The scope is defined as “Works”, described under “Recitals” in the “Agreement” after defining the parties. The contract sum is specified under article 2 in the agreement. Also, the provisional sum is allowed in contract documents clause 3.16 and to be valued as per clause 5.2(3). Scope and site information are defined in clauses 11.2(16)&(18) which are described in contract data part 1 provided by the client. Where the activity schedule in Option C is only for pricing and it does not represent Scope or Site Information as stated in clause 55.2.
  • 14. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom FIDIC Form Selection
  • 15. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom NEC4 Engineering and Construction Contract (ECC) • Option A: Priced contract with activity schedule • Option B: Priced contract with bill of quantities • Option C: Target contract with activity schedule • Option D: Target contract with bill of quantities • Option E: Cost reimbursable contract …………
  • 16. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom JCT 2016 Traditional or conventional: Measurement • Standard Building Contract With Approximate Quantities (SBC/AQ) • Measured Term Contract (MTC) Traditional or conventional: Cost reimbursement or cost plus • Prime Cost Building Contract (PCC) Design and build • Major Project Construction Contract (MP) • Design and Build Contract (DB) …………..
  • 17. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 3- Admin. and Instructions The Employer appoints an Engineer who administers the contract (3.1). The Engineer may issue instructions necessary for the Works or Variation. FIDIC The Employer assigns an Architect/ Contract Administrator to administer the contract (3.5). CA may issue Instructions or Variation. JCT The Client assigns a Project Manager “PM” to administer the contract (clause 14). PM may give instructions or notify Compensation Events. NEC Notices and other communications shall be in writing (1.3). Instructions are allowed orally in case of emergency (1.7.5) or otherwise than in writing (3.12) but these shall be confirmed in writing. Verbal instructions are not mentioned but all communications to be in a form which can be read, copied and recorded (13.1).
  • 18. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom Administration Role Costain Ltd v Bechtel Ltd (2005) Mr Justice Jackson emphasized that the CA is obliged to act impartially: “it was the project management consortium's duty to act impartially as between employer and contractor otherwise it is a breach of its duty”.
  • 19. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 4- Quality and Inspection The Engineer is responsible for supervision (Inspection (7.3)), appoints representative and delegates (3.3 & 3.4). FIDIC The Employer appoints a clerk of works to act as an inspector under the CA directions (3.4). JCT The Client assigns a Supervisor to do tests and inspections or notify the contractor of defects in order to correct them. NEC
  • 20. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 5- Payment Process Payments are under Clause 14 Contract Price and Payment. The Contractor submits a statement then the Engineer issues Interim Payment Certificate “IPC” and the Employer makes the payment with reference to the date of the statement submission except for the final statement, it is 56 days from the FPC after the Performance Certificate. - The Engineer does the measurement and valuation pursuant to Clause 12. FIDIC The payment process is managed under section 4. The payment cycle is monthly, and the due dates are referred to the later of interim valuation date or receipt of the interim payment application. These dates are for payment notice, payless notice, final payment, and the final date for payment following UK Acts. - The valuation shall be done by QS, and CA issues the payment certificate stating the calculation basis (4.9). JCT The payment process (section 5) is mainly based on defining the assessment dates to determine the due dates for application for payment, assessment/ correction, final assessment, and payment. PM decides the first one then the recurring would be based on the interval stipulated. - For Option C, the contractor is reimbursed for the PWDD which equals to “Defined Costs” plus fee minus any “Disallowed Costs”. NEC
  • 21. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom Payment in FIDIC
  • 22. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom JCT & NEC NEC: Assessment Date UK Construction ACT 96/2009: Scheme for Construction Contracts (England and Wales) Regulations 1998 (Amendment – 2011)
  • 23. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom Grove Developments Ltd v Balfour Beatty Regional Construction Ltd 2016 The parties' contract was a JCT standard design and build contract amended by a series of amendments. The parties amended that by agreeing a schedule of 23 valuation and payment dates covering the period from September 2013 to July 2015. The contract specified a completion date of 22 July 2015. The works were not completed by that date. In August 2015 the contractor issued an application for a further interim payment. The developer asserted that the contractor had no further entitlement to interim payments. The issues were whether the contractor was able to recover interim payments after the contractual completion date under the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 s.109, which provided that a party was entitled to interim payments for "any work" under a construction contract, and the Scheme for Construction Contracts. Court agreed with Grove that BB (Contractor) had no contractual right for an Interim Application for Payment. The parties had entered into a contract, and just because that contract didn’t cover all payment eventualities didn’t mean the Scheme should come into force. Interim Payments
  • 24. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 6- Programme The main dates under contract are: Base date, Delivery of Performance Security, Commencement Date, Date of Completion, Defects Notification Period, Performance Certificate. FIDIC The main dates under contract are: Base date, date/s of possession, completion date (Practical completion), Rectification period up to Certificate of making good. JCT The main dates under contract are: Starting date, access dates, Completion date, Defect correction period up to Defects date. NEC The Contractor shall submit an initial programme under Sub-Clause 8.3 within 28 days after the Commencement Notice (8.1) or a revised after 14 days from the Engineer Notice. The Contractor provides a master programme under clause 2.9.1.2 and the Contractor provides amendment or revision within 14 days from CA decision (2.28.1) without imposing any obligation beyond the contract. The programme (section 3: time) is in the heart of the contract as it should be revised on a regular basis. - The delay in submitting the first programme allows the PM to retain 25% of the PWDD (50.5).
  • 25. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 7- Claim and Variation Advance warning added in 8.4 while claims and variation are managed under Clauses 20 & 13. However, the causes that entitle to EOT are included in Sub-Clause 8.5 EOT for Completion. FIDIC The claims for time are under Relevant Events (2.29) while the claims for cost are under Relevant Matters (4.22). However, the adverse weather is included only as a relevant event, not relevant matter. JCT EW (clause 15) is a tool that parties use to notify the potential changes/ CEs. NEC The Valuation is under Sub-Clause 13.3 and the Engineer determination is under Sub-Clause 3.7 Agreement or Determination. The valuation rules depend on whether measurable work (5.6) or contractor’s designed portion (5.8), otherwise dayworks apply (5.7). Claims for cost or/and time are under compensation events (section 6). The Contractor submits quotations which comprise changes to prices and/or alterations to the accepted programme (62.2), then PM replies (62.3).
  • 26. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom Request for Proposal 13.3.3 Contractor’s Proposal 13.2 DAAB 21.4 FIDIC Phases of Variation/ Claim Engineer’s Instruction 13.3.1 Parties’ Agreement or Engineer’s Determination 3.7 – 12.3 Arbitration 21.5-21.6 Claim 20
  • 27. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom Relevant EventRelevant Matter JCT Types of Events 2.27 Notice by Contractor of delay to progress 2.28 Fixing Completion Date 1. If, .. on receiving a notice .. under clause 2.27: : .1 any of the events which are stated to be a cause of delay is a Relevant Event; and .2 completion of the Works or of any Section is likely to be delayed thereby beyond the relevant Completion Date, then, .. Architect/Contract Administrator shall give an extension of time by fixing such later date as the Completion Date for the Works or Section as he then estimates to be fair and reasonable. 2.29 Relevant Events Loss and Expense 4.20 to 4.24 4.22 Relevant Matters The following are the Relevant Matters: .1 Variations (..including any .. matters or instructions which under these Conditions are to be treated as a Variation); .2 Architect/Contract Administrator’s instructions: … .4 any impediment, prevention or default, whether by act or omission, by the Employer, the Architect/Contract Administrator, the Quantity Surveyor or any Employer’s Person,.. 4.23 Amounts ascertained – addition to Contract Sum
  • 28. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom NEC Flowchart of Compensation Events
  • 29. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 8- Dispute Resolution Clause 21 Dispute and Arbitration. Normally the dispute starts from 3.7 or referred to DAAB directly. If no agreement under 3.7.1 the Engineer makes notice of determination 3.7.2. In case of dissatisfaction 3.7.5, parties obtain DAAB’s Decision 21.4, finally Amicable settlement 21.5 and Arbitration (ICC) 21.6. FIDIC Section 9 is settlement of disputes starting with mediation in case of not resolved by negotiation then adjudication and after that arbitration in accordance with the JCT 2016 edition of the Construction Industry Model Arbitration Rules (CIMAR) applying UK Arbitration Act 1996. JCT There are three W options to comply with the international use. Whereas, options W1 and W2 refer to adjudication but W2 applies The UK Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 while option W3 uses the dispute avoidance board and finally tribunal/ arbitration. NEC
  • 30. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 21.5 Amicable Settlement Where a NOD has been given under Sub-Clause 21.4 [Obtaining DAAB’s Decision], both Parties shall attempt to settle the Dispute amicably before the commencement of arbitration. However, unless both Parties agree otherwise, arbitration may be commenced on or after the twenty-eighth (28th) day after the day on which this NOD was given, even if no attempt at amicable settlement has been made. FIDIC: Optional Amicable Settlement DAAB DecisionEngineer Determination Arbitration
  • 31. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom NEC Adjudication Option W1 vs DAB W3 JCT & NEC Adjudication (W2) Dispute Avoidance Board (W3) - JCT starts with Mediation but NEC refers disputes first to the Senior Representatives. - A party issues a notice of adjudication (Adjudicator acts impartially) for any issue not agreed to refer this dispute to adjudicator, and finally tribunal which can be arbitration. - A party doesn’t refer to the tribunal unless it has been referred to the Adjudicator, via a notification to be given within 4 weeks of the Adjudicator’s decision, otherwise it becomes final and binding. - The DAB assists the parties in resolving disputes before they become disputes. - The DAB acts impartially. - The DAB visits the Site and inspects the work, reviews all potential disputes without the need to be formally referred. - A party doesn’t refer to the tribunal unless it has been referred to the DAB within four weeks from the DAB’s recommendation.
  • 32. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom The American example (AIA 2017) There is no standard form of construction agreement in the United States but the A-201 General Conditions and other forms published by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) are probably the most widely used in local government projects and private construction. Federal construction projects are generally governed by the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), a book containing numerous clauses mandated on various types of jobs. There are other well-known suites of contract forms which are published by ConsensusDocs, the Engineers Joint Contract Documents Committee (EJCDC)/ ASCE and the Design Build Institute of America (DBIA).
  • 33. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Contractor where the basis of payment is a Stipulated Sum ARTICLE 9 ENUMERATION OF CONTRACT DOCUMENTS § 9.1 This Agreement is comprised of the following documents: .1 AIA Document A101™–2017, Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Contractor .2 AIA Document A101™–2017, Exhibit A, Insurance and Bonds .3 AIA Document A201™–2017, General Conditions of the Contract for Construction .4 …..
  • 34. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom General Conditions of the Contract for Construction - Tenderers - Sections - Clauses - Employer / Client - Architect/CA / PM - Practical Completion/ Defects date - Programme - Relevant Matter / Compensation Event - Senior Rep.s / Mediation – Adjudication/DAB – Tribunal UK Forms (JCT & NEC) - Bidders - Articles - Owner - Architect - Substantial Completion/ Final Completion - Construction Schedule - Change Order - Initial Decision - Mediation – Arbitration (AAA) AIA- Document A201
  • 35. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom Two commonly occurring categories of scope changes on construction projects are either: changes directed by the owner, or changes identified by the contractor as a result of an action or inaction of the owner, also known as constructive changes (causes claims). An owner-directed change may ultimately become a constructive change (claim) if the contractor believes it will be impacted by the directed change. Change Order
  • 36. ppmconference.net @Prof.Planner ArabPlanners @magedkom 45-‫العقود‬ ‫مدير‬ ‫دور‬ ‫هو‬ ‫ما‬CA‫عمله؟‬ ‫وأهمية‬ ‫المطلوبة‬ ‫والحيادية‬ ‫المناسبة‬ ‫بالطريقة‬ ‫لمهامه‬ ‫أداءه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫خاصة‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫نجاح‬ ‫في‬ ‫جدا‬ ‫هام‬ ‫دور‬ ‫له‬ ‫العقود‬ ‫مدير‬Impartial: fair and unbiased manner، ‫يرى‬ ‫كان‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫األحيان‬ ‫من‬ ‫كثير‬ ‫في‬ ‫االستشاري‬ ‫على‬ ‫الدور‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫يكون‬ ‫وقد‬‫أنه‬ ‫سابقا‬‫محكم‬ ‫شبه‬Quasi-arbitrator‫تقديراته‬ ‫ألن‬ Determination or assessment،‫وملزمة‬ ‫نهائية‬ ‫تكون‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أحيانا‬ ‫تصل‬ ‫قد‬ ‫والت‬ ‫المناسبة‬ ‫والصياغة‬ ‫المشتريات‬ ‫مرحلة‬ ‫في‬ ‫نشأته‬ ‫من‬ ‫بداية‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫حياة‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫يتابع‬ ‫أن‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫مدير‬ ‫عاتق‬ ‫على‬ ‫ويقع‬‫من‬ ‫ويتأكد‬ ‫رسية‬ ‫المعاصرة‬ ‫السجالت‬ ‫ووجود‬ ‫األطراف‬ ‫بين‬ ‫العالقة‬ ‫وإدارة‬ ‫بفاعلية‬ ‫إللتزماتهم‬ ‫األطراف‬ ‫تنفيذ‬‫والتأكد‬‫البيانات‬ ‫صحة‬ ‫من‬Validation ‫والتقارير‬ ‫والتحديثات‬ ‫التغييرات‬ ‫وتسجيل‬‫البرامج‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫استخدام‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫في‬ ‫يساعده‬ ‫وقد‬ ‫السليم‬ ‫واإلغالق‬ ‫الدورية‬.
  • 37. Related Lectures and Courses Course at Luqman Academy YouTube Lectures 37
  • 38. ‫نشرته‬ ‫ما‬ ‫آخر‬ ‫حديثا‬ 38 ‫تشرح‬ ‫العقود‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫في‬ ‫متكاملة‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫والعقود‬ ‫العطاءات‬ ‫وأنواع‬ ‫مراحل‬‫مع‬ ‫االستدالل‬‫من‬ ‫وأمثلة‬ ‫المدني‬ ‫بالقانون‬ ‫األنظمة‬ ‫وبعض‬ ‫البريطاني‬ ‫العام‬ ‫القانون‬ ‫م‬ ‫وكذلك‬ ‫واألمريكية‬ ‫والبريطانية‬ ‫العربية‬‫ع‬ ‫النموذجية‬ ‫العقود‬ ‫صيغ‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫استخدام‬.
  • 39. Thank You Don’t Hesitate to contact…. M.Maged magedkom@gmail.com mobile : 00966-580264968